JSM Arthritis

Prognostic Factors for Chronicity in Lumbar and Cervical Spine Conditions Who are on Compensation

Research Article | Open Access | Volume 1 | Issue 2

  • 1. Department of Orthopedic, National Board Orthopedic CIME, USA Orthopaedic Specialist, Gisborne Hospital, New Zealand
+ Show More - Show Less
Corresponding Authors
Vasu Pai, Orthopaedic Specialist, Gisborne Hospital,Ormand Road, Gisborne, New Zealand

The lifetime prevalence of spinal pain has been reported as 54% to 80%. The costs of chronic disability to the injured worker, his or her family, employers, and society are enormous. Although there have been many epidemiological studies of risk factors for low back pain, there are few risk factors established in prospective.

Various demographic and risk factors and their significances are being discussed. Factors such as work environment, cigarette smoking, educational status, psychosocial factors, Pain interference, presence of chronic sciatic symptoms and duration of symptoms are consistently demonstrated predictors. The purpose of this study is to develop statistical models that accurately predict chronic work disability.


•    Chronic low back/neck ache
•    Risk factors for chronicity
•    Psychosocial factors
•    Accident Compensation


Pai VS, Pai V (2016) Prognostic Factors for Chronicity in Lumbar and Cervical Spine Conditions Who are on Compensation. JSM Arthritis 1(2): 1007


Disability associated with injury-related back or neck disorder is a serious societal problem. Although most injured population return to work quickly, a substantial number do not. The costs of chronic disability to the injured person, his or her family, employers, and society are enormous. In a study of low back claims, 7% of claims for work-related disorders had disability greater than one year, and these accounted for 60% of the costs and 75% of the total disability days [1]. The identification of risk factors that predict chronic disability may also shed light on why some workers develop chronic disability.

In earlier reports, it was noted that lower age, higher education, working full-time and low fear avoidance beliefs each predicted a better outcome of chronic unilateral lumbar radiculopathy [2]. The demographic factor most commonly found to be associated with chronic disability was older age [3,4]. With respect to work-related factors, most studies have found occupation not to be associated significantly with chronic disability [4,5]. However, workplace offer of job accommodations/modifications has been found to be associated with shorter duration of disability [6,7].

Previous studies have also assessed many possible predictors associated with the prognosis of radiculopathy, such as clinical, demographic, psychosocial and radiological findings and treatment modalities [7,8]. Female gender, symptoms of depression and anxiety, psychosomatic symptoms, long-lasting leg pain, carrying heavy loads, and positive nerve stretch tests are among the numerous factors reported to be associated with a less favorable outcome.

Many recent studies that have examined predictors of disability in multivariate models warrant mention. In a recent study [9], psychosocial factors are key to the development of chronic disabling Low back pain in Japanese workers.

In summary, the reviews on predictor studies vary in the use of inclusion criteria and outcome measures, use unclear definitions of success criteria, and assessment been performed by multiple physicians. Identification of prognostic factors for persistent pain and disability are important for better understanding of the clinical course of chronic unilateral lumbar radiculopathy and to assist clinical decision-making. There is a lack of scientific evidence concerning prognostic factors. The aim of this study was to identify clinically relevant predictors in 1001 cases of chronic back/neck ache on Accident Compensation over six months, assessed by a single assessor (V. S. Pai) over the period of 4 years. We included a homogeneous patient sample selected with clear inclusion criteria in a specialized care setting, and clinically relevant outcome measures.


The study population consisted of clients who file ACC (Accident compensation corporation) claims for their back/ neck injuries in New Zealand. All clients were over 6 months on ACC benefit. Exclusion were back or neck related to infective conditions or tumors. There is no time limit for compensation coverage. The independent medical adviser (IMA) was requested to give his opinion about injury related ongoing symptoms for further benefit entitlement.

The potential risk factors are socio-demographic, smoking, alcohol, medical care, clinical symptom and its intensity grading, psychosocial risk factors: blue, yellow orange and black flags as assessed by the Psychiatrist/ Psychologist/ Occupational physician/pain doctor and the type of treatment (Appendix 1). A complete clinical assessment with history taking including injury mechanism with a standard clinical examination was performed. The consultation also assessed pain, disability, treatment and work status. Claimants rate their average pain intensity in the past week on a 0-10 scale [10]. Pain interference with daily activities and ability to work were assessed using standard proforma [10-12].

In this study, all individuals had CT or MRI to identify any injury related changes for legal purposes. Clients were grouped using an Oswestry Scoring system as Poor, Fair and Good outcome [11] as stated under Appendix I.

Data was recorded on Excel for Mac Version 14.2.5 format and were analysed statistically using Chi Square and their relation to outcome results were defined. The frequency of each risk factor and its 95% confidence interval were calculated for the whole sample and for subgroups of patients.


a. Psychosocial factors:
              Black flag         Legal, no light work
              Blue flag          Strong belief, Conflict with superior, belief that work is too onerous
              Orange flag     Depression, Maniac
              Yellow flag       Waddle signs, Pain behavior, fear avoidance

b. Interference 
            Grade I             Low pain interference 
            Grade II            High pain intensity with low interference 
            Grade III           High pain intensity with high pain interference 
            Grade IV          Total incapacity 

c. Clinical symptoms were further grouped under:
            Type I              Only back or neck ache
            Type IA            Subjective radicular symptoms but no objective signs
            Type II             With objective radiculopathy 
            Type III            With cauda equine signs.

 d. Clinical Outcome (Oswestry Scoring system)
            Good               21-40
            Fair                 41-60
            Poor                61-80


Most of the costs linked to the treatment of back pain apply to a small proportion of sufferers experiencing chronic pain symptoms leading to disability [13]. Chronic pain syndrome7 should be the diagnosis when there is association of psychological, emotional, and social components in chronic pain.

Various factors have been investigated for chronic low back/ neck pain in epidemiologic studies. They have been reported occupational, non-occupational, and psychosocial factors [14,15]. Risk factors in development of chronic backache are: Advanced age/ Males [16], socio-economic group [17], body mass index [18], Blue collar job [16], history of compensation [19,20], initial clinical presentation [21], retaining a lawyer [16], psychosocial [22-24], heavy nature of work and Smoking [18]. Cohen [15] concluded that the risk factors for chronic back pain are predominantly psychosocial and occupational rehabilitation.


The demographic factor most commonly found to be associated with chronic disability is advancing age [24,25]. Back pain has an annual prevalence of 15–30% and rises with increasing age up to 65 years [26]; Age has also been found to have a negative effect on recovery [2,3].

We did not find strong evidence to support an association with age and chronicity of back or neck aches (Table 1), but there was a trend that population over 60 years had more fair to poor outcome. This could be due to underlying pathology of spondylosis than related to injury level. A workplace offer of job accommodations/modifications has been found to be associated with shorter duration of disability [6,7].


Female gender, symptoms of depression and anxiety, psychosomatic symptoms reported to be associated with a less favorable outcome [7,8]. The objective was to investigate the influence of sex on the outcome of chronic back/neck pain. Our data analysis (Table 2) suggested that gender was not a risk factor in population of chronic backaches who were on accident compensation.


Chronic back/neck ache are more common among Caucasian population 68·7 per 1000 people than non Caucasian population 38·7 per 1000 people [27]. In our study, there was no statistically significant difference between any groups (Caucasians, Maoris, Asians and Indians) with regards to the chronicity of backache. It appeared from the (Table 3) that there was increased back/neck ache amongst Indians. This was due to the fact that the author was referred with Indian clients, as he could communicate in their local languages.

Relationship status

Living alone has been blamed for the poor outcome [20]. There was no statistically significant difference between different groups “relationship status” with regards to the outcome (Table 4) in chronic backaches on accident compensation. Although chronic aches may be an important reason for family break up, we did not find a statistical significance between living alone and outcome of chronic back/neck ache.

Educational status (Social Class)

It has been suggested [17,25] that individuals from more deprived backgrounds were more likely to develop chronic back/neck pain. Associations between chronic back/neck and social class, low levels of educational and low income have been reported as being present.

Our results of the CHITEST suggested existence of difference between groups of educational status of statistical significance (Table 5). However, postgraduate group was too small to be of statistical significance. From the data analysis it was obvious that patients with secondary education were less likely to have a positive outcome as compared to patients with Tertiary Education. The type of Tertiary Education did not seem to matter substantially.

Urban or rural

Lower rates of health care utilization are reported by rural residents [28]. In NZ (Census of 2001), over 80% of the population lived in urban areas.

Our study interpretation is difficult for various reasons (Table 6)

  1. Many chronic back patients get surgically operated in the main centers and therefore outcome is not the real reflection of an urban or rural setting.
  2. In rural areas, the job market is limited and it is harder for individuals with chronic back/neck symptoms to return to alternative work.
  3. Many individuals with chronic pain prefer to be on ACC related benefits than making an attempt to return to work as returning to alternative work would substantially reduce their earning potential.
  4. There is also a barrier for chronic back/neck population to attend multi-disciplinary pain clinics, as this facility is only available in big centres.
  5. It is more likely for some individuals with chronic backache to live in sunnier places like Hawkes Bay and Tauranga for life style purposes and they generally do not prefer to move to places where alternative work is available. For these reasons, chronic back/neck ache in relation to Urban/rural in this study was not accurate.

 Body mass index has been linked to low back pain with obese people in particular at increased risk of backache [18, 25]. We could not statistically confirm in our findings that there was higher risk of development of chronicity of symptoms in obese population who were on compensation.


Andersson [29] reported that patients with a sedentary/ sitting occupation had a higher risk to persistent chronic pain. In our study the p-value for all groups of occupations yielded poor evidence against the null hypothesis thus suggesting that there is no difference between clinical outcomes and job types of heavy, medium or light work (Table 7). Therefore factors other than biomechanical issues were the cause for poor and fair results [30]. In our study the p-value for all comparisons with the “not working patients” yielded strong evidence against the null hypothesis. This meant that individuals with “no jobs” were more likely to have a poor outcome.

In our study it was clear that job satisfaction, ability to modify work, social support, financial incentive for alternative work and fears of re-injury were main determinants of disability after chronic back or neck aches at the workplace setting. The lack of exercise, unemployment and the presence of depression were also influencing the recovery process.

Duration of symptoms vs outcome

One study [31] noted that if a worker had not returned to work by 3 months, there was a 50% chance that he or she would not return to work. One could argue that the severity of initial low back injury and physical demands of the job to which one had to return-might have been influencing return to work after 1 year. In a study [30],the data revealed no significant differences between return-to-work and non-return-to-work in individuals on the light versus heavy job categories.

Workplace offer of job accommodations/ modifications has been found to be associated with shorter duration of disability [23,32]. Currently, it is not possible to predict accurately which workers with recent injuries will go on to develop chronic disability [4,26].

In this study, it was clear that with increased duration of symptoms or inability to work was associated with less favourable outcome with respect to return to work (Table 8). If the symptom duration is greater than a year but less than 3 years the chance of returning to original or alternative work was 50%. However, with persistence of pain and inability to work for more than three years, there was less than 5% chance to return to work.

Symptoms: leg or back symptoms and interference

One study [21] has demonstrated that sciatic pain is a significant predictor of no return to work. With persisting sciatic pain, individuals are less likely to return to work. In our study there was strong evidence that individuals with symptoms of back pain with objective radiculopathy had a much poorer recovery rate than individuals with back pain alone (Table 9).

There is a trend among the medical community in New Zealand to treat Group Ia (back ache with subjective sciatica) by certifying individuals with time off work for a year to 18 months for symptoms and presence of an annular tear on an MRI. In our study this group quite often developed psychosocial issues resulting in long-term back/neck syndrome. We strongly recommend that early core strengthening exercises and return to alternative work program is more beneficial than resting for a better outcome. These are specific exercises to strengthen paraxial musculature of the spine and deeper abdominal muscles [33]. We recommend appropriate physiotherapist intervention to understand type of exercises.


Symptoms were grouped under four grades: Grade I Low pain interference; Grade II High pain intensity with low interference; Grade III High pain intensity with high pain interference; Grade IV Total incapacity.

In this study, there was very strong evidence that individuals displaying interference Grade I had better recovery rate upon comparison with any other interference groups (Table 10). There was very strong evidence that individuals displaying high pain intensity and relying on multiple medications such as Oxynorm, Oxycontin, tramadol or Endone or any other narcotics did poorly. 

Influence of injury grade

There have been many epidemiological studies of risk factors for low back pain, there are few risk factors established in prospective studies; and our understanding of them remains relatively crude. Individuals in jobs requiring manual materials handling, particularly repeated heavy lifting and lifting while twisting, are at increased risk of back pain leading to work absence. In addition, exposure to whole-body vibration and job requirements for static postures are associated with back pain [18,34].

In our series 701 of 1001 back pain symptoms were related to either a spontaneous onset or a low velocity injury event. When outcome results were analyzed with the injury grade, the P-value was close to 1 and there was no evidence against the null hypothesis. This suggested that there was no difference for outcome between any given groups with regards the injury grade (Table 11).


Leboeuf-Yde [18] conducted a systematic review of epidemiologic literature on smoking and low back pain in 47 epidemiologic studies. She reported that statistically significant positive association between smoking and low back pain was noted in 51%. Smoking has been associated with alterations of the levels of neuropeptides that play a role in chronic pain states.

Our results showed that there was a definite link between smoking and outcome of chronic back/neck ache (Table 12).


Alcohol/Drugs intake did not appear to affect the outcome. There was no evidence against the null hypothesis (p value>0.05) indicating there was no difference in outcome between any given groups and are not risk factors (Table 13).

Reported Marijuana use might have been under reported and was document in 48 clients. With available information, it’s use did not cause significant difference.

Psychological factors

Pincus [35] and Mallen [36]conducting a thorough evaluation of number of important psychosocial variables strongly supported the concept that chronic low back pain disability represents more than just a pure physical disorder. There was a significant and seemingly predominant, psychosocial component that produced the prolonged disability [30]. The MMPI had been evaluated extensively as an assessment device of nonorganic factors influencing the severity of disability and predicting the outcome for chronicity of back ache of various psychological and medical treatments

Our study (Table 14) was favoring the view that the development of chronic pain and disability depended more on psychosocial factors (black, red and yellow flags) than on physical structural changes as suggested previously [22, 30,34,37], . Although it was not always possible to predict these flags early in the clinical course, an attempt should be made with MMMPI assessment prior to surgical intervention to identify early and modify psychosocial factors. It had been reported that early identification of these factors had an important role in the transition from acute to chronic low backache [24]. Maladaptive attitudes and beliefs concerning back/neck pain, particularly fear-avoidance beliefs, pain-coping strategies, reinforcement of pain behaviors by family members, and job dissatisfaction were important issues to be considered when treating individuals with back/neck pain [25].

The available evidence [38] provides a consistent picture that yellow flags are prominent in the development of disability due to musculoskeletal pain. A systematic review of 45 studies [36] showed that higher pain severity at baseline, longer pain duration, multiple-site pain, previous pain episodes, anxiety or depression, higher somatic perceptions or distress, adverse coping strategies, low social support, older age, higher baseline disability, and greater movement restriction were significant prognostic indicators for poor outcomes. A maladaptive coping strategy was the tendency to nonverbal/motoric expressive behavior such a groans, twisting of faces, rubbing the painful areas during pain and were more likely to complain of persistent pain at the short- and long-term follow-up [39].


It is unclear from literature as to which individuals are the best candidates for fusion versus conservative management when experiencing chronic back or neck pain without significant neurological impairment [40]. Nonsmokers may be more likely to have a favorable surgical fusion outcome in chronic low back pain patients. Presently, the main stay of nonoperative treatment is core strengthening for the low back ache and core stability exercises for chronic neck pain. It can be assumed that the extreme tendency to the avoidance of physical activities leads to a decreased physical fitness and in the long run contributes to a de conditioning syndrome with a poor condition of the trunk muscles, which then causes back/neck pain under normally physiological strain or stress [33, 41]. Norwegian study by Brox [42] suggested no substantial difference in disability when fusion was compared with intensive cognitive intervention and exercise rehabilitation. A British study [43] of LBP (low back pain) treatment found that the pooled mean difference in ODI between the surgical and nonsurgical groups was in favor of surgery, but cautioned about the risk of complications with surgery.

From our data analysis it could be seen that the non-operative group produced the most positive result of statistical significance (Table 15). Surgically treated group produces overwhelmingly negative results. However, this poor outcome in this study should not be interpreted that surgery should not be performed for chronic back/neck ache as the study was based on assessment of individuals who were having persisting pain with or without surgery. Patients with good surgical outcome were not referred to us. It was clear that surgical outcome was not always predictable and when the results following surgery were poor, symptoms following surgery appeared to be worse than those who had been treated non-operatively. A good informed consent, appropriate case selection for surgery and in some situation preoperative MMPI or BDI [44,45]to assess psychological profiles are essential to optimise surgical outcome. Fransen’s [23] study showed that 3 months after the initial assessment, 24% still were receiving compensation payments. The natural history of back pain in the population without compensation was however favorable since overall studies showed that 30-60% of patients recover in 1 week, 60-90% recover in 6 weeks and 95% recover in 12 weeks. However, when compensation was present, 20% of the claimants were unable to resume work at 3 months follow-up [21]. Our cohort consisted of all individuals who claim a social insurance benefit and the results must be interpreted within the context of a compulsory ACC scheme and might explain high rate of no return to work.

There are several drawbacks introduced by the study design and method. First, the information given by the patients was an important source of knowledge for the medical adviser and thus it is possible that some patients would respond in a way to mislead the medical adviser. Second, the information in the medical documents obtained from the treating physicians and doctors might have led to biased responses. Finally, our sample is drawn from an ACC compensation population, and hence generalizing our findings to the Non ACC related back aches must be done with caution.

The strength of this study was its prospective design and size of the study assessed by a single independent medical assessor with no conflict of interest, using standardized method. Availability of MRI/CT in all clients and documents of psychological, psychiatric or occupational reports made this study meaningful. Our ability to examine the relevant importance of risk factors influencing “return to work” using statistical analysis was also complementary. In conclusion, our results shed light on the interrelation and contribution of previously identified risk factors for chronic back and neck pain. We suggest that a “psychosocial factor” is the most important risk factor for chronic back/neck ache in countries where compensation covers injury related issues. Among other factors, educational level, patients’ job satisfaction and unavailability of light duty work also contribute and must be considered in prospective studies.

Table 1: Age chart [p Value > 0.05].

  Total Male Female
<20 years  9  4  5
20-30 122 77 45
30-40 168 112 56
40-50 286 171 115
50-60 266 177 115
60-70 142 85 55
>70 10 10  0
We did not find strong evidence to support an association of chronicity of back/neck and the age group,

Table 2: Gender vs Outcome [p Value > 0.05].

Sex Not Known Poor Fair Good Sum
Male 27 131 134 344 636
Female 15 67 79 204 365
There was no evidence that the influence of sex on the outcome of back/ neck ache.

Table 3: Ethnic vs Backache [p Value > 0.05].

Ethnic Normal/1000 Chronic back ache/1001
Caucasians 650 704
Maoris 180 180
Chinese 80 17
Indian 40 75
Islander 40 17
Rest 10  8
There was no statistically significant difference between any two race groups with regards to the outcome of back/neck ache.

Table 4: Relationship Status vs Outcome [p Value > 0.05].

Status UnKnown Poor Fair Good Sum
Widow  1  4  3  8 16
Single 13 68 66 158 305
Partner  9 22 31 79 141
Married 19 104 113 303 539
Our study supported that there was no statistically significance in different groups of relationship with regards to the outcome.

Table 5: Education vs Outcome [p Value <0.05].

Education UnKnown Poor Fair Good Sum
Secondary 36 175 178 426 815
Diploma  4  2 14 30 50
Bachelor  2 21 20 84 127
Post grad  1  1  8  9
From the data analysis it was obvious that patients with Secondary Education were less likely to have a positive outcome of chronic back/ neck ache as compared to those with Tertiary Education [Diploma, Bachelor or Post graduate]

Table 6: Urban or Rural vs Outcome [p Value > 0.05].

Place UnKnown Poor Fair Good Sum
Auckland 18 54 73 191 336
Hamilton 5 6 20 41 72
HB 6 14 23 77 120
Hastings 1 4 13 17 35
Tauranga 1 38 11 31 81
Napier 1 10 16 35 62
Gisborne 6 8 23 87 124
Other 3 65 34 69 171
Interpretation was difficult. Due consideration should be given in interpreting this table as discussed under summary.

 Table 7: Type of work vs outcome [p Value > 0.05].

Job UnKnown Poor Fair Good Sum
Heavy 6 6 13 26 51
Medium 28 105 144 375 652
Light 8 30 41 137 216
None 0 57 15 10 82
There was no statistically significant difference between groups of Heavy, medium or light work with regards to the outcome of back/neck ache.

 Table 8: Duration of symptoms vs Outcome [p Value < 0.05].

Symptoms duration UnKnown Poor Fair Good Sum
>6M 27 22 54 345 448
>1Y 6 25 54 84 169
>3Y 3 40 33 43 119
>6Y 6 111 72 76 265
Initial observation of results of the Chi test suggested that there existed difference between groups of statistical significance. There was very strong evidence that patients with symptom duration less than a year had the best recovery rate.

 Table 9: Type of Symptoms vs Outcome [p Value < 0.05].

Symptoms UnKnown Poor Fair Good Sum
Back/neck ache [B/ NA] 28 110 132 399 669
B/NA + Subjective sciatica  4 26 33 72 135
B/NA + Objective Sciatica 10 60 46 71 187
Cauda Equina  0  2  2  6 10
There was strong evidence that patients with symptoms in “Back/neck pain with objective radiculopathy” had a much poorer recovery rate than patients with “Back/neck ache” only group.

 Table 10: Interference [p Value < 0.05].

Grade NA Poor Fair Good Sum
I 18 108 133 401 660
II 20 68 67 140 295
III&IV 4 22 13 7 46
[Grade I Low pain interference; II High pain intensity with low interference; III High pain intensity with high pain interference; IV Total incapacity] 
There was very strong evidence that patients displaying Grade I interference had the best recovery rate upon comparison with any other grades of interference.

 Table 11: Influence of injury grade Vs the outcome of back pain [p Value > 0.05].

Injury Grade UnKnown Poor Fair Good Sum
Spontaneous 0 15 17 31 63
High Velocity 0 3 8 8 19
Low Velocity 24 99 119 286 528
Medium Velocity 17 78 67 216 378
Multiple 1 3 2 7 13
There was no difference between any given groups of statistical significance. Therefore velocity of injury at the onset did not help in predicting final outcome.

 Table 12: Smoking vs Outcome [p Value < 0.05].

  UnKnown Poor Fair Good
Ex Smoker 0% 29 42 29
Heavy 0 28 26 46
Moderate 2  7 28 63
Light 0 27 23 50
No 66 19 18 57
The p value was much lower than 0.05, which meant that there was strong evidence suggesting that there was a difference in outcome between Heavy and Non Heavy Smokers.

 Table 13: Impact of drinking Vs Outcome of back pain [p Value > 0.05].

Drinking UnKnown Poor Fair Good Sum
No 21 65 76 185 347
Light 13 78 63 187 341
Moderate 7 35 52 140 234
Heavy 1 20 22 36 79
There was no difference between any given groups.

 Table 14: Effect of psychosocial [p Value < 0.05].

Flags Definition Present Absent
Black flag Legal, no light work 286 715
Blue flag Strong belief, Conflict with superior, Belief that work is too onerous 446w 555
Orange flag Depression, Maniac 182 819
Yellow flag Waddle signs, Pain behavior, fear avoidance 440 561
The difference in outcome between population with various flags and those without flags was a legitimate pattern and it did suggest significant association of psychosocial factors and poor outcome.

 Table 15: Effect of treatment Vs outcome [p Value < 0.05].

Treatment Groups Unknown Poor Fair Good
I Lumbar discectomy or decompression or fusion 1 18 8 24
II Cervical discectomy or decompression or fusion 8 31 21 32
III Multiple surgeries [42 lumbar ; 4 cervical] 0 35 7 4
IV Non-operative treatment 33 114 174 491
From this data analysis it could be seen that Group 4 [non-operative treatment] produces the most positive result of statistical significance. Group 3 produces overwhelmingly negative results.

1. Hashemi L, Webster BS, Clancy EA, Courtney TK. Length of disability and cost of work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the upper extremity. J Occup Environ Med. 1998; 40: 261-269.

2. Iversen T, Solberg TK, Wilsgaard T, Waterloo K, Brox JV, Ingebrigtsen T. Outcome prediction in chronic unilateral lumbar radiculopathy: prospective cohort study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2015; 16:17.

3. Manek NJ, MacGregor AJ. Epidemiology of back disorders: prevalence, risk factors, and prognosis. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2005; 17: 134-140.

4. Stafford MA, Peng P, Hill DA. Sciatica: a review of history, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and the role of epidural steroid injection in management. Br J Anaesth. 2007; 99: 461-473.

5. Nykvist F, Hurme M, Alaranta H, Kaitsaari M. Severe sciatica: a 13-year follow-up of 342 patients. Eur Spine J. 1995; 4: 335-338.

6. Valls I, Saraux A, Goupille P, Khoreichi A, Baron D, Le GP. Factors predicting radical treatment after in-hospital conservative management of disk- related sciatica. Joint Bone Spine. 2001; 68: 50- 58.

7. Mannion AF, Elfering A. Predictors of surgical outcome and their assessment. Eur Spine J. 2006; 15: 93-108.

8. den Boer JJ, Oostendorp RA, Beems T, Munneke M, Oerlemans M, Evers AW. A systematic review of bio-psychosocial risk factors for an unfavourable outcome after lumbar disc surgery. Eur Spine J. 2006; 15: 527-536.

9. Matsudaira K, Kawaguchi M, Isomura T, Inuzuka K, Koga T, Miyoshi K, et al. Assessment of psychosocial risk factors for the development of non-specific chronic disabling low back pain in Japanese workers-findings from the Japan Epidemiological Research of Occupation-related Back Pain (JOB) study. Ind Health. 2015; 53: 368-377.

10. Huguet A, Miró J. The severity of chronic pediatric pain: an epidemiological study. J Pain. 2008; 9: 226-236.

11. Fairbank JC, Pynsent PB. The Oswestry Disability Index. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2000; 25: 2940-2952.

12. Andersson GB. Epidemiological features of chronic low-back pain. Lancet. 1999; 354: 581-585.

13. Maetzel A, Li L. The economic burden of low back pain: a review of studies published between 1996 and 2001. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2002; 16: 23-30.

14. Manchikanti L, Singh V, Datta S, Cohen SP, Hirsch JA, American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians. Comprehensive review of epidemiology, scope, and impact of spinal pain. Pain Physician. 2009; 12: E35-70.

15. Cohen SP, Argoff CE, Carrangee EJ. Management of Low backache. BMJ. 2008; 337: 100-106

16. Valat JP, Goupille P, Védere V. Low back pain: risk factors for chronicity. Rev Rhum Engl Ed. 1997; 64: 189-194.


18. Leboeuf-Yde C. Body weight and low back pain. A systematic literature review of 56 journal articles reporting on 65 epidemiologic studies. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2000; 15: 226-237.

19. Leboeuf-Yde C. Smoking and low back pain. A systematic literature review of 41 journal articles reporting 47 epidemiologic studies. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1999; 24: 1463-1470.

20. Teasell RW. Compensation and chronic pain. Clin J Pain. 2001; 17: S46-64.

21. Greenough CG, Fraser RD. Aetiology, diagnosis and treatment of low back pain. Eur Spine J. 1994; 3: 22-27.

22. Du Bois M, Donceel P. A screening questionnaire to predict no return to work within 3 months for low back pain claimants. Eur Spine J. 2008; 17: 380-385.

23. Beck AT, Steer RA, Garbin GM. Psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory: twenty-five years of evaluation. Clin Psych. 1988; 8: 77-100.

24. Fransen M, Woodward M, Norton R, Coggan C, Dawe M, Sheridan N. Risk factors associated with the transition from acute to chronic occupational back pain. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2002; 27: 92-98.

25. Jellema P, van der Windt DA, van der Horst HE, Blankenstein AH, Bouter LM, Stalman WA. Why is a treatment aimed at psychosocial factors not effective in patients with (sub)acute low back pain? Pain. 2005; 118: 350-359.

26. Skovron ML, Szpalski M, Nordin M, Melot C, Cukier D. Sociocultural factors and back pain. A population-based study in Belgian adults. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1994; 19: 129-137.

27. Rossignol M, Suissa S, Abenhaim L. Working disability due to occupational back pain: three-year follow-up of 2,300 compensated workers in Quebec. J Occup Med. 1988; 30: 502-505.

28. Praemer A, Furnes S, Rice DP. Musculoskeletal conditions in the United States. AAUS. Rosemont: 1992; 1-99.

29. Tripp DA, VanDenKerkhof EG, McAlister M. Prevalence and determinants of pain and pain-related disability in urban and rural settings in southeastern Ontario. Pain Res Manag. 2006; 11: 225-233.

30. Andersson BJG, Obrtengren R, Nachemson A, Elfstrom G. Lumbar disc pressure and myoelectric activity during sitting. Scand J Rehab Med. 1974; 6:104-114.

31. Gatchel RJ, Polatin PB, Mayer TG. The dominant role of psychosocial risk factors in the development of chronic low back pain disability. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1995; 20: 2702-2709.

32. Schultz IZ, Crook J, Meloche GR, Berkowitz J, Milner R, Zuberbier OA, et al. Psychosocial factors predictive of occupational low back disability: towards development of a return-to-work model. Pain. 2004; 107: 77- 85.

33. Hagen KB, Tambs K, Bjerkedal T. A prospective cohort study of risk factors for disability retirement because of back pain in the general working population. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2002; 27: 1790-1796.

34. Introduction to Core Stability

35. Skovron ML. Epidemiology of low back pain. Baillieres Clin Rheumatol. 1992; 6: 559-573.

36. Pincus T, Burton AK, Vogel S, Field AP. A systematic review of psychological factors as predictors of chronicity/disability in prospective cohorts of low back pain. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2002; 27: 109-120.

37. Mallen CD, Peat G, Thomas E, Dunn KM, Croft PR. Prognostic factors for musculoskeletal pain in primary care: a systematic review. Br J Gen Pract. 2007; 57: 655-661.

38. Linton SJ, Boersma K. Early identification of patients at risk of developing a persistent back problem: the predictive validity of the Orebro Musculoskeletal Pain Questionnaire. Clin J Pain. 2003; 19: 80- 86.

39. Nicholas MK, Linton SJ, Watson PJ, Main CJ; “Decade of the Flags” Working Group. Early identification and management of psychological risk factors (“yellow flags”) in patients with low back pain: a reappraisal. Phys Ther. 2011; 91: 737-753.

40. Hasenbring M, Marienfeld G, Kuhlendahl D, Soyka D. Risk factors of chronicity in lumbar disc patients. A prospective investigation of biologic, psychologic, and social predictors of therapy outcome. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1994; 19: 2759-2765.

41. Choma TJ, Schuster JM, Norvell DC, Dettori JR, Chutkan NB. Fusion versus nonoperative management for chronic low back pain: do comorbid diseases or general health factors affect outcome? Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011; 36: 87-95.

42. McQuade KJ, Turner JA, Buchner DM. Physical fitness and chronic low back pain. An analysis of the relationships among fitness, functional limitations, and depression. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1988; 198-204.

43. Brox JI, Sorensen R, Friis A, Nygaard Ø, Indahl A, Keller A, et al. Randomized clinical trial of lumbar instrumented fusion and cognitive intervention and exercises in patients with chronic low back pain and disc degeneration. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2003; 28:1913-1921.

44. Fairbank J, Frost H, Wilson-MacDonald J, Yu LM, Barker K, Collins R. Randomized controlled trial to compare surgical stabilization of the lumbar spine with an intensive rehabilitation programme : the MRC spine stabilisation trial. BMJ 330 (7502). 2005; 330: 1233-1240.

45. Sørensen LV, Mors O. Presentation of a new MMPI scale to predict outcome after first lumbar diskectomy. Pain. 1988; 34: 191-194.

46. Huguet A, Miró J. The severity of chronic pediatric pain: an epidemiological study. J Pain. 2008; 9: 226-236.

Pai VS, Pai V (2016) Prognostic Factors for Chronicity in Lumbar and Cervical Spine Conditions Who are on Compensation. JSM Arthritis 1(2): 1007

Received : 05 Jun 2016
Accepted : 05 Jun 2016
Published : 02 Jul 2016
Annals of Otolaryngology and Rhinology
ISSN : 2379-948X
Launched : 2014
JSM Schizophrenia
Launched : 2016
Journal of Nausea
Launched : 2020
JSM Internal Medicine
Launched : 2016
JSM Hepatitis
Launched : 2016
JSM Oro Facial Surgeries
ISSN : 2578-3211
Launched : 2016
Journal of Human Nutrition and Food Science
ISSN : 2333-6706
Launched : 2013
JSM Regenerative Medicine and Bioengineering
ISSN : 2379-0490
Launched : 2013
JSM Spine
ISSN : 2578-3181
Launched : 2016
Archives of Palliative Care
ISSN : 2573-1165
Launched : 2016
JSM Nutritional Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3203
Launched : 2017
Annals of Neurodegenerative Disorders
ISSN : 2476-2032
Launched : 2016
Journal of Fever
ISSN : 2641-7782
Launched : 2017
JSM Bone Marrow Research
ISSN : 2578-3351
Launched : 2016
JSM Mathematics and Statistics
ISSN : 2578-3173
Launched : 2014
Journal of Autoimmunity and Research
ISSN : 2573-1173
Launched : 2014
JSM Head and Neck Cancer-Cases and Reviews
ISSN : 2573-1610
Launched : 2016
JSM General Surgery Cases and Images
ISSN : 2573-1564
Launched : 2016
JSM Anatomy and Physiology
ISSN : 2573-1262
Launched : 2016
JSM Dental Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1548
Launched : 2016
Annals of Emergency Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1017
Launched : 2016
Annals of Mens Health and Wellness
ISSN : 2641-7707
Launched : 2017
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Health Care
ISSN : 2576-0084
Launched : 2018
Journal of Chronic Diseases and Management
ISSN : 2573-1300
Launched : 2016
Annals of Vaccines and Immunization
ISSN : 2378-9379
Launched : 2014
JSM Heart Surgery Cases and Images
ISSN : 2578-3157
Launched : 2016
Annals of Reproductive Medicine and Treatment
ISSN : 2573-1092
Launched : 2016
JSM Brain Science
ISSN : 2573-1289
Launched : 2016
JSM Biomarkers
ISSN : 2578-3815
Launched : 2014
JSM Biology
ISSN : 2475-9392
Launched : 2016
Archives of Stem Cell and Research
ISSN : 2578-3580
Launched : 2014
Annals of Clinical and Medical Microbiology
ISSN : 2578-3629
Launched : 2014
JSM Pediatric Surgery
ISSN : 2578-3149
Launched : 2017
Journal of Memory Disorder and Rehabilitation
ISSN : 2578-319X
Launched : 2016
JSM Tropical Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2578-3165
Launched : 2016
JSM Head and Face Medicine
ISSN : 2578-3793
Launched : 2016
JSM Cardiothoracic Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1297
Launched : 2016
JSM Bone and Joint Diseases
ISSN : 2578-3351
Launched : 2017
JSM Bioavailability and Bioequivalence
ISSN : 2641-7812
Launched : 2017
JSM Atherosclerosis
ISSN : 2573-1270
Launched : 2016
Journal of Genitourinary Disorders
ISSN : 2641-7790
Launched : 2017
Journal of Fractures and Sprains
ISSN : 2578-3831
Launched : 2016
Journal of Autism and Epilepsy
ISSN : 2641-7774
Launched : 2016
Annals of Marine Biology and Research
ISSN : 2573-105X
Launched : 2014
JSM Health Education & Primary Health Care
ISSN : 2578-3777
Launched : 2016
JSM Communication Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3807
Launched : 2016
Annals of Musculoskeletal Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3599
Launched : 2016
Annals of Virology and Research
ISSN : 2573-1122
Launched : 2014
JSM Renal Medicine
ISSN : 2573-1637
Launched : 2016
Journal of Muscle Health
ISSN : 2578-3823
Launched : 2016
JSM Genetics and Genomics
ISSN : 2334-1823
Launched : 2013
JSM Anxiety and Depression
ISSN : 2475-9139
Launched : 2016
Clinical Journal of Heart Diseases
ISSN : 2641-7766
Launched : 2016
Annals of Medicinal Chemistry and Research
ISSN : 2378-9336
Launched : 2014
JSM Pain and Management
ISSN : 2578-3378
Launched : 2016
JSM Women's Health
ISSN : 2578-3696
Launched : 2016
Clinical Research in HIV or AIDS
ISSN : 2374-0094
Launched : 2013
Journal of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity
ISSN : 2333-6692
Launched : 2013
Journal of Substance Abuse and Alcoholism
ISSN : 2373-9363
Launched : 2013
JSM Neurosurgery and Spine
ISSN : 2373-9479
Launched : 2013
Journal of Liver and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2379-0830
Launched : 2014
Journal of Drug Design and Research
ISSN : 2379-089X
Launched : 2014
JSM Clinical Oncology and Research
ISSN : 2373-938X
Launched : 2013
JSM Bioinformatics, Genomics and Proteomics
ISSN : 2576-1102
Launched : 2014
JSM Chemistry
ISSN : 2334-1831
Launched : 2013
Journal of Trauma and Care
ISSN : 2573-1246
Launched : 2014
JSM Surgical Oncology and Research
ISSN : 2578-3688
Launched : 2016
Annals of Food Processing and Preservation
ISSN : 2573-1033
Launched : 2016
Journal of Radiology and Radiation Therapy
ISSN : 2333-7095
Launched : 2013
JSM Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
ISSN : 2578-3572
Launched : 2016
Annals of Clinical Pathology
ISSN : 2373-9282
Launched : 2013
Annals of Cardiovascular Diseases
ISSN : 2641-7731
Launched : 2016
Journal of Behavior
ISSN : 2576-0076
Launched : 2016
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Metabolism
ISSN : 2572-2492
Launched : 2016
Clinical Research in Infectious Diseases
ISSN : 2379-0636
Launched : 2013
JSM Microbiology
ISSN : 2333-6455
Launched : 2013
Journal of Urology and Research
ISSN : 2379-951X
Launched : 2014
Journal of Family Medicine and Community Health
ISSN : 2379-0547
Launched : 2013
Annals of Pregnancy and Care
ISSN : 2578-336X
Launched : 2017
JSM Cell and Developmental Biology
ISSN : 2379-061X
Launched : 2013
Annals of Aquaculture and Research
ISSN : 2379-0881
Launched : 2014
Clinical Research in Pulmonology
ISSN : 2333-6625
Launched : 2013
Journal of Immunology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2333-6714
Launched : 2013
Annals of Forensic Research and Analysis
ISSN : 2378-9476
Launched : 2014
JSM Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
ISSN : 2333-7109
Launched : 2013
Annals of Breast Cancer Research
ISSN : 2641-7685
Launched : 2016
Annals of Gerontology and Geriatric Research
ISSN : 2378-9409
Launched : 2014
Journal of Sleep Medicine and Disorders
ISSN : 2379-0822
Launched : 2014
JSM Burns and Trauma
ISSN : 2475-9406
Launched : 2016
Chemical Engineering and Process Techniques
ISSN : 2333-6633
Launched : 2013
Annals of Clinical Cytology and Pathology
ISSN : 2475-9430
Launched : 2014
JSM Allergy and Asthma
ISSN : 2573-1254
Launched : 2016
Journal of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
ISSN : 2334-2307
Launched : 2013
Annals of Sports Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2379-0571
Launched : 2014
JSM Sexual Medicine
ISSN : 2578-3718
Launched : 2016
Annals of Vascular Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2378-9344
Launched : 2014
JSM Biotechnology and Biomedical Engineering
ISSN : 2333-7117
Launched : 2013
Journal of Hematology and Transfusion
ISSN : 2333-6684
Launched : 2013
JSM Environmental Science and Ecology
ISSN : 2333-7141
Launched : 2013
Journal of Cardiology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2333-6676
Launched : 2013
JSM Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine
ISSN : 2334-1815
Launched : 2013
Journal of Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders
ISSN : 2475-9473
Launched : 2016
JSM Ophthalmology
ISSN : 2333-6447
Launched : 2013
Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Toxicology
ISSN : 2333-7079
Launched : 2013
Annals of Psychiatry and Mental Health
ISSN : 2374-0124
Launched : 2013
Medical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
ISSN : 2333-6439
Launched : 2013
Annals of Pediatrics and Child Health
ISSN : 2373-9312
Launched : 2013
JSM Clinical Pharmaceutics
ISSN : 2379-9498
Launched : 2014
JSM Foot and Ankle
ISSN : 2475-9112
Launched : 2016
JSM Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementia
ISSN : 2378-9565
Launched : 2014
Journal of Addiction Medicine and Therapy
ISSN : 2333-665X
Launched : 2013
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2378-931X
Launched : 2013
Annals of Public Health and Research
ISSN : 2378-9328
Launched : 2014
Annals of Orthopedics and Rheumatology
ISSN : 2373-9290
Launched : 2013
Journal of Clinical Nephrology and Research
ISSN : 2379-0652
Launched : 2014
Annals of Community Medicine and Practice
ISSN : 2475-9465
Launched : 2014
Annals of Biometrics and Biostatistics
ISSN : 2374-0116
Launched : 2013
JSM Clinical Case Reports
ISSN : 2373-9819
Launched : 2013
Journal of Cancer Biology and Research
ISSN : 2373-9436
Launched : 2013
Journal of Surgery and Transplantation Science
ISSN : 2379-0911
Launched : 2013
Journal of Dermatology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2373-9371
Launched : 2013
JSM Gastroenterology and Hepatology
ISSN : 2373-9487
Launched : 2013
Annals of Nursing and Practice
ISSN : 2379-9501
Launched : 2014
JSM Dentistry
ISSN : 2333-7133
Launched : 2013
Author Information X