JSM Bioinformatics, Genomics and Proteomics

In silico Analysis of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (Snps) in Human FTO Gene

Research Article | Open Access

  • 1. Department of Biotechnology, Africa city of Technology, Sudan
  • 2. Ministry of Health-Khartoum-Sudan
  • 3. Department of microbiology, University of Science and Technology, Sudan
  • 4. Department of medical laboratory Science, Al-Neelain University, Sudan
  • 5. Ministry of Health- Gadarif, Sudan
  • 6. Department of immunology, Endemic Diseases Institute, Sudan
  • 7. Department of microbiology, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Sudan
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Corresponding Authors
Marwa Mohamed Osman, Africa city of Technology-Khartoum, Sudan, Tel: 249912260109

In conclusion, our results suggest that the application of computational tools like SIFT, PolyPhen-2, I mutant-3, Project Hope and polymRTS may provide an alternative approach for selecting target SNPs. The FTO gene is very important causative factor of obesity was investigated through computational methods and the influence of functional SNPs were evaluated. In a total of 72808 SNPs in the FTO gene, 192 were found to be non-synonymous and 187 were found to be in the 3′untranslated regions, 31pathological polymorphisms were found to be deleterious and damaging by both Polyphen server and SIFT program, 30SNPsin the 3′ UTR were found to be significance. And according to polymirts results of 3′UTR we suggest that if we will disrupted a conserved miRNA sites we will decrease the gene expression and gene will be blocked. Hence, we hope our results will provide useful information that needed to help researchers to do further study to solve the obesity problem in the future.


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Obesity is a common and serious medical problem that adverse health consequences and associated with many serious disease. FTO gene plays a main role in obesity. Bioinformatics’ analysis of FTO gene initiated by Polyphen-2 and SIFT server was used to review 31pathological polymorphisms. Among these 31, 10 pathological polymorphisms were found to be very damaging, with higher Polyphen-2 score of the Polyphen-2 server (=1) and a SIFT tolerance index of 0.000-0.005. Protein structural analysis was done by modeling of amino acid substitutions using Project Hope server for all these pathological polymorphisms. 30 SNPs in the 3’URT containing 63 alleles can be disrupted by a conserved miRNA site. Hence, we hope our results will provide useful information that needed to help researchers to do further study to solve the obesity problem in the future. We considered this study a distinctive one, because there is no researches deal with matter in silico studies.


Osman MM, Khalifa AS, Yousri Mutasim AE, Massaad SO, Gasemelseed MM, et al. (2016) In Silico Analysis of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (Snps) in Human FTO Gene. J Bioinform, Genomics, Proteomics 1(1): 1003.


•    Fat mass and obesity associated protein (FTO) gene
•    SNPs
•    miRNA site
•    3’UTR
•    BioGriD


ABH: Alpha-Ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase; BioGRID: Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets; DDG: ΔΔG sign; FTO: Fat mass and Obesity associated protein; GWAS: Genome-Wide Association Studies; TI: Tolerance Index; OMIM: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man; LOF: Loss-of-Function; miRNA: Miro Ribonucleic Acid; nsSNPs: non synonymous Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms; PolymiRTS: polymorphism in micro RNAs and their Target Sites; PolyPhen-2: Polymorphism Pheno typing V2; PSIC: Position-Specific Independent Counts software (Polyphen-2 score); SIFT: Sorting Intolerant from Tolerant; SNPs: Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms; SVM: Support Vector Machine; UTR: Un-Translated Region


Obesity is a common and serious medical problem that adverse health consequences and associated with cardiovascular disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cancers of the breast, endometrium, prostate, and colon, gallbladder disease, osteoarthritis, respiratory problems, including asthma and sleep apnea, and perhaps depression. In addition to aerobic capacity and the ability to perform physical activities may be hindered by obesity, and this may have implications for physical therapists’ interventions. Obesity is a global problem affecting over 400 million adults. It is not only a problem found in the adult population but is also occurring at an increased frequency in children in both the developed and the developing world. It has received both national and international attention because of obesity’s detrimental impact on health, the enormous economic burden it imposes, and its increasing prevalence [1-4].

Many factors interact together to play a role in obesity including environmental and lifestyle factors. The rising prevalence of obesity can be partly explained by environmental changes over the last 30 years, in particular the unlimited supply of convenient, highly calorific foods together with a sedentary lifestyle. Recently the role of multiple genetic polymorphisms in obesity has taken in concern. An estimation of 40 to 70% of the variation in obesity susceptibility observed in the population is due to inter-individual genetic variants [3, 5-7].

Understanding the molecular roots of obesity is an important prerequisite to improve both prevention and management of the disease [4]. From the beginning the advent of the genome-wide association approaches in 2005, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified approximately 2,000 genetic loci with strong associations for more than 300 common traits and diseases [8], this including more than 75 obesity-susceptibility loci [9,10].

Fat mass and obesity associated protein is encoded by FTO gene located in chromosome 16 and the cluster of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with obesity located in the first intron of the gene [11-13]. It is encodes for a nuclear enzymatic protein known as alpha-keto glutarate-dependent dioxygenase belonging to the AlkB homologue (ABH) subfamily of 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) and ferrous iron-dependent oxygenases [14].

Science 2007 and the subsequent years several studies indifferent populations including American, Australian, Korean, Danish, German, and Hispanic American, non-Hispanic Caucasian American, African American and Spanish confirmed that FTO variants are associated with obesity [15-25].

In contrast, in a large Palestinian Arab consanguineous pedigree, a homozygous loss-of-function (LOF) mutation in FTO was identified. Which nine individuals presented with severe growth retardation and multiple congenital malformations, including microcephaly, severe psychomotor delay, cardio myopathy and characteristic facial features (OMIM 612938) [26].

This finding means that FTO is required for normal development of cardiovascular systems and human central nervous and those homozygous loss-of-function (LOF) mutations in the FTO gene can lead to an autosomal recessive lethal disorder and multiple defects. However, no other disease-causing mutation in FTO has been reported to data [27].

In this study we use different computational methods to identify the FTO gene SNPs and the effects of predicted mutation at the proteomic level. We considered this study a distinctive one, because there is no researches deal with matter in silico studies.


FTO gene was investigated in dbSNP/NCBI database (in September 2015. FTO gene contained a total of 72908 SNPs; 20711 of them found on Homo sapiens; of which 185 were missense, of which 87 were in the coding region, 193 were non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs), 187, were in the 3’un-translated region and OMIM_610966. Predictions of deleterious nsSNPs were performed by different software such as SIFT, Polyphen-2 softwares I-Mutant suite and project hope. The FASTA format of the protein and its iso forms (four isoforms) was obtained from Uniprot at Expassy database. The 3D structure of an 87% identical to protein was retrieved from database by using BLAST/NCBI. The protein used as a template is called “Alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase [Homo sapiens]” with ID pdb|3LFM|. The SNPS at the 3UTR region were analyzed by Polymirtdatabase. All soft were illustrated in Figure (1).

Bioinformatics data analysis

The BioGRID (Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets; is an open access database that houses genetic and protein interactions curated from the primary biomedical literature for all major model organism species and humans [28]. SIFT software: “Sorting Intolerant from Tolerant”. This is a sequences homology-based tool that presumes that important amino acids will be conserved in the protein family. Hence, changes at well-conserved positions tend to be predicted as deleterious [29]. The cutoff value in the SIFT program is a tolerance index of ≥0.05. The higher the tolerance index, the less functional impact a particular amino acid substitution is likely to have. The server PolyPhen-2(Polymorphism Phenotyping v2) which is available at has been used to analyze the structural damage due to coding nsSNPs which can affect protein functionality. The server is able to calculate a score on the basis of the characterization of the substitution site to a known protein three-dimensional structure. A PSIC score has been calculate for each variant of each site and the difference between them reported. The higher the PSIC score difference is, the higher is the functional impact a particular amino acid substitution is likely to have [30]. I-Mutant Suite is a suite of support vector machine (SVM)-based predictors of protein stability changes according to Gibbs free energy change, enthalpy change, heat capacity change, and transition temperature [31]. The analyses were performed based on protein sequence combined with mutational position and correlated new residue. And the output result of the predicted free energy change (DDG) classifies the prediction into one of three classes: largely unstable (DDG < −0.5 kcal/mol), largely stable (DDG>0.5kcal/mol), or neutral (-0.5≤ DDG≤0.5 kcal/mol). I- Project Hope software is an online web service where the user can submit a sequence and mutation. This software collects structural information from a series of sources, including calculations on the 3D protein structure, sequence annotations in Uni Prot and predictions from DAS-servers. It combines this information to give analyze the effect of a certain mutation on the protein structure and will show the effect of that mutation in such a way that even those without a bioinformatics background can understand it [32]. PolymiRTS database 3.0(Polymorphism in microRNAs and their Target Sites) is a naturally occurring DNA variations in microRNA seed regions and microRNA target sites. Integrated data from CLASH (cross linking, ligation and sequencing of hybrids) experiments, PolymiRTS database provides more complete and accurate microRNA–mRNA interactions. The polymorphic microRNA target sites are assigned into four classes: ‘D’ (the derived allele disrupts a conserved microRNA site), ‘N’ (the derived allele disrupts a nonconserved microRNA site), ‘C’ (the derived allele creates a new microRNA site) and ‘O’ (other cases when the ancestral allele cannot be determined unambiguously). The class ‘C’ may cause abnormal gene repression and class ‘D’ may cause loss of normal repression control. So these two classes of PolymiRTS are most likely to have functional impacts. PolymiRTS is available at[33].

All of this software were used in their default setting. 


Alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase has many vital functions: DNA-N1-methyladenine dioxygenase activity, ferrous iron binding, oxidative DNA demethylase activity and oxidative RNA demethylase activity. The gene has 25 physical interactions with other genes (interactors) which they have similar functions and illustrated by using BioGRID and shown in Figure (2) and Table (1).

Deleterious or damaging nsSNPs predicted by PolyPhen and SIFT

A total number of 193 nsSNPs FTO gene were submitted as batch to the SIFT program and PolyPhen-2 server. In the SIFT program, we observed that, out of total 193nsSNPs; 31pathological polymorphisms was deleterious and 10deleterious with low confidence (which was excluded from this study), 9pathological polymorphisms (rs139577103 → R96H, rs370009039 → K216N, rs373076420 → P288L, rs200152693 → A15S, rs139000284 → R149H and R445H, rs376381270 → R159S, rs370137051 → L193F and L489F) showed a highly deleterious tolerance index (TI) score of 0.00.

In Polyphen-2 server, our result represented that, 31 pathological polymorphisms were predicted damaging:rs371489995 → L51I,rs61743972 → G182A, rs150450891 → V201I,rs138348216 → M207V and rs377073096 → D350G showed possibly damaging while rs201836578 → K2E,rs140101381 → R80W rs113383961 → D89E, rs151263395 → P93R, rs139577103 → R96H, rs147561986 → N143S, rs182784714 → L146M, rs370009039 → K216N, rs373076420 → P288L, rs200152693 → A15S, A311S, rs202007463 → E325V, E29V, rs368490949 → R41C, R337C, rs141978030 → N344D, re372814208 → P399L, P103L, rs143788264 → M400V, M104V, rs139000284 → R149H, R445H, rs376381270 → R159S, R455S and rs370137051 → L193F, L489F showed probably damaging result with score ≥0.996.

Tenpathological polymorphisms with their isoforms (rs143788264 → M1V, rs376527078 → G26,47V, rs145170223 → E5, 34, 55G, rs139000284 → R17, 46, 67H, rs376381270 → R56, 77S and rs370137051 → L90,111F) gave low deleterious prediction confidences by SIFT software were excluded in this study. This exclusion was considered limitation of this study.

The final total number of deleterious or damaging ns SNPs predicted both softwares (SIFT/polyphen-2) were 23 SNPs containing 31 pathological polymorphisms which we considered that the double positive prediction. The results are listed in Table (2).

Prediction of change in stability due to mutation used I-Mutant suite server

I mutant suite server output demonstrated that protein stability with relate free energy has changed due to mutation. all pathological polymorphisms[31] were detected by SIFT/ Polyphen-2 servers and according to Table(3) the results was represented as following: twenty ninepolymorphisms(K → E,L → I,R → W,P → R,R → H,N → S,L → M, G → A,V → I,M → V,K → N,P → L,A → S,E → V,R → C,N → D,D → G,R → S and L → F) predicted a dramatic decrease of the protein stability, while three polymorphisms (D → E,E → V and P → L) predicted increase of stability of FTO protein.

Modeling of amino acid substitution effects due to nsSNPs on protein structure

FTO Protein sequences of the nsSNP submitted to Project Hope revealed the 3D structure for the truncated proteins with its new candidates; in addition, it described the reaction and physiochemical properties of these candidates. According to Sift /Polyphen-2 results in which TOLERANCE INDEX ≤0.005and polyphen-2 score equals 1; we found that 10 pathological polymorphisms from 30 achieved these scores: rs139577103, rs370009039, rs373076420, rs200152693, rs139000284, rs376381270, rs370137051 with TI= 0 while rs368490949, rs140101381 and rs372814208 with TI= 0.001, 0.004 and 0.005respectively. These 10 SNPs were selected to be submitted to the Project Hope software and they indicated pathological polymorphisms change in the amino acids showed in the Figure (3).

Each amino acid has its own specific size, charge, and hydrophobicity-value, Table (4). The original wild-type residue and newly introduced mutant residue often differ in these properties:

In rs370009039, rs139000284, rs376381270, rs368490949 and rs139577103 the mutant residue was smaller than the wild-type residue while in rs373076420, rs200152693, rs372814208, rs140101381, rs370137051 the mutant residue was bigger than the wild-type residue.

The hydrophobicity of the wild-type and mutant residue differed in rs370137051and rs139577103 and we found the mutant residue was more hydrophobic than wild residue in rs140101381, rs200152693, rs368490949 and rs376381270.

In (rs200152693) the hydrophobic interactions, either in the core of the protein or on the surface was lost and the difference in hydrophobicity affected hydrogen bond formation in position 41 in (rs368490949).

There was a difference in charge between the wild-type and mutant amino acid in rs370137051, rs139000284, rs140101381, rs370009039andrs139577103 The charge of the wild-type residue was lost by this mutation which has caused loss of interactions with other molecules in these positions and the difference in charge will disturb the ionic interaction made by the original in position 159 in (rs370137051) and the (R → H) pathological polymorphism will cause an empty space in the core of the protein in position 96.

The mutant residue in rs373676420, rs139000284, rs370137051 and rs370009030 at positions 228,445.489 and 216 was located near a highly conserved position and only wild residue type was found at this position. Mutation of a 100% conserved residue is usually damaging for the protein [32]. Other SNPs (rs140101381, rs368490949 and rs370137051) with positions 80, 41 and 337 respectively; the wild-type residue occurred often at these positions in the sequence, but other residues had also been observed in these positions. The mutant residue was located near a highly conserved position. In position 193, the (L → F) pathological polymorphism occurred at this position was probably not damaging.

The wild-type residue was not conserved in rs368490949, rs376381270, rs149000284 and rs372814208 at position 41,159,149 and 103 respectively while the mutant residue was located near a highly conserved position.

We suggested these variations in amino acid properties “size, charge, and hydrophobicity-value” due to these polymorphisms may produce new version of mutant protein which then may affect functions and structure of the original protein.

Functional SNPs in 3′untranslated regions (3′UTR) predicted by PolymiRTS data base 3.0

SNPs in 3′UTR of FTO gene were submitted as batch to PolymiRTS server. The output showed that among 187 SNPs in 3′UTR region of FTO gene, 30 SNPswere predicted, while among the 30 SNPs, 75 alleles disrupted a conserved miRNA site and 63 derived alleles created a new site of miRNA. RS76366199SNP contained (C) allele had 8 miRSites as target binging site can be disrupts a conserved miRNA while RS116372569 SNP had (D) allele with 9 miRSites that disrupts a conserved miRNA site, Table (5).

Table 1: Functional interaction between FTO and its related genes [34].

Interactor Role Organism Experimental Code Evidence
ALX3 BAIT H. sapiens Affinity Capture-MS
BCCIP HIT H. sapiens Co-fractionation
CKB HIT H. sapiens Co-fractionation
CNDP2 HIT H. sapiens Co-fractionation
CTSA BAIT  H. sapiens Co-fractionation
DAK HIT  H. sapiens Co-fractionation
DIRAS2 BAIT  H. sapiens Affinity Capture-MS
EEF2 HIT  H. sapiens Co-fractionation
FGB   BAIT H. sapiens Affinity Capture-MS
FSD1 BAIT  H. sapiens Affinity Capture-MS
GPX7 BAIT  H. sapiens Affinity Capture-MS
LDHA HIT  H. sapiens Co-fractionation
LDHB HIT  H. sapiens Co-fractionation
MPZL1 BAIT H. sapiens Affinity Capture-MS
MVD HIT H. sapiens Co-fractionation
NDRG1 HIT  H. sapiens Co-fractionation
NFYA BAIT  H. sapiens Affinity Capture-MS
NPEPPS HIT  H. sapiens Co-fractionation
OR5F1 BAIT  H. sapiens Affinity Capture-MS
PEPD BAIT  H. sapiens Co-fractionation
SDC1 BAIT  H. sapiens Affinity Capture-MS
SLC9A3R1   HIT H. sapiens Co-fractionation
TYW3 BAIT  H. sapiens Affinity Capture-MS
ZMAT3 BAIT  H. sapiens Affinity Capture-MS
ZNF232 BAIT H. sapiens Affinity Capture-MS

Table 2: Prediction result of SIFT and Polyphen-2 programs.

SNP ID Chromosome No./ Coordinate Nucleotide Change Amino Acid Change Polyphen-2 Result PSIC SD SIFT Result Tolerance Index
rs201836578 16/537381 A/G K2E PROBABLY DAMAGING 0.997  DELETERIOUS 0.008
rs371489995 16/53859803 C/A L51I PROBABLY DAMAGING 0.891 DELETERIOUS 0.04
rs140101381 16/5385989 C/T R80W PROBABLY DAMAGING   1 DELETERIOUS 0.004
rs113383961 16/53859919 T/A D89E PROBABLY DAMAGING 0.982 DELETERIOUS 0.011
rs151263395 16/5385993 C/G P93R PROBABLY DAMAGING   1 DELETERIOUS 0.009
rs139577103 16/53859939 G/A R96H PROBABLY DAMAGING   1 DELETERIOUS   0
rs147561986 16/5386008 A/G N143S PROBABLY DAMAGING 0.999 DELETERIOUS   0
rs182784714 16/53860088 C/A L146M PROBABLY DAMAGING   1 DELETERIOUS 0.03
rs61743972 16/53860197 G/C G182A PROBABLY DAMAGING 0.939 DELETERIOUS 0.043
rs150450891 16/53860253 G/A V201I PROBABLY DAMAGING 0.679 DELETERIOUS 0.049
rs138348216 16/53860271 A/G M207V PROBABLY DAMAGING 0.985 DELETERIOUS   0
rs370009039 16/538603 A/T K216N PROBABLY DAMAGING   1 DELETERIOUS   0
rs373076420 16/53878178 C/T P288L PROBABLY DAMAGING   1 DELETERIOUS   0
rs200152693 16/53907733 G/T A15S PROBABLY DAMAGING   1 DELETERIOUS   0
rs200152693 16/53907733 G/T A311S PROBABLY DAMAGING 0.996 DELETERIOUS  0.02
rs202007463 16/53907776 A/T E325V PROBABLY DAMAGING 0.999 DELETERIOUS 0.003
rs202007463 16/53907776 A/T E29V PROBABLY DAMAGING 0.997 DELETERIOUS 0.007
rs368490949 16/53913789 C/T R41C PROBABLY DAMAGING   1 DELETERIOUS 0.001
rs368490949 16/53913789 C/T R337C PROBABLY DAMAGING   1 DELETERIOUS 0.001
rs141978030 16/5391381 A/G N344D PROBABLY DAMAGING 0.99 DELETERIOUS    0
rs377073096 16/53913829 A/G D350G PROBABLY DAMAGING 0.896 DELETERIOUS 0.03
re372814208 16/5392282 C/T P399L PROBABLY DAMAGING 0.997 DELETERIOUS 0.004
rs372814208 16/5392282 C/T P103L PROBABLY DAMAGING   1 DELETERIOUS 0.005
rs143788264 16/53922822 A/G M400V PROBABLY DAMAGING 0.985 DELETERIOUS    0
rs143788264 16/53922822 A/G M104V PROBABLY DAMAGING   1 DELETERIOUS 0.019
rs139000284 16/53967991 G/A R149H PROBABLY DAMAGING   1 DELETERIOUS    0
rs139000284 16/53967991 G/A R445H PROBABLY DAMAGING   1 DELETERIOUS    0
rs376381270 16/54145674 G/T R159S PROBABLY DAMAGING   1 DELETERIOUS    0
rs376381270 16/54145674 G/T R455S PROBABLY DAMAGING 0.999 DELETERIOUS    0
rs370137051 16/54145774 C/T L193F PROBABLY DAMAGING   1 DELETERIOUS    0
rs370137051 16/54145774 C/T L489F PROBABLY DAMAGING   1 DELETERIOUS    0
PolyPhen-2 result: POROBABLY DAMAGING (more confident prediction) / POSSIBLY DAMAGING (less confident prediction); PSIC SD: Position-Specific Independent Counts software if the score is ≥ 0.5; Tolerance Index: Ranges from 0 to 1; The amino acid substitution is predicted damaging if the score is ≤ 0.05 and tolerated if the score is > 0.05.

Table 3: Prediction result of I-Mutant software.

FTO rs201836578 6 DECREASE -0.25 K E   2 25  7
  rs371489995 6 DECREASE -1 L  I  51 25  7
  rs140101381 5 DECREASE -0.23 R W  80 25  7
  rs113383961 2 INCREASE -0.45 D E  89 25  7
  rs151263395 8 DECREASE -1.06 P R  93 25  7
  rs139577103 8 DECREASE -1.32 R H  96 25  7
  rs147561986 6 DECREASE -0.21 N S 143 25  7
  rs182784714 7 DECREASE -1.09 L M 146 25  7
  rs61743972 4 DECREASE -1.01 G A 182 25  7
  rs150450891 6 DECREASE -0.57 V  I 201 25  7
  rs138348216 7 DECREASE -0.79 M V 207 25  7
  rs370009039 1 DECREASE -0.34 K N 216 25  7
  rs373076420 4 DECREASE -0.3 P L 288 25  7
  rs200152693 7 DECREASE -0.65 A S  15 25  7
  rs200152693 8 DECREASE -0.5 A S 311 25  7
  rs202007463 2 DECREASE -0.06 E V 325 25  7
  rs202007463 1 INCREASE 0.3 E V  29 25  7
  rs368490949 5 DECREASE -0.85 R C  41 25  7
  rs368490949 4 DECREASE -0.94 R C 337 25  7
  rs141978030 8 DECREASE -0.51 N D 344 25  7
  rs377073096 3 DECREASE -1.34 D G 350 25  7
  rs372814208 1 INCREASE 0.07 P L 399 25  7
  rs372814208 7 DECREASE -0.94 P L 103 25  7
  rs143788264 6 DECREASE -0.47 M V 400 25  7
  rs143788264 8 DECREASE -0.85 M V 104 25  7
  rs139000284 7 DECREASE -0.93 R H 149 25  7
  rs139000284 7 DECREASE -0.91 R H 445 25  7
  rs376381270 9 DECREASE -0.9 R S 159 25  7
  rs376381270 8 DECREASE -1.01 R S 455 25  7
  rs370137051 7 DECREASE -1.36 L F 193 25  7
  rs370137051 7 DECREASE -1.42 L F 489 25  7
RI: Reliability Index; WT: amino acid in Wild Type; MT: amino acid in Mutant Type; DDG: ΔΔG sign; SVM: Support Vector Machine DDG value: DG (New Protein)-DG (Wild Type) in Kcal/mole; SVM2 value: DDG < 0: decrease stability, DDG >0 increase stability

Table 4: amino acid prosperities according to result obtained from Project Hope software [34].

SNP ID Amino Acid Change Wild Type Properties Mutant Type Properties
Size Charge Hydrophobisity Conservation Size Charge Hydrophobisity Conservation
rs140101381 R80W < +charge   < occurred with other residues > neutral   > Near highly conserved position
rs139577103 R96H > +charge    - only in this position < neutral  - Near highly conserved position
rs370009039 K216N > +charge    - only in this position < neutral  - Near highly conserved position
rs373076420 P288L <    -   only in this position >    -   Near highly conserved position
rs200152693 A15S <    -   <     - >    -   >      -
rs368490949 R41C > +charge   < not conserved <    -   > Near highly conserved position
R337C >    -   < occurred with other residues < neutral   > Near highly conserved position
rs372814208 P103L <    -    - not conserved >    -    - Near highly conserved position
rs139000284 R149H > +charge    - not conserved < neutral   Near highly conserved position
R445H > +charge    - only in this position < neutral    - Near highly conserved position
rs376381270 R159S > +charge   < not conserved < neutral   > Near highly conserved position
rs370137051 L193F <    -    - occurred with other residues <    -    - Near highly conserved position
L489F <    -    - only in this position <    -    - Near highly conserved position
  Size: >: bigger than; : more hydrophobic <: less hydrophobic

Table 5: SNPs in miRNA target sites.

dbSNP ID Ancestral Allele Allele miR ID Conservation miRSite Function Class
rs183282528   G   A hsa-miR-369-3p 7 ccctGTATTATAg C
hsa-miR-374a-5p  8 ccctgTATTATAg C
hsa-miR-374b-5p  8 ccctgTATTATAg C
hsa-miR-5692b   8 ccctgTATTATAg C
hsa-miR-5692c   8 ccctgTATTATAg C
rs141270327 G  G  G hsa-miR-4763-5p 2 gGGCAGGCgacag D
hsa-miR-6078 2 gggCAGGCGAcag D
rs78427245  G G hsa-miR-4437 4 aggaacGAGCCCA D
hsa-miR-4674 4 aggaacGAGCCCA D
  A hsa-miR-27a-5p 4 aggaacAAGCCCA C
rs138932249   G   G hsa-miR-2355-5p 3 tCTGGGGAAagac D
hsa-miR-3124-3p 3 tctggGGAAAGAc D
hsa-miR-3679-3p 3 tctGGGGAAAgac D
hsa-miR-6830-3p 2 tctgggGAAAGAC D
  T hsa-miR-1295b-5p 3 TCTGGGTAaagac C
hsa-miR-1912 3 TCTGGGTAaagac C
hsa-miR-3130-5p 3 tCTGGGTAaagac C
hsa-miR-4482-5p 3 tCTGGGTAaagac C
hsa-miR-5591-3p 3 tcTGGGTAAagac C
rs2665269   G   G hsa-miR-4659a-3p 9 atcatcGAAGAAA D
hsa-miR-4659b-3p 9 atcatcGAAGAAA D
hsa-miR-6875-3p 2 atcatcGAAGAAA D
A A hsa-miR-6844 2 atcatCAAAGAAa C
rs2689252   A   A hsa-miR-4659a-3p 2 catcGAAGAAAgt D
hsa-miR-4659b-3p 2 catcGAAGAAAgt D
hsa-miR-6875-3p 2 catcGAAGAAAgt D
rs187896465   G  G hsa-miR-3074-5p 3 gaGCAGGAAttct D
hsa-miR-370-3p 6 gAGCAGGAattct D
hsa-miR-6893-3p 6 gAGCAGGAattct D
 A hsa-miR-544a 3 gaGCAGAAAttct C
hsa-miR-6071 6 gAGCAGAAattct C
hsa-miR-6738-3p 3 gaGCAGAAAttct C
hsa-miR-6828-3p 3 GAGCAGAAattct C
hsa-miR-767-3p 3 GAGCAGAaattct C
rs58094871  T          
 G hsa-miR-5008-5p 2 gaagatGGGCCTC C
rs45630756 G G hsa-miR-5092 3 tatttCGTGGATt D
rs184637142 G G hsa-miR-5092 3 tatttCGTGGATt D
rs116372569  C  C hsa-miR-3126-5p 2 GTCCCTCAttctt D
hsa-miR-4419a 2 gTCCCTCAttctt D
hsa-miR-4510 2 gTCCCTCAttctt D
hsa-miR-6127 2 gTCCCTCAttctt D
hsa-miR-6129 2 gTCCCTCAttctt D
hsa-miR-6130 2 gTCCCTCAttctt D
hsa-miR-6133 2 gTCCCTCAttctt D
hsa-miR-6834-5p 2 gTCCCTCAttctt D
hsa-miR-6875-5p 2 GTCCCTCAttctt D
 A hsa-miR-3162-5p 2 gTCCCTAAttctt C
hsa-miR-7845-5p 2 GTCCCTAattctt C
rs147993840 G          
 C hsa-miR-196a-5p 5 ccACTACCTtcgt C
hsa-miR-196b-5p 5 ccACTACCTtcgt C
rs141624910 G  G hsa-miR-1197 2 agcttcGTGTCCT D
rs73625209 G  G hsa-miR-3622a-5p 3 gttaaCGTGCCTc D
rs187960932    G
 G hsa-miR-1827 7 taacgTGCCTCAg D
hsa-miR-3622a-5p 3 taaCGTGCCTcag D
hsa-miR-4649-3p 9 taacgtGCCTCAG D
 T hsa-miR-3915 7 taacgTTCCTCAg C
hsa-miR-3928-3p 6 taacGTTCCTCAg C
rs76366199  G  G hsa-miR-25-5p 2 ccCTCCGCCAgtt D
hsa-miR-4730 2 cccTCCGCCAgtt D
hsa-miR-658 2 cCCTCCGCcagtt D
 A hsa-miR-3165 2 cccTCCACCAgtt C
hsa-miR-4456 2 ccctCCACCAGtt C
hsa-miR-582-3p 7 ccctccACCAGTT C
hsa-miR-6515-5p 2 CCCTCCAccagtt C
hsa-miR-6797-5p 2 CCCTCCAccagtt C
hsa-miR-6880-5p 2 ccCTCCACCAgtt C
hsa-miR-7847-3p 2 cCCTCCACcagtt C
hsa-miR-8071 2 cccTCCACCAgtt C
rs76606072  C  C hsa-miR-185-5p 3 acaTCTCTCCctt D
hsa-miR-4306 3 acaTCTCTCCctt D
hsa-miR-4644 3 acaTCTCTCCctt D
hsa-miR-6731-5p 3 acatCTCTCCCtt D
hsa-miR-6760-5p 3 acatcTCTCCCTt D
hsa-miR-8085 3 acatCTCTCCCtt D
 T hsa-miR-3153 3 acatCTTTCCCtt C
hsa-miR-5584-5p 3 acatcTTTCCCTt C
hsa-miR-6733-5p 3 acatCTTTCCCtt C
hsa-miR-6739-5p 3 acatCTTTCCCtt C
rs116978290  G G hsa-miR-505-5p 8 gaccTGGCTCCtg D
A hsa-miR-4433-3p 6 gacctgACTCCTG C
hsa-miR-5702 7 gacCTGACTCctg C
  -     -        
rs147129925  C T hsa-miR-4731-3p 2 ctttCTTGTGTAg C
hsa-miR-4801 2 ctttCTTGTGTAg C
rs75618873  G          
A hsa-miR-7974 2 gttCACAGCCtgc C
rs80079461  A A hsa-miR-3663-5p 2 tAGACCAGgaggg D
hsa-miR-4667-3p 10 tagaccAGGAGGG D
hsa-miR-601 2 TAGACCAggaggg D
hsa-miR-660-3p 2 tagacCAGGAGGg D
G hsa-miR-4783-3p 2 tagACCGGGAggg C
rs77984007  A A hsa-miR-4501 3 ttTCACATAaaat D
C hsa-miR-6509-5p 5 tttcACCTAAAat C
hsa-miR-6800-5p 3 ttTCACCTAAaat C
hsa-miR-6802-5p 5 tttCACCTAAaat C
rs113611471  C C hsa-miR-564 2 aCGTGCCAccacg D
hsa-miR-891a-3p 2 acGTGCCACcacg D
A hsa-miR-1273g-5p 2 acgtgCAACCACg C
hsa-miR-656-5p 2 acgtGCAACCAcg C
rs708277  G G hsa-miR-4786-5p 2 aggaTGGTCTCga D
hsa-miR-6502-3p 2 aggATGGTCTcga D
A hsa-miR-4793-5p 2 AGGATGAtctcga C
hsa-miR-5196-3p 2 AGGATGAtctcga C
hsa-miR-5694 2 aggATGATCTcga C
rs188814210  G G hsa-miR-24-3p 2 gcgTGAGCCAccg D
hsa-miR-4284 2 gcGTGAGCCAccg D
T hsa-miR-3165 2 gcgtgATCCACCg C
rs117637522 A A hsa-miR-3168 3 cttTAGAACTcag D
hsa-miR-4509 5 CTTTAGAactcag D
hsa-miR-4682 3 ctttagAACTCAG D
hsa-miR-4744 5 CTTTAGAactcag D
hsa-miR-4799-5p 6 cTTTAGAActcag D
G hsa-miR-5009-3p 6 cTTTAGGActcag C
rs139134234 A   A hsa-miR-4303 2 CTCAGAAcaccca D
hsa-miR-4455 2 ctcagaACACCCA D
hsa-miR-609 2 ctcagAACACCCA D
hsa-miR-6772-5p 2 ctcagaACACCCA D
G hsa-miR-3194-3p 3 ctCAGAGCAccca C
hsa-miR-3907 2 ctcaGAGCACCca C
hsa-miR-3921 2 CTCAGAGcaccca C
hsa-miR-4653-5p 2 CTCAGAGcaccca C
hsa-miR-5691 3 ctCAGAGCAccca C
hsa-miR-6741-5p 2 ctcagaGCACCCA C
hsa-miR-6805-3p 3 ctCAGAGCAccca C
rs75681401   A   A hsa-miR-4659a-5p 7 cctcgCATGGCAg D
hsa-miR-4659b-5p 7 cctcgCATGGCAg D
hsa-miR-4769-3p 3 cctcgcATGGCAG D
hsa-miR-6817-5p 3 cctcgcATGGCAG D
  T hsa-miR-4480 7 cctcgCTTGGCAg C
rs79234192  G   G hsa-miR-3929 2 gaccCAGCCTAtg D
hsa-miR-4419b 2 gaccCAGCCTAtg D
hsa-miR-4478 2 gaccCAGCCTAtg D
hsa-miR-4505 2 gaCCCAGCCtatg D
hsa-miR-5589-5p 2 gACCCAGCctatg D
hsa-miR-5787 2 gaCCCAGCCtatg D
 A hsa-miR-92a-1-5p 2 gaCCCAACCtatg C
rs45564131  G  G hsa-miR-3665 5 tgACCTGCAtcac D
hsa-miR-657 5 tgACCTGCAtcac D
 T hsa-miR-3974 4 TGACCTTcatcac C
hsa-miR-493-3p 5 tGACCTTCAtcac C
D: The derived allele disrupts a conserved miRNA site; C: The derived allele creates a new miRNA site

Osman MM, Khalifa AS, Yousri Mutasim AE, Massaad SO, Gasemelseed MM, et al. (2016) In Silico Analysis of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (Snps) in Human FTO Gene. J Bioinform, Genomics, Proteomics 1(1): 1003.

Received : 08 Mar 2016
Accepted : 04 Apr 2016
Published : 07 Apr 2016
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