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JSM Chemistry

Effect of Indium Doping on the Structural Properties of Calcium Fluoride Powders

Short Communication | Open Access

  • 1. Department of Physics, Tishreen University, Syria
  • 2. Department of Physics, Aleppo University, Syria
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Corresponding Authors
Milad Alhasno, Department of Physics, Tishreen University, Syria, Tel: 0980014585
Abstract

Calcium fluoride (CaF2) density is 3.18 (g/cm3) melting at 1633 (K) and crystalize in cubic structure with lattice constants a = 5.432 Å. CaF2 is presently the fastest known scintillator. It has an emission component with subnanosecond decay time [1,2]. CaF2 has several scintillation emission bands. The fast scintillation light is emitted in the UV bands centered at 220 and 200 nm. The decay time of the fast component varies between 600 and 800 ps [3]. CaF2 has attracted much attention because of its wide range of potential applications in optoelectronic and microelectronic devices [4,6,8]. CaF2 compounds doped with rare-earth ions have been reported to display unique luminescence properties and can thus be used as scintillators [7,9-11].

Keywords

Powder, Calcium fluoride, Solid state reaction, Structural properties, Rare-earth ions

Citation

Alhasno M, Khoudro A, Zarouri T (2022) Effect of Indium Doping on the Structural Properties of Calcium Fluoride Powders. JSM Chem 9(1): 1058.

INTRODUCTION

Calcium fluoride (CaF2) density is 3.18 (g/cm3) melting at 1633 (K) and crystalize in cubic structure with lattice constants a = 5.432 Å.
CaF2 is presently the fastest known scintillator. It has an emission component with subnanosecond decay time [1,2].
CaF2 has several scintillation emission bands. The fast scintillation light is emitted in the UV bands centered at 220 and 200 nm.
The decay time of the fast component varies between 600 and 800 ps [3].
CaF2 has attracted much attention because of its wide range of potential applications in optoelectronic and microelectronic devices [4-6,8].
CaF2 compounds doped with rare-earth ions have been reported to display unique luminescence properties and can thus be used as scintillators [7,9-11].

EXPERIMENTAL METHOD

CaF2: In powders (x = 0.00, 0.04, 0.05, 0.06) (Tables 1-4) were prepared by a solid state reaction method, were accurately weighed in required proportions and were mixed and ground thoroughly using an Agate mortar and pestle to convert to very fine powders.

The grinding of the mixtures was carried out for 3 hours for all the powder samples. The ground powder samples were firing at 700°C for 3 hours.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

Structural properties

The X-ray diffraction (device type XRD-PW 1840 PHILIPS production is connected to a computer with software for diffraction spectrum processing) patterns of undoped and In doped CaF2 powders prepared with various In concentration 0 wt%, 4 wt%, 5 wt% and 6 wt% are shown in Figure 1.

The XRD reveals that all samples are having polycrystalline nature with cubic structure.

The relative intensities of undoped and in doped CaF2 powders are calculated. The distance between crystalline planes values (d) are calculated by using following relation:

2d.\sin \Theta =n\lambda                                   (1)

Where d is distance between crystalline planes (A°), θ is the Bragg angle, λ is the wavelength of X-rays (λ=1.78897 A°).

The crystallite size is calculated from Scherrer’s equation [12]:

D=\frac{0.94\lambda }{\beta \cos \Theta }                                      (2)

where, D is the crystallite size, λ is the wavelength of X-ray, ? is full width at half maximum (FWHM) intensity in radians and θ is Braggs’s angle.

The dislocation density is defined as the length of dislocation lines per unit volume and calculated by following equation [13]:

\delta =\frac{1}{D^{2}}                                                (3)

The lattice constants a for cubic phase structure is determined by the relation [14]:

Figure 1 XRD results of pure CaF2, 4 wt% in doped CaF2, 5 wt% in doped CaF2, 6 wt% in doped CaF2.

Figure 1: XRD results of pure CaF2, 4 wt% in doped CaF2, 5 wt% in doped CaF2, 6 wt% in doped CaF2.

Table 1: shows results of structural values of undoped CaF2 sample.

Samples
S
2θ (deg) (hkl) d (A°) Rel. int.
[%]
β (deg) D (nm) Average
D(nm)
Δ 1015line/m2 Lattice const.
a(Å)
CaF2 33.12 (111) 3.138 80 1.250 1.403 1.504 508.024 5.456
55.23 (220) 1.929 100 1.720 1.103 821.956
Pure 65.78 (311) 1.647 48 1.350 1.483 454.692
82.23 (400) 1.360 33 1.100 2.029 242.904

Table 2: shows results of structural values of In doped CaF2 samples (x=0.04).

Samples 2θ (deg) (hkl) d (A°) Rel. int.
[%]
β (deg) D (nm) Average
D(nm)
       Δ Lattice const.
a(Å)
1015line/m2
CaF2:In 33.06 (101) 3.144 82 1.335 1.294 1.520 597.216 4.759
54.82 (112) 1.943 100 1.650 1.148 758.780
(4 wt%) 65.72 (200) 1.648 46 1.550 1.291 416.233
82.14 (202) 1.361 28 0.950 2.347 181.54

Table 3: shows results of structural values of In doped CaF2 samples (x=0.05).

Samples 2θ (deg) (hkla) d (A°) Rel. int.
[%]
β (deg) D (nm) Average
D(nm)
Δ Lattice const.
a(Å)
1015line/m2
CaF2: In 32.83 (101) 3.166 63 1.320 1.328 2.091 567.702 4.754
47.01 (110) 2.242 25 0.420 4.366 52.460
(5 wt%) 54.88 (112) 1.941 100 1.820 1.041 922.780
65.92 (200) 1.644 46 1.260 1.599 391.113
82.08 (202) 1.362 31 1.050 2.123 221.870

Table 4: shows results of structural values of In doped CaF2 samples (x=0.06).

Samples 2θ (deg) (hkl) d (A°) Rel. int.
[%]
β (deg) D (nm) Average
D(nm)
Δ Lattice const.
a(Å)
1015line/m2
CaF2:In 32.91 (101) 3.158 65 1.450 1.209 2.561 684.143 4.747
42.12 (002) 2.489 22 0.350 5.148 37.733
(6 wt%) 46.96 (110) 2.245 27 0.450 4.075 60.220
54.98 (112) 1.938 100 1.750 1.152 753.520
66.96 (200) 1.621 38 1.230 1.639 372.256
82.06 (202) 1.362 29 1.040 2.143 217.748

 

a=d\sqrt{h^{2}}+k^{2}+l^{2}                          (4)

where d and (hkl) are distance between crystalline planes and Miller indices, respectively.

CONCLUSION

This paper presents a study of structural properties of, in doped \small CaF_{2} powders prepared by solid-state reaction method. X-ray diffraction patterns confirm that the samples have polycrystalline nature with cubic structure and show presence (111), (220), (311), and (400) planes in pure \small CaF_{2}  sample. The preferred orientation is (220) for pure \small CaF_{2}.

For 4% in we have peaks correspond to (101), (112), (200), (202) .The preferred orientation is (112).

For 5% In We noticed appearance of this orientation (110).

For 6% In We noticed appearance of these orientations (002), (110).

The average of crystallite size is within the range [5.148- 1.041 nm] for all samples. It was defined that the lattice constants a for all the samples, were almost identical with JCPDS values.

REFERENCES

1. Czaja M, Gajowska SB, Lisiecki R, Meijerink A, Mazurak Z. The luminescence properties of rare-earth ions in natural fluorite. Phys Chem Minerals. 2012; 39: 639–648.

2. Battikh AA, et al. Studying of the Europium ion Effect on the Luminescence Calcium Fluoride Crystal. Tishreen University Journal. 2014; 36.

3. Nanto H, Nakagawa R, Takayuki Yanagida1, Yutaka Fujimoto, Kentaro Fukuda, Yuka Miyamoto, et al. Optically stimulated luminescence in Tm-doped calcium fluoride phosphor crystal for application to a novel passive type Dosimeter. Sens Mater. 2015; 27: 277–282.

4. Daniel Hahn. Calcium fluoride and barium fluoride crystals in optics. Optical Materials. 2014; 09: 45-48.

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11. Antonyak OT, Vistovskyy VV, AV Zhyshkovych, IM Kravchuk. Defect Luminescence in CaF2 nanoparticles. Journal of luminescence. 2015; 167: 249–253.

12. Mariappan R, Ponnuswamy V, Suresh P. Effect Of Doping Concentration On The Structural And Optical Properties Of Pure And Tin Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films By Nebulizer Spray Pyrolysis (NSP) Technique. Superlattices and Microstructures. 2012; 52: 500-513.

13. Turgut G, Keskenler EF, Aydin S, Sonmez E, Dogan S, Duzgun B, et al. Effect Of Nb Doping On Structural, Electrical And Optical Properties Of Spray Deposited SnO2 Thin Films. Superlattices and Microstructures. 2013; 56: 107-116.

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Alhasno M, Khoudro A, Zarouri T (2022) Effect of Indium Doping on the Structural Properties of Calcium Fluoride Powders. JSM Chem 9(1): 1058.

Received : 25 Nov 2022
Accepted : 05 Dec 2022
Published : 07 Dec 2022
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