JSM Chemistry

The Paradox of Scorpion Toxin Interactions with Portable Na v Receptors

Perspective | Open Access

  • 1. Department of Plant Molecular Biology & Ecology, Tel-Aviv University, Israel
+ Show More - Show Less
Corresponding Authors
Michael Gurevitz, Department of Plant Molecular Biology & Ecology, George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv, Tel-Aviv 69978, Israel

Scorpion venom is rich in proteinaceous toxins that affect excitability by impeding ion channel gating. Channel blockers interact with the external region of the pore and obstruct ion conductance, whereas channel modifiers interact with the voltage sensor module hindering the activation or inactivation processes [1-3]. Scorpion toxin modifiers of voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav s) are divided by their mode of action to alpha and beta classes [4], and further to distinct pharmacological groups by their binding features (Figure 1) [5-7]. Alpha toxins that prolong channel inactivation bind at the pharmacologically defined receptor site 3, whereas beta toxins that affect channel activation bind at receptor site 4 [4-12]. Although the study of the mode of action, binding features, three-dimensional structure and bioactive surface of these toxins encompasses more than four decades, it markedly accelerated once ways for toxin expression in heterologous systems (Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) have been developed [9,13-15]. Of particular use was the efficient expression system of Esherichia coli which expedited the examination of the effects of any single or multiple amino acid substitutions on toxin binding and action. The considerable large quantities of pure recombinant toxins enabled also crystallization and determination of the structures of wild type and mutant derivatives. Undoubtedly, the simplification of toxin production and analysis accelerated the study of their bioactive surfaces, as shown for toxin representatives of all pharmacological groups [13,16-24]. These studies have shown that the bioactive surfaces are generally divided between two domains in both alpha and beta toxins (Figure 1 upper as an example), where one domain is associated with the molecule core and the other domain includes residues of the intertwining N and C tails. This division suggested that the ‘mirror face’ channel receptors might be composed as well of two distinct sites complementary to the toxin bioactive surfaces. Moreover, the ability of both alpha and beta toxins to modify channel gating has suggested that they interact, at least in part, with the voltage sensor module. Backed by this rationale and the available expression systems for both toxins (using E. coli) and Nav s (expressed either in frog oocytes or cultured cell lines) a molecular study of the interaction between the toxins and the channels has been established.

Systematic mutagenesis at extracellular loops that connect trans-membrane segments, highlighted channel regions that dictate toxin selectivity toward mammalian versus insect Nav s, as well as amino acid residues involved in channel sensitivity to the toxins [12,17,25-34]. Collectively, these findings enabled doublemutant cycle analyses and association/dissociation assays, which raised putative pairwise interactions between toxin and channel amino acid residues. Using the anti-mammalian toxin Lqh2 (from Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus) as a model of the alpha class, residues of the Core-domain have been suggested to interact with channel residues at the voltage sensing module of domain IV in the rat brain channel Nav 1.2a (Figure 2), thus providing a partial view of receptor sites 3 [12,32,35-39,]. Since the movements of S4 voltage sensor at domain IV have been implicated in the inactivation process of the channel [40,41], this mutational analysis substantiated at the molecular level the specific effect of scorpion alpha toxins on channel inactivation. Similar analyses using Css4 (from Centruroides sufussus sufussus) as a representative of the beta class have suggested putative pairwise interactions of amino acids at the toxin core and the voltage sensing module at domain II of Nav 1.2a (Figure 2) [12,36,37], rationalizing the specific effect of scorpion beta toxins on channel activation. Both studies raised the possibility of toxin interactions also with the Pore-module of the channel, although the supporting experimental evidence was less definitive [37,38].

Overall, this experimental approach offered an emerging view of receptor sites 3 and 4, but it also incited a confusing paradox that pertains to the dynamics of toxin binding and effects. Since one out of two channel regions that interact with the toxins is the cleft between segments S3 and S4 of the voltage sensor module [37-39], an evident question is how do the toxins sustain their grip over the channel during gating, when the S4 segments move outward and backward across the membrane? Assuming that the initial recognition and specificity of a toxin ligand is determined by complementary geometric shapes with the channel, does this interaction follow the ‘lock and key’ rules for protein-protein interactions, which were developed for enzymatic reactions [42], or is it a stepwise process that follows the principles of the ‘induced fit theory’ [43], where binding begins with recognition of complementary shapes and continues with molding of amino acid side-chains that strengthen the interaction? In assuming that the ‘induced fit theory’ provides a better description of the way toxins interact with Nav s, the question of what happens to the complex upon membrane depolarization, when the S4 segments move toward their outward activated state, remains unanswered.

Strong depolarizations might detach the toxin from its binding site [44-48], a scenario that not necessarily occurs under weak to moderate physiological changes in membrane potential. We may assume that the toxin accommodates to the conformational alterations by interaction with a different subset of channel residues at the voltage sensor module, or sustain its hold over the channel and avoid fall-off due to its interaction with the less labile Pore-module [49]. In any event, the toxin-channel interaction involves transient conformational intermediates of the channel, and therefore it seems at present that a comprehensive clarification of the way scorpion toxins interact with Nav s is more challenging than anticipated and likely requires determination of the structures of the channel-toxin intermediary complexes.


1. Catterall WA. Cellular and molecular biology of voltage-gated sodium channels. Physiol Rev. 1992; 72: 15-48.

2. Catterall WA, Cestèle S, Yarov-Yarovoy V, Yu FH, Konoki K, Scheuer T. Voltage-gated ion channels and gating modifier toxins. Toxicon. 2007; 49: 124-141.

3. Lacroix JJ, Pless SA, Maragliano L, Campos FV, Galpin JD, Ahern CA, et al. Intermediate state trapping of a voltage sensor. J Gen Physiol. 2012; 140: 635-652.

4. Jover E, Couraud F, Rochat H. Two types of scorpion neurotoxins characterized by their binding to two separate receptor sites on rat brain synaptosomes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1980; 95: 1607- 1614.

5. Possani LD, Becerril B, Delepierre M, Tytgat J. Scorpion toxins specific for Na+-channels. Eur J Biochem. 1999; 264: 287-300.

6. Cohen L, Ilan N, Gur M, Stühmer W, Gordon D, Gurevitz M. Design of a specific activator for skeletal muscle sodium channels uncovers channel architecture. J Biol Chem. 2007; 282: 29424-29430.

7. Gurevitz M, Karbat I, Cohen L, Ilan N, Kahn R, Turkov M, et al. The insecticidal potential of scorpion beta-toxins. Toxicon. 2007; 49: 473- 489.

8. Martin-Eauclaire MF, Couraud F. Scorpion neurotoxins: effects and mechanisms. 1995; 683-716.

9. Turkov M, Rashi S, Zilberberg N, Gordon D, Ben Khalifa R, Stankiewicz M, et al. In vitro folding and functional analysis of an anti-insect selective scorpion depressant neurotoxin produced in Escherichia coli. Protein Expr Purifi. 1997; 10: 123-131.

10. Gordon D. Sodium channels as targets for neurotoxins: mode of action and interaction of neurotoxins with receptor sites on sodium channels. 1997; 119-149.

11. Cestèle S, Qu Y, Rogers JC, Rochat H, Scheuer T, Catterall WA. Voltage sensor-trapping: enhanced activation of sodium channels by beta scorpion toxin bound to the S3-S4 loop in domain II. Neuron. 1998; 21: 919-931. 

12. Gilles N, Krimm I, Bouet F, Froy O, Gurevitz M, Lancelin JM, et al. Structural implications on the interaction of scorpion alpha-like toxins with the sodium channel receptor site inferred from toxin iodination and pH-dependent binding. J Neurochem. 2000; 75: 1735-1745.

13. Gurevitz M. Mapping of scorpion toxin receptor sites at voltage-gated sodium channels. Toxicon. 2012; 60: 502-511.

14. Gurevitz M, Zilberberg N. Advances in molecular genetics of scorpion neurotoxins. J Toxicol Toxin Rev. 1994; 13: 65-100.

15. Froy O, Zilberberg N, Gordon D, Turkov M, Gilles N, Stankiewicz M, et al. The putative bioactive surface of insect-selective scorpion excitatory neurotoxins. J Biol Chem. 1999; 274:5769-5776.

16. Zilberberg N, Froy O, Loret E, Cestele S, Arad D, Gordon D, et al. Identification of structural elements of a scorpion alpha-neurotoxin important for receptor site recognition. J Biol Chem. 1997; 272: 14810-14816.

17. Shao F, Xiong YM, Zhu RH, Ling MH, Chi CW, Wang DC. Expression and purification of the BmK M1 neurotoxin from the scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch. Protein Expr Purif. 1999; 17: 358-365.

18. Tugarinov V, Kustanovich I, Zilberberg N, Gurevitz M, Anglister J. Solution structures of a highly insecticidal recombinant scorpion alpha-toxin and a mutant with increased activity. Biochemistry. 1997; 36: 2414-2424.

19. Marcotte P, Chen LQ, Kallen RG, Chahine M. Effects of Tityus serrulatus scorpion toxin gamma on voltage-gated Na+ channels. Circ Res. 1997; 80: 363-369.

20. Oren DA, Froy O, Amit E, Kleinberger-Doron N, Gurevitz M, Shaanan B. An excitatory scorpion toxin with a distinctive feature: an additional alpha helix at the C terminus and its implications for interaction with insect sodium channels. Structure. 1998; 6: 1095-1103.

21. Wang CG, Gilles N, Hamon A, Le Gall F, Stankiewicz M, Pelhate M, et al. Exploration of the functional site of a scorpion alpha-like toxin by sitedirected mutagenesis. Biochemistry. 2003; 42: 4699-4708.

22. Cohen L, Karbat I, Gilles N, Froy O, Angelovici R, Gordon D, et al. Dissection of the functional surface of an anti-insect excitatory toxin illuminates a putative ‘hot spot’ common to all scorpion ?-toxins affecting Na+ channels. J Biol Chem. 2004; 279: 8206-8211.

23. Cohen L, Karbat I, Gilles N, Ilan N, Gordon D, Gurevitz M. Common features in the functional surface of scorpion beta-toxins and elements that confer specificity for insect and mammalian voltage-gated sodium channels. J Biol Chem. 2005; 280: 5045-5053.

24. Cohen L, Troub Y, Turkov M, Gilles N, Ilan N, Benveniste M, et al. Mammalian skeletal muscle voltage-gated sodium channels are affected by scorpion depressant ‘insect-selective’ toxins when preconditioned. Mol Pharmacol. 2007; 72: 1220-1227.

25. Cohen L, Lipstein N, Karbat I, Ilan N, Gilles N, Kahn R, et al. Miniaturization of scorpion beta-toxins uncovers a putative ancestral surface of interaction with voltage-gated Na-channels. J Biol Chem. 2008; 283:15169-15176.

26. Strugatsky D, Zilberberg N, Stankiewicz M, Ilan N, Turkov M, Cohen L, et al. Genetic polymorphism and expression of a highly potent scorpion depressant toxin enables refinement of the effects on insect Na-channels and illuminates the key role of Asn-58. Biochemistry. 2005; 44: 9179-9187.

27. Karbat I, Frolow F, Froy O, Gilles N, Cohen L, Turkov M, et al. Molecular basis of the high insecticidal potency of scorpion alpha-toxins. J Biol Chem. 2004; 279: 31679-31686.

28. Karbat I, Cohen L, Gilles N, Gordon D, Gurevitz M. Conversion of a scorpion toxin agonist into an antagonist highlights an acidic residue involved in voltage sensor trapping during activation of neuronal Na+ channels. FASEB J. 2004; 18: 683-689.

29. Karbat I, Turkov M, Cohen L, Kahn R, Gordon D, Gurevitz M, et al. X-ray structure and mutagenesis of the scorpion depressant toxin LqhIT2 reveals key determinants crucial for activity and anti-insect selectivity. J Mol Biol. 2007; 366: 586-601.

30. Karbat I, Ilan N, Zhang JZ, Cohen L, Kahn R, Benveniste M, et al. Partial agonist and antagonist activities of a mutant scorpion beta-toxin on sodium channels. J Biol Chem. 2010; 285: 30531-30538.

31. Leipold E, Lu S, Gordon D, Hansel A, Heinemann SH. Combinatorial interaction of scorpion toxins Lqh-2, Lqh-3, and LqhalphaIT with sodium channel receptor sites-3. Mol Pharmacol. 2004; 65: 685-691.

32. Leipold E, Hansel A, Borges A, Heinemann SH. Subtype specificity of scorpion beta-toxin Tz1 interaction with voltage-gated sodium channels is determined by the pore loop of domain 3. Mol Pharmacol. 2006; 70: 340-347.

33. Schnur E, Turkov M, Kahn R, Gordon D, Gurevitz M, Anglister J. NMR analysis of interaction of LqhalphaIT scorpion toxin with a peptide corresponding to the D4/S3-S4 loop of insect para voltage-gated sodium channel. Biochemistry. 2008; 47: 911-921.

34. Kahn R, Karbat I, Ilan N, Cohen L, Gordon D, Gurevitz M. Molecular requirements for specific recognition of brain voltage-gated sodium channels by scorpion alpha-toxins. J Biol Chem. 2009; 284, 20684- 20691.

35. Song W, Du Y, Liu Z, Luo N, Turkov M, Gordon D, et al. Substitutions in the domain III voltage-sensing module enhance the sensitivity of an insect sodium channel to a scorpion beta-toxin. J Biol Chem. 2011; 286: 15781-15788.

36. Rogers JC, Qu Y, Tanada TN, Scheuer T, Catterall WA. Molecular determinants of high affinity binding of alpha-scorpion toxin and sea anemone toxin in the S3-S4 extracellular loop in domain IV of the Na+ channel alpha subunit. J Biol Chem. 1996; 271: 15950-15962.

37. Gordon D, Gurevitz M. The selectivity of scorpion alpha-toxins for sodium channel subtypes is determined by subtle variations at the interacting surface. Toxicon. 2003; 41: 125-128.

38. Zhang JZ, Yarov-Yarovoy V, Scheuer T, Karbat I, Cohen L, Gordon D, et al. Structure-function map of the receptor site for β-scorpion toxins in domain II of voltage-gated sodium channels. J Biol Chem. 2011; 286: 33641-33651.

39. Zhang JZ, Yarov-Yarovoy V, Scheuer T, Karbat I, Cohen L, Gordon D, et al. Mapping the interaction site for a β-scorpion toxin in the pore module of domain III of voltage-gated Na (+) channels. J Biol Chem. 2012; 287: 30719-30728.

40. Gur M, Kahn R, Karbat I, Regev N, Wang J, Catterall WA, et al. Elucidation of the molecular basis of selective recognition uncovers the interaction site for the core domain of scorpion alpha-toxins on sodium channels. J Biol Chem. 2011; 286: 35209-35217.

41. Wang J, Yarov-Yarovoy V, Kahn R, Gordon D, Gurevitz M, Scheuer T, et al. Mapping the receptor site for alpha-scorpion toxins on a Na+ channel voltage sensor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2011; 108: 15426- 15431.

42. Campos FV, Chanda B, Beirão PS, Bezanilla F. Alpha-scorpion toxin impairs a conformational change that leads to fast inactivation of muscle sodium channels. J Gen Physiol. 2008; 132: 251-263.

43. Ma Z, Kong J, Gordon D, Gurevitz M, Kallen RG. Direct evidence that scorpion a-toxins (site-3) modulate sodium channel inactivation by hindrance of voltage-sensor movements. PLoS One. 2013; 8: 77758.

44. Fischer E. Effect of Configuration on the action of enzymes [Influence of configuration on the action of enzymes]. Reports of the German Chemical Society in Berlin. 1894; 27: 2985-2993.

45. Koshland DE. Application of a Theory of Enzyme Specificity to Protein Synthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1958; 44: 98-104.

46. Gordon D, Karbat I, Ilan N, Cohen L, Kahn R, Gilles N, et al. The differential preference of scorpion alpha-toxins for insect or mammalian sodium channels: implications for improved insect control. Toxicon. 2007; 49: 452-472.

47. Cestèle S, Yarov-Yarovoy V, Qu Y, Sampieri F, Scheuer T, Catterall WA. Structure and function of the voltage sensor of sodium channels probed by a beta-scorpion toxin. J Biol Chem. 2006; 281: 21332- 21344.

48. Froy O, Gurevitz M. Membrane potential modulators: a thread of scarlet from plants to humans. FASEB J. 1998; 12: 1793-1796.

49. Froy O, Sagiv T, Poreh M, Urbach D, Zilberberg N, Gurevitz M. Dynamic diversification from a putative common progenitor of scorpion toxins affecting sodium, potassium and chloride channels. J Mol Evol. 1997; 48: 187-196


Gurevitz M, Gueta HA (2016) The Paradox of Scorpion Toxin Interactions with Portable Nav Receptors. JSM Chem 4(2): 1023.

Received : 05 Apr 2016
Accepted : 19 May 2016
Published : 23 May 2016
Annals of Otolaryngology and Rhinology
ISSN : 2379-948X
Launched : 2014
JSM Schizophrenia
Launched : 2016
Journal of Nausea
Launched : 2020
JSM Internal Medicine
Launched : 2016
JSM Hepatitis
Launched : 2016
JSM Oro Facial Surgeries
ISSN : 2578-3211
Launched : 2016
Journal of Human Nutrition and Food Science
ISSN : 2333-6706
Launched : 2013
JSM Regenerative Medicine and Bioengineering
ISSN : 2379-0490
Launched : 2013
JSM Spine
ISSN : 2578-3181
Launched : 2016
Archives of Palliative Care
ISSN : 2573-1165
Launched : 2016
JSM Nutritional Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3203
Launched : 2017
Annals of Neurodegenerative Disorders
ISSN : 2476-2032
Launched : 2016
Journal of Fever
ISSN : 2641-7782
Launched : 2017
JSM Bone Marrow Research
ISSN : 2578-3351
Launched : 2016
JSM Mathematics and Statistics
ISSN : 2578-3173
Launched : 2014
Journal of Autoimmunity and Research
ISSN : 2573-1173
Launched : 2014
JSM Arthritis
ISSN : 2475-9155
Launched : 2016
JSM Head and Neck Cancer-Cases and Reviews
ISSN : 2573-1610
Launched : 2016
JSM General Surgery Cases and Images
ISSN : 2573-1564
Launched : 2016
JSM Anatomy and Physiology
ISSN : 2573-1262
Launched : 2016
JSM Dental Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1548
Launched : 2016
Annals of Emergency Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1017
Launched : 2016
Annals of Mens Health and Wellness
ISSN : 2641-7707
Launched : 2017
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Health Care
ISSN : 2576-0084
Launched : 2018
Journal of Chronic Diseases and Management
ISSN : 2573-1300
Launched : 2016
Annals of Vaccines and Immunization
ISSN : 2378-9379
Launched : 2014
JSM Heart Surgery Cases and Images
ISSN : 2578-3157
Launched : 2016
Annals of Reproductive Medicine and Treatment
ISSN : 2573-1092
Launched : 2016
JSM Brain Science
ISSN : 2573-1289
Launched : 2016
JSM Biomarkers
ISSN : 2578-3815
Launched : 2014
JSM Biology
ISSN : 2475-9392
Launched : 2016
Archives of Stem Cell and Research
ISSN : 2578-3580
Launched : 2014
Annals of Clinical and Medical Microbiology
ISSN : 2578-3629
Launched : 2014
JSM Pediatric Surgery
ISSN : 2578-3149
Launched : 2017
Journal of Memory Disorder and Rehabilitation
ISSN : 2578-319X
Launched : 2016
JSM Tropical Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2578-3165
Launched : 2016
JSM Head and Face Medicine
ISSN : 2578-3793
Launched : 2016
JSM Cardiothoracic Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1297
Launched : 2016
JSM Bone and Joint Diseases
ISSN : 2578-3351
Launched : 2017
JSM Bioavailability and Bioequivalence
ISSN : 2641-7812
Launched : 2017
JSM Atherosclerosis
ISSN : 2573-1270
Launched : 2016
Journal of Genitourinary Disorders
ISSN : 2641-7790
Launched : 2017
Journal of Fractures and Sprains
ISSN : 2578-3831
Launched : 2016
Journal of Autism and Epilepsy
ISSN : 2641-7774
Launched : 2016
Annals of Marine Biology and Research
ISSN : 2573-105X
Launched : 2014
JSM Health Education & Primary Health Care
ISSN : 2578-3777
Launched : 2016
JSM Communication Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3807
Launched : 2016
Annals of Musculoskeletal Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3599
Launched : 2016
Annals of Virology and Research
ISSN : 2573-1122
Launched : 2014
JSM Renal Medicine
ISSN : 2573-1637
Launched : 2016
Journal of Muscle Health
ISSN : 2578-3823
Launched : 2016
JSM Genetics and Genomics
ISSN : 2334-1823
Launched : 2013
JSM Anxiety and Depression
ISSN : 2475-9139
Launched : 2016
Clinical Journal of Heart Diseases
ISSN : 2641-7766
Launched : 2016
Annals of Medicinal Chemistry and Research
ISSN : 2378-9336
Launched : 2014
JSM Pain and Management
ISSN : 2578-3378
Launched : 2016
JSM Women's Health
ISSN : 2578-3696
Launched : 2016
Clinical Research in HIV or AIDS
ISSN : 2374-0094
Launched : 2013
Journal of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity
ISSN : 2333-6692
Launched : 2013
Journal of Substance Abuse and Alcoholism
ISSN : 2373-9363
Launched : 2013
JSM Neurosurgery and Spine
ISSN : 2373-9479
Launched : 2013
Journal of Liver and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2379-0830
Launched : 2014
Journal of Drug Design and Research
ISSN : 2379-089X
Launched : 2014
JSM Clinical Oncology and Research
ISSN : 2373-938X
Launched : 2013
JSM Bioinformatics, Genomics and Proteomics
ISSN : 2576-1102
Launched : 2014
Journal of Trauma and Care
ISSN : 2573-1246
Launched : 2014
JSM Surgical Oncology and Research
ISSN : 2578-3688
Launched : 2016
Annals of Food Processing and Preservation
ISSN : 2573-1033
Launched : 2016
Journal of Radiology and Radiation Therapy
ISSN : 2333-7095
Launched : 2013
JSM Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
ISSN : 2578-3572
Launched : 2016
Annals of Clinical Pathology
ISSN : 2373-9282
Launched : 2013
Annals of Cardiovascular Diseases
ISSN : 2641-7731
Launched : 2016
Journal of Behavior
ISSN : 2576-0076
Launched : 2016
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Metabolism
ISSN : 2572-2492
Launched : 2016
Clinical Research in Infectious Diseases
ISSN : 2379-0636
Launched : 2013
JSM Microbiology
ISSN : 2333-6455
Launched : 2013
Journal of Urology and Research
ISSN : 2379-951X
Launched : 2014
Journal of Family Medicine and Community Health
ISSN : 2379-0547
Launched : 2013
Annals of Pregnancy and Care
ISSN : 2578-336X
Launched : 2017
JSM Cell and Developmental Biology
ISSN : 2379-061X
Launched : 2013
Annals of Aquaculture and Research
ISSN : 2379-0881
Launched : 2014
Clinical Research in Pulmonology
ISSN : 2333-6625
Launched : 2013
Journal of Immunology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2333-6714
Launched : 2013
Annals of Forensic Research and Analysis
ISSN : 2378-9476
Launched : 2014
JSM Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
ISSN : 2333-7109
Launched : 2013
Annals of Breast Cancer Research
ISSN : 2641-7685
Launched : 2016
Annals of Gerontology and Geriatric Research
ISSN : 2378-9409
Launched : 2014
Journal of Sleep Medicine and Disorders
ISSN : 2379-0822
Launched : 2014
JSM Burns and Trauma
ISSN : 2475-9406
Launched : 2016
Chemical Engineering and Process Techniques
ISSN : 2333-6633
Launched : 2013
Annals of Clinical Cytology and Pathology
ISSN : 2475-9430
Launched : 2014
JSM Allergy and Asthma
ISSN : 2573-1254
Launched : 2016
Journal of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
ISSN : 2334-2307
Launched : 2013
Annals of Sports Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2379-0571
Launched : 2014
JSM Sexual Medicine
ISSN : 2578-3718
Launched : 2016
Annals of Vascular Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2378-9344
Launched : 2014
JSM Biotechnology and Biomedical Engineering
ISSN : 2333-7117
Launched : 2013
Journal of Hematology and Transfusion
ISSN : 2333-6684
Launched : 2013
JSM Environmental Science and Ecology
ISSN : 2333-7141
Launched : 2013
Journal of Cardiology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2333-6676
Launched : 2013
JSM Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine
ISSN : 2334-1815
Launched : 2013
Journal of Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders
ISSN : 2475-9473
Launched : 2016
JSM Ophthalmology
ISSN : 2333-6447
Launched : 2013
Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Toxicology
ISSN : 2333-7079
Launched : 2013
Annals of Psychiatry and Mental Health
ISSN : 2374-0124
Launched : 2013
Medical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
ISSN : 2333-6439
Launched : 2013
Annals of Pediatrics and Child Health
ISSN : 2373-9312
Launched : 2013
JSM Clinical Pharmaceutics
ISSN : 2379-9498
Launched : 2014
JSM Foot and Ankle
ISSN : 2475-9112
Launched : 2016
JSM Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementia
ISSN : 2378-9565
Launched : 2014
Journal of Addiction Medicine and Therapy
ISSN : 2333-665X
Launched : 2013
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2378-931X
Launched : 2013
Annals of Public Health and Research
ISSN : 2378-9328
Launched : 2014
Annals of Orthopedics and Rheumatology
ISSN : 2373-9290
Launched : 2013
Journal of Clinical Nephrology and Research
ISSN : 2379-0652
Launched : 2014
Annals of Community Medicine and Practice
ISSN : 2475-9465
Launched : 2014
Annals of Biometrics and Biostatistics
ISSN : 2374-0116
Launched : 2013
JSM Clinical Case Reports
ISSN : 2373-9819
Launched : 2013
Journal of Cancer Biology and Research
ISSN : 2373-9436
Launched : 2013
Journal of Surgery and Transplantation Science
ISSN : 2379-0911
Launched : 2013
Journal of Dermatology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2373-9371
Launched : 2013
JSM Gastroenterology and Hepatology
ISSN : 2373-9487
Launched : 2013
Annals of Nursing and Practice
ISSN : 2379-9501
Launched : 2014
JSM Dentistry
ISSN : 2333-7133
Launched : 2013
Author Information X