Journal of Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders

Screening and Monitoring of Pharmacotherapy-Induced Ototoxicity in Patients at Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital

Research Article | Open Access

  • 1. Department of Pharmacy, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University, South Africa
  • 2. Discipline of Speech and Language Pathology and Audiology, SefakoMakgatho Health Sciences University, South Africa
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Corresponding Authors
Yolandé van Aswegen, Department of Pharmacy, SefakoMakgatho Health Sciences University, PO Box 8437, Centurion, Pretoria, 0046, South Africa, Tel: 083- 324-8483

Pharmacotherapy-induced ototoxicity is a growing problem as highly effective and low-cost drugs are prescribed without the necessary monitoring being done. This study was done to identify and describe medicines with the potential to cause ototoxicity as part of treatment regimens. This study describes the type of ototoxicity caused and the prevalence of ototoxicity in this study population. Participants already on treatment with potential ototoxic medicine and newly initiated participants were referred to the ototoxicity clinic. Both adult and paediatric patients were included in the study. Screening of the patients’ current treatment regimen with subsequent identification of medicines was done prospectively by the pharmacist and the audiological evaluations were done by audiologists. Fifty-two patients were enrolled in the study, and all of these patients’ treatment regimens included one or more ototoxic agent. Irreversible cochleotoxicity in the high and lower frequencies were seen in the majority of patients treated with aminoglycosides and in patients treated with platinum compounds, although mostly in the high frequencies. High-frequency hearing loss, both reversible and irreversible, was also identified in patients treated with loop diuretics. Hearing loss in the high frequencies occurred in almost two thirds of the study population. This study highlights the need for a clinical pharmacist, together with an audiologist, functioning within a multi-disciplinary team, as well as the implementation of ototoxicity monitoring programs in South Africa.


van Aswegen Y, Schellack N, Gous AGS, Ehlert K, Wium AM (2016) Screening and Monitoring of Pharmacotherapy-Induced Ototoxicity in Patients at Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital. J Ear Nose Throat Disord 1(1): 1010.


•    Pharmacotherapy-induced ototoxicity
•    Pharmacological ototoxicity monitoring
•    Audiological ototoxicity monitoring


Specific attention should be paid to high risk-patients treated with ototoxic medications. Such patients include those with multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), patients with renal failure [1], oncology patients [2] and neonates with severe infections or sepsis, treated in the neonatal intensive care unit [3]. Hearing loss in an individual can lead to poor communication and social isolation such as academic and occupational difficulties [4]. This highlights the need for establishing and implementing ototoxicity monitoring programmes in public and private sector hospitals in Gauteng, South Africa [5].

Ototoxicity is defined as “the tendency of certain substances, either systemic or topical, to cause functional impairment and cellular damage to the tissues of the inner ear and especially to the end organs of the cochlear and vestibular divisions of the eighth cranial nerve” [6]. Reference to the term ‘ototoxicity’ refers to both cochleo- and/or vestibulotoxicity. Ototoxicity can start with damage to the basal region of the cochlea, where the higher frequency sounds are coded, and the damage can further progress to the apex of the cochlea, where the lower frequency sounds are coded [7]. Hearing loss as a result of ototoxicity may be reversible or irreversible, depending on the type of ototoxic medicine being used for the treatment regimen of the patient. Examples of drugs causing irreversible hearing loss are aminoglycosides and platinum compounds (e. g. cisplatin). The loop diuretics, salicylates and NSAIDs cause reversible hearing loss [8]. However, evidence exists that suggests permanent hearing loss results from the use of loop diuretics [9].

Hearing problems can start within minutes to several days after the administration of an ototoxic drug, or it can only start presenting several years after the treatment [5]. Early detection of ototoxic damage can improve the treatment outcome through minimizing hearing loss progression and by counselling and rehabilitation of the patient [10]. The standard protocol for ototoxicity monitoring is baseline and serial measurements of pure tone hearing thresholds within the 250 to 8000Hz frequency range. However, extended high frequency (EHF) pure tone thresholds (9000 - 16000Hz) as well as evoked otoacoustic emissions (OAE’s) are more sensitive to initial ototoxic damage and detects changes in auditory function before ototoxicity affects hearing that is important for speech discrimination [11,12]. Tympanometry, for the evaluation of the middle ear function, is often needed to confirm site of lesion when OAE’s are affected [13].

Pharmacists play an important role in the screening and monitoring of pharmacotherapy-induced ototoxicity by identifying and monitoring ototoxic agents in patients’ treatment regimens and informing the treating physician and audiologist about the ototoxic medicine’s characteristics. They can also perform therapeutic drug monitoring to reduce the occurrence of ototoxicity if applicable and where necessary [9]. Audiologists, in turn, has an important role and responsibility to inform and counsel patients on their hearing status and to inform the rest of the multidisciplinary team about any changes in patients’ hearing [9].


The study aimed to describe audiological findings in patients that were exposed to medicines that were potentially ototoxic. The process included the screening and monitoring of patients who are at risk for hearing loss because of such treatment regimens.

Study design

A prospective, observational study design was followed, with descriptive research analysis. Screening of the participants’ current treatment regimen was done by the pharmacist and the audiological testing was done by the audiologist.

Study site

Ambulant participants were tested at the Skills laboratory of a higher education institution, or alternatively in the Department Speech Therapy and Audiology at the tertiary hospital. Patients who were in the hospital and who were too sick to walk were tested in the ward.

Study population and sampling

The participants who were included in the study were those who were referred to the ototoxicity clinic, by health care professionals, who were already on treatment with potential ototoxic medicine, or those who were initiated on ototoxic treatment regimens. Patients initiated on any potentially ototoxic medicine, as outlined in the literature review, were included and indicated on a designed checklist for each individual participant (refer to Appendix A). Both adult (19 – 65 years) and paediatric patients (0 – 18 years) including neonates, were involved in the study. Patients who were excluded were those, who after an otoscopic examination, were found to have unilateral/bilateral/ partially impacted cerumen.

Data collection

At the clinic the participant or the parent/caregiver was provided with a participant information leaflet. The pharmacist screened the participant’s prescription and assessed the risk of reversible and/or irreversible ototoxicity. Patients’ history was taken of previous exposure to ototoxic medicine by screening patients’ files for previous prescriptions of ototoxic medicine. An audiological history was taken by the audiologist with a questionnaire, regarding previous hearing injuries or complaints or family history. The standard protocol for ototoxicity measuring could not be followed. Baseline measurements were not possible as participants had started taking the ototoxic medicines when monitoring was initiated. Furthermore, diagnostic pure tone thresholds were not possible as testing took place in the wards and reliable equipment for diagnostic testing is not mobile. DPOAE’s are especially valuable in monitoring ototoxicity in very young children who may not consistently provide reliable behavioural testing results. The measurement of DPOAE’s is objective and non-invasive and does not require active participation. The audiological evaluation conducted by the audiologist therefore included otoscopic evaluation, tympanometry and diagnostic distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) testing with frequencies of up to 8000 Hz. All equipment was checked and calibration was confirmed by the audiologist. The results of the evaluation, together with suitable recommendations were presented in a combined report compiled by both the pharmacist and the audiologist. . Follow-up evaluations were requested where necessary.

Ethical considerations

Ethical consent was obtained from the relevant statutory parties, including the Research and Ethics Committee from the tertiary institution (MREC/H/101/2013: PG). An information leaflet was provided to all participants and informed consent was obtained. Informed assent was obtained from older children above seven years of age, and consent was obtained from the parents or caregivers. Adequate translators were used in cases where English could not be understood by participants, parents or caregivers.



During the study period of eight months, 52 participants were enrolled in the study, with a total of 88 participant visits. Each participant had an average of 1. 7 visits to the clinic as participants could be evaluated more than once at the clinic, depending on their specific treatment regimen.

Patient Age

The total participant population (n=52) consisted of 30 (58%) adults and 22 (42%) paediatric participants, which included ten neonates, as illustrated in Figure A.

The mean age for participants in the paediatric population was 6.23 years (SD; 4.18), neonates six days (SD; 3. 8), and adults were 42.17 years old (SD; 10.59). A breakdown of the various groups is reflected in Table 1.

Ototoxicity related to age

Of the total study population 13 paediatric participants (59%, n=22) and 22 adult participants (73%; n=30) presented with a hearing deficit. There was no statistically significant difference (p = 0. 402; Fisher exact method) in the number of participants that presented with hearing deficits, as differentiated by age groups; this is illustrated by Figure B.

Participant Gender

Of the 52 participants enrolled in the study, 22 (42.3%; n=52) were female and the remaining 30 (57.7%; n=52) were male. Female participants consisted of 13 adults, five paediatric participants and four neonates. The male participants consisted of 17 adults, seven paediatric participants and six neonates (refer to Figure C). No statistically significant difference (p = 1.000; Fisher exact method) was found between the two genders.

Ototoxicity related to gender

Figure D illustrates hearing deficits in the male and the female population respectively. Slightly more male participants (18; 60%; n=30) presented with a hearing deficit than female participants, who were17 (77. 3%; n=22). There was no statistically significant difference (p = 0. 240; Fisher exact method) in hearing deficits between the male and female population.


Organ systems affected and diagnoses made are referred to as participant visits. The researcher checked diagnoses at every participant visit. Diagnoses can also affect hearing ability. The organ system mostly affected during this study was the neoplasms (C00-D49), with 37 (42%; n=88) participants visits. All of these participants were evaluated more than once. Other organ systems affected were those involved in diseases related to the genitourinary system 28 (32%; n=88); conditions originating during the perinatal period 19 (21. 6%; n=88); and certain infections and parasitic diseases. The different organ systems affected during the study period is illustrated in Figure E.

Diagnoses most commonly encountered during this study were chronic kidney disease with 28 (32%, n=88) participant visits, osteosarcoma with 14 (16%, n=88) participant visits, retinoblastoma with nine (10%, n=88) participant visits, nephroblastoma and primitive neuro-ectodermal tumour, with seven (8%, n=88) participant visits each.

Medication related to ototoxicity

Figure F, indicates the prescribing patterns of ototoxic medication in this specific study population. The medication was reviewed during each participant visit; henceforth referred to as participant visits.

The pharmacological classes that were mostly identified as part of the prescribing patterns of ototoxic medicines during the data collection process were: aminoglycosides with 22 participant visits (25%; n=88), platinum compounds with 18 participant visits (20. 5%; n=88) and loop diuretics with 28 participant visits (32%; n=88).

Table 2 provides information on the route of administration, the mean daily dose (DD) with the minimum and maximum dose of each ototoxic drug, and the mean duration of treatment (DOT) of the ototoxic drugs. Amikacin was the most often prescribed agent, with a mean DD of 133. 1mg IV in one adult and 13 paediatric patient visits and 750mg IM in one adult patient visit and a mean DOT of 5.3 days for the participants that received IV amikacin, and 180 days for the participant receiving IM amikacin. Macrolide antibiotics, i. e. erythromycin had a mean DD of 2000mg IV and a mean DOT of five days for one adult patient visit. Vancomycin had a mean DD of 1000mg IV and a mean DOT of seven days in one adult patient visit. Although vincristine was the most often prescribed antineoplastic agent, with a mean DD of 0.9mg IV and a mean DOT of 1.2 days in 10 paediatric patient visits, cisplatin resulted in more cases of hearing loss, with a mean DD of 123mg IV and a mean DOT of only one day in nine paediatric patient visits. Furosemide, a loop diuretic, had a mean DD of 232.7mg per mouth and a mean DOT of 1092.4 days. The long duration of treatment with loop diuretics was due to chronic renal failure. The antimalarial, quinine, had a mean DD of 900mg IV and a mean DOT of 5 days in one paediatric patient visit.

Number of ototoxic medicines per participant

The majority of participants (38; 73. 1%; n=52) were treated with only one ototoxic agent and 12 (23.1%; n=52) participants were treated with two ototoxic agents. One (1.9%; n=52) participant was treated with three and another one (1.9%; n=52) was treated with four ototoxic agents, as illustrated in Figure G.

Incidence of pharmacotherapy-induced ototoxicity

Figure H illustrates the effect of the medicine on hearing for the 88 patient visits for the 52 participants.

Of the 21 participants treated with aminoglycosides, 13 (61.9%) participants presented with decreased DPOAE’s bilaterally. Of these 13 participants cochlear damage was mostly seen in high frequencies (4000 – 8000Hz) in five neonates who received IV amikacin, in three paediatric participants who received IV amikacin or gentamicin and in three of the five adults who received IV amikacin or gentamicin. The other two adult MDR-TB participants received IM amikacin or streptomycin and a decrease in DPOAE’s was noticed at all frequencies. One participant treated with IV macrolides and IV glycopeptides presented with measurable DPOAE’s within normal limits when either of the two agentswere taken. Overall 11 paediatric participants were treated with IV platinum compounds of which seven (63.6%) presented with cochleotoxicity, especially at the higher frequencies (4000 – 8000Hz) as decreased DPOAE’s were measured bilaterally. The results showed that from those participants who were treated with vinca-alkaloids (n=6) and with nitrogen mustard-analogues (n=3), there were four (66.7%; n=6) and two (66.7%; n=3) participants respectively who presented with decreased DPOAE’s, which indicated cochlear damage in the high frequencies (4000 – 8000Hz). Loop diuretics were administered to the adult participants (n=27) mostly orally, apart for one participants who received IV furosemide. Of the 28 participants, there were 19 (67.9%) who presented with decreased DPOAE’s and cochleotoxicity. Hearing loss was mostly observed in the high frequencies (4000 – 8000Hz), although in eight of the 19 participants (42%)the lower frequencies seem to have been affected (500 - <4000Hz). In the single paediatric participant who was treated intravenously with the antimalarial quinine, presented with decreased DPOAE’s, with cochleototoxicity observed only at 8000Hz.

Pharmacist and Audiologist interventions and recommendations

Most of the interventions and recommendations made by the pharmacist included the monitoring and screening of patients when they were identified as being treated with an ototoxic medication (19; 36.5%; n=52), or when treated with a combination of ototoxic agents (8; 15.4%; n=52). Patients were re-evaluated according to their specific treatment regimen (20; 38.5%; n=52). The discontinuation of ototoxic medicine was suggested for two patients (3.8%; n=52). Six patients (11.5%; n=52) were referred for diagnostic audiological evaluations. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) was initiated with peak and trough levels in four patients (7. 8%; n=52), of whom one patient (1.9%; n=52) was treated with vancomycin. The other hree patients (5.8%; n=52) were treated with amikacin of whom one had inconclusive results, and in another only the trough level was obtained and no calculations could be done. The last patient’s dose was calculated correctly and increased. More than one intervention (range: 1–3) could be made per patient.

Table 1: Mean values and ranges of age groups.

  Mean Minimum Maximum
Neonates 6 days 2 days 12 days
Paediatric 6.34 years 1.08 years 14 years
Adults 42.17 years 19 years 65 years



Demographics and demographics related to ototoxicity

The study population consisted of more adult (58%) than paediatric participants. The neonatal population was included in the paediatric population. Half (50%) of the neonates included in the paediatric population presented with decreased DPOAE’s at frequencies of 4000-6000Hz. Hearing loss in these frequencies affect speech discrimination and therefore will have a detrimental effect on children’s language development and learning abilities [14]. All of the neonates included in this study were treated with amikacin for at least five days. Such results are contrary to previous research [15] which reported the incidence of aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity in neonates as only 2%, although this could have been influenced by other factors. These include underlying diseases and severe infections, including birth asphyxia, hypoxia, neonatal sepsis, and prematurity, which are known indicators of high risk for dysfunction of the auditory pathway [16].

Two-thirds of the paediatric population (66. 7%) in this study, excluding the neonates, presented with decreased or absent DPOAE’s. Most of these paediatric participants were treated with platinum compounds. Children who have an increased risk of ototoxicity include those who are younger than the age of five years, those with renal dysfunction and with concomitant treatment of more than one ototoxic agent [11]. Although a few studies stated that children of a younger age are at a higher risk of developing ototoxicity from treatment with platinum compounds than the adult population [17,18], these also stated that all adult participants may experience a progression of hearing loss over time and this may relate to other hearing insults or presbycusis [18,19]. Even though the majority of the adult population (73%) in this study had some form of cochleotoxicity, literature stated that hearing loss is more detrimental in children than in adults because of the effect on their social, language and academic development [20].

Slightly more males (57.7%) than female participants were admitted to the study. The results showed a higher prevalence (77.3%) of hearing impairment in the female population, which was not statistically significant. Previous research [18] with humans, however, found males to be four times more likely to develop hearing loss than the females.


Chronic conditions, such as chronic kidney disease and various neoplasms were the most common diagnoses during the patient visits. There are a number of studies supporting the relationship between chronic kidney disease and toxicity with furosemide [21]. Diagnoses seen in cancer participants in this study relates to common diagnoses seen in literature [11]. Only a few participants with MDR-TB were evaluated during this study period, as Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital is not a referral treatment center. Patients with MDR-TB need expert monitoring of therapy and should therefore be managed in specialized centers [22].

Medicine related to ototoxicity

The ototoxic medications mostly prescribed in this study were the aminoglycosides (25%), the platinum compounds (20.5%) and the loop diuretics (32%), which are in accordance to the ototoxic medication that have been studied and described most in literature[15,21,23,24], refer to Appendix A.

Aminoglycosides were given intravenously for three to five days, and intramuscularly for nine to 180 days. Participants that received aminoglycoside therapy for a period of more than five days (n=12) with mean doses of amikacin at 133.1mg IV, gentamicin 87. 1mg IV and streptomycin 750mg IM, showed weaker responses in audiological evaluations, especially in the high frequencies (4000-8000Hz) as tested with OAEs. MDRTB participants (n=2) that were treated with high doses of aminoglycosides (750mg daily) for long periods of time (180 days) showed a cochleotoxicity at all emissions and at all frequencies. Literature states that aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity is more likely to occur with higher dosages, high blood concentration levels, or prolonged duration of therapy [15,25], which correlates well with the results found in this study. No cochleotoxicity was observed in participants treated with erythromycin 2000mg IV for five days or with vancomycin 1000mg IV for seven days.

Paediatric participants were the only participants treated with intravenous platinum compounds (mean dose of cisplatin 123mg or carboplatin 212.3mg) in this study. They presented with decreased DPOAE’s, mostly in the high frequencies after one to two doses in almost every cycle of treatment. Such results correlates well with previous research [15] where cumulative and high dosages of platinum compounds were found to be factors indicating a high risk for cochleotoxicity in the high frequencies first, then the lower frequencies with higher or cumulative dosages [26]. Even though ototoxicity in children is poorly described, studies have shown that because the effects on hearing is often permanent it can have a significant impact on a child’s social development, understanding of language and production of speech, academic achievements and quality of life [20]. Although literature states that both vinca-alkaloids and nitrogen mustard analogues are ototoxic [27], all of the participants’ treatment regimens that included either one of these two agents, included a platinum compound as well. Thus, the cochleotoxicity noticed in these participants cannot be directly related to either one of these two classes on its own, but rather to the combination of ototoxic agents in the treatment regimens. All the participants treated with loop diuretics received furosemide orally, except for one patient who received it IV. It was noted that the participants treated with furosemide mostly presented with cochleotoxicity in the high frequencies when on treatment for five years or longer and when on very high dosages of 250mg to 500mg daily. These findings correlate with literature stating that high-dose (≥240mg) oral furosemide therapy has been associated with ototoxicity [21]. The participants that presented with cochleotoxicity in the lower frequencies might have been due to previous exposure to other ototoxic agents (e. g. aminoglycosides, salicylates) as indicated in literature [20]. The patient treated with intravenous quinine 900mg presented with cochleotoxicity in the high frequencies after five days of treatment, which is in accordance with literature indicating that hearing loss usually appears in the high frequencies and is reversible [28].

The number of ototoxic agents per patient (range: 1–4) is indicative of individual variability in susceptibility to ototoxicity of different ototoxic agents. Ototoxicity should thus be monitored for each individual patient due to the fact of individual variability in susceptibility in ototoxicity [11], especially for participants who may present with ototoxicity presumably due to genetic predisposition for aminoglycosides [29].

Incidence of pharmacotherapy-induced ototocixicity

The incidence of hearing impairment in participants treated with aminoglycosides (61.9%) is higher as compared to literature which states that hearing loss varies between a few percent up to 33% [3,30]. Platinum compound-induced hearing impairment showed a prevalence (63.6%) that was equal to what was described in literature (22-70%) [18]. Although the data suggesting the incidence of furosemide-induced hearing impairment is poor and it only suggests a low incidence, the prevalence of furosemide-induced hearing impairment was much higher (73.1%) in this study population than what was described in literature [21]. This might be due to patients on treatment with furosemide for extended periods of time due to chronic kidney disease. Comparing the one patient in this study population that was treated with quinine to the literature available on quinineinduced hearing impairment [28] does not reflect a reliable correlation. Vestibulotoxicity could not be tested as some of the participants were not ambulant.

Pharmacist and Audiologist interventions and recommendations

Interventions and recommendations most commonly made by the pharmacist focused on the monitoring and screening of patients on ototoxic medication; these interventions included discontinuation or referral. TDM was done successfully in only one patient where dosage adjustments were made, the other three patients had inconclusive results thus no interventions could be made [9]. Interventions by the audiologist included counseling patients on their hearing status and further diagnostic audiological evaluations and interventions if necessary. Such monitoring of patients with ototoxicity by the pharmacist as well as the audiologist was previously described in literature [9].

Limitations and challenges

The referral rate from physicians for ototoxicity monitoring was low as this study was done prospectively and the ototoxicity clinic was a new initiative. The audiology equipment used in this study was noise sensitive, which made audiological evaluations to be challenging, especially when testing was done in the wards where there was a lot of background noise. Pure tone measurements could not be performed due to limitations in mobility of diagnostic audiological equipment. The equipment used for the audiological testing in this study was only able to test up to 8000Hz and extended high frequency (EHF) pure tone measurements are recommended in ototoxicity protocols as ototoxicity can appear in frequencies higher than 8000Hz. Vestibulotoxicity was not evaluated in this study and should be considered in future research. Baseline audiological evaluations could not be done for all patients due to the fact that patients were only referred to the clinic by physicians after initiation of the ototoxic medications. The results of this study cannot be generalized to other contexts because of the limited sample size that was available in this specific context.

Table 2: Ototoxic medicine with their route of administration, daily dose and the number of participant visits per drug.

  Pharmacological classification Drug ATC code ROA Mean DD (mg) Min dose (mg) Max dose (mg) Mean DOT (days) Number of adult participant visits Number of paediatric participant visits
Antibiotics Aminoglycosides Amikacin J01GB06 IV 133.1 20 550 5.3 1 12
IM 750 750 750 180 1  
Gentamicin J01GB03 IV 87.1 40 150 3.1 3 4
Streptomycin J01GA01 IM 750 750 750 9 1  
Macrolides Erythromycin J01FA01 IV 2000 2000 2000 5 1  
Glycopeptides Vancomycin J01XA01 IV 1000 1000 1000 7 1  
Antineoplastic agents Platinum Compounds Cisplatin L01XA01 IV 123 45 162 1   9
Carboplatin L01XA02 IV 212.3 100 430 1.9   9
Vinca alkaloids Vincristine L01CA02 IV 0.9 0.7 1.2 1.2   10
N-mustard analogues Ifosfamide L01AA06 IV 2170 1800 2300 3   6
Diuretics Loop diuretics Furosemide C03CA01 Oral 232.7 20 500 1092.4 28  
Antimalarials Antimalarial Quinine P01BC01 IV 900 900 900 5   1



The importance of timely referrals should be emphasized to health care practitioners (e. g. doctors, nurses, pharmacists and audiologists), as baseline audiograms need to be performed prior to commencing with the treatment. The use of state-ofthe art audiology equipment that is less noise sensitive, a sound level meter, as well as EHF pure tones should be considered for a follow-up study. A follow-up study with baseline audiological assessments of the medicines highlighted in this study, with higher frequency audiometry monitoring and with a larger sample size should be conducted. Future studies should include testing for vestibulotoxicity using appropriate equipment, as some of the medicines highlighted in this study (e. g. streptomycin, gentamicin, quinine, etc.) could be vestibulotoxic as well as cochleotoxic.


The need for a clinical pharmacist together with an audiologistin the management of ototoxicity is not well discussed in literature. The effect of ototoxic medication on hearing has been emphasized in this study, which in turn highlights the need for a multidisciplinary team including both a clinical pharmacist and audiologist for the identification, evaluation and monitoring of patients treated with ototoxic medicine. It is evident from this study that patients treated with ototoxic medication such as aminoglycosides and loop diuretics have a higher incidence of ototoxicity than was previously described in literature. The incidence of platinum compound-induced ototoxicity is in line with current literature. Two thirds of the patients treated with ototoxic medication presented with a cochleartoxicity making them high-risk patients for future treatments with such agents. The clinical pharmacist has an important role in drug monitoring and/or interventions for high-risk patients when it comes to risk-versus-benefit for the use of ototoxic medication in patients. This study also emphasizes the importance of collaboration between the members of the inter-disciplinary team, particularly the pharmacist and the audiologist. In turn, audiologists should closely monitor hearing, particularly in patients who use medication that could cause irreversible hearing loss. It is important that there is a clear line of communication between the pharmacist, the audiologist and the doctor.


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van Aswegen Y, Schellack N, Gous AGS, Ehlert K, Wium AM (2016) Screening and Monitoring of Pharmacotherapy-Induced Ototoxicity in Patients at Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital. J Ear Nose Throat Disord 1(1): 1010.

Received : 01 Jul 2016
Accepted : 01 Aug 2016
Published : 05 Aug 2016
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ISSN : 2476-2032
Launched : 2016
Journal of Fever
ISSN : 2641-7782
Launched : 2017
JSM Bone Marrow Research
ISSN : 2578-3351
Launched : 2016
JSM Mathematics and Statistics
ISSN : 2578-3173
Launched : 2014
Journal of Autoimmunity and Research
ISSN : 2573-1173
Launched : 2014
JSM Arthritis
ISSN : 2475-9155
Launched : 2016
JSM Head and Neck Cancer-Cases and Reviews
ISSN : 2573-1610
Launched : 2016
JSM General Surgery Cases and Images
ISSN : 2573-1564
Launched : 2016
JSM Anatomy and Physiology
ISSN : 2573-1262
Launched : 2016
JSM Dental Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1548
Launched : 2016
Annals of Emergency Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1017
Launched : 2016
Annals of Mens Health and Wellness
ISSN : 2641-7707
Launched : 2017
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Health Care
ISSN : 2576-0084
Launched : 2018
Journal of Chronic Diseases and Management
ISSN : 2573-1300
Launched : 2016
Annals of Vaccines and Immunization
ISSN : 2378-9379
Launched : 2014
JSM Heart Surgery Cases and Images
ISSN : 2578-3157
Launched : 2016
Annals of Reproductive Medicine and Treatment
ISSN : 2573-1092
Launched : 2016
JSM Brain Science
ISSN : 2573-1289
Launched : 2016
JSM Biomarkers
ISSN : 2578-3815
Launched : 2014
JSM Biology
ISSN : 2475-9392
Launched : 2016
Archives of Stem Cell and Research
ISSN : 2578-3580
Launched : 2014
Annals of Clinical and Medical Microbiology
ISSN : 2578-3629
Launched : 2014
JSM Pediatric Surgery
ISSN : 2578-3149
Launched : 2017
Journal of Memory Disorder and Rehabilitation
ISSN : 2578-319X
Launched : 2016
JSM Tropical Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2578-3165
Launched : 2016
JSM Head and Face Medicine
ISSN : 2578-3793
Launched : 2016
JSM Cardiothoracic Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1297
Launched : 2016
JSM Bone and Joint Diseases
ISSN : 2578-3351
Launched : 2017
JSM Bioavailability and Bioequivalence
ISSN : 2641-7812
Launched : 2017
JSM Atherosclerosis
ISSN : 2573-1270
Launched : 2016
Journal of Genitourinary Disorders
ISSN : 2641-7790
Launched : 2017
Journal of Fractures and Sprains
ISSN : 2578-3831
Launched : 2016
Journal of Autism and Epilepsy
ISSN : 2641-7774
Launched : 2016
Annals of Marine Biology and Research
ISSN : 2573-105X
Launched : 2014
JSM Health Education & Primary Health Care
ISSN : 2578-3777
Launched : 2016
JSM Communication Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3807
Launched : 2016
Annals of Musculoskeletal Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3599
Launched : 2016
Annals of Virology and Research
ISSN : 2573-1122
Launched : 2014
JSM Renal Medicine
ISSN : 2573-1637
Launched : 2016
Journal of Muscle Health
ISSN : 2578-3823
Launched : 2016
JSM Genetics and Genomics
ISSN : 2334-1823
Launched : 2013
JSM Anxiety and Depression
ISSN : 2475-9139
Launched : 2016
Clinical Journal of Heart Diseases
ISSN : 2641-7766
Launched : 2016
Annals of Medicinal Chemistry and Research
ISSN : 2378-9336
Launched : 2014
JSM Pain and Management
ISSN : 2578-3378
Launched : 2016
JSM Women's Health
ISSN : 2578-3696
Launched : 2016
Clinical Research in HIV or AIDS
ISSN : 2374-0094
Launched : 2013
Journal of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity
ISSN : 2333-6692
Launched : 2013
Journal of Substance Abuse and Alcoholism
ISSN : 2373-9363
Launched : 2013
JSM Neurosurgery and Spine
ISSN : 2373-9479
Launched : 2013
Journal of Liver and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2379-0830
Launched : 2014
Journal of Drug Design and Research
ISSN : 2379-089X
Launched : 2014
JSM Clinical Oncology and Research
ISSN : 2373-938X
Launched : 2013
JSM Bioinformatics, Genomics and Proteomics
ISSN : 2576-1102
Launched : 2014
JSM Chemistry
ISSN : 2334-1831
Launched : 2013
Journal of Trauma and Care
ISSN : 2573-1246
Launched : 2014
JSM Surgical Oncology and Research
ISSN : 2578-3688
Launched : 2016
Annals of Food Processing and Preservation
ISSN : 2573-1033
Launched : 2016
Journal of Radiology and Radiation Therapy
ISSN : 2333-7095
Launched : 2013
JSM Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
ISSN : 2578-3572
Launched : 2016
Annals of Clinical Pathology
ISSN : 2373-9282
Launched : 2013
Annals of Cardiovascular Diseases
ISSN : 2641-7731
Launched : 2016
Journal of Behavior
ISSN : 2576-0076
Launched : 2016
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Metabolism
ISSN : 2572-2492
Launched : 2016
Clinical Research in Infectious Diseases
ISSN : 2379-0636
Launched : 2013
JSM Microbiology
ISSN : 2333-6455
Launched : 2013
Journal of Urology and Research
ISSN : 2379-951X
Launched : 2014
Journal of Family Medicine and Community Health
ISSN : 2379-0547
Launched : 2013
Annals of Pregnancy and Care
ISSN : 2578-336X
Launched : 2017
JSM Cell and Developmental Biology
ISSN : 2379-061X
Launched : 2013
Annals of Aquaculture and Research
ISSN : 2379-0881
Launched : 2014
Clinical Research in Pulmonology
ISSN : 2333-6625
Launched : 2013
Journal of Immunology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2333-6714
Launched : 2013
Annals of Forensic Research and Analysis
ISSN : 2378-9476
Launched : 2014
JSM Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
ISSN : 2333-7109
Launched : 2013
Annals of Breast Cancer Research
ISSN : 2641-7685
Launched : 2016
Annals of Gerontology and Geriatric Research
ISSN : 2378-9409
Launched : 2014
Journal of Sleep Medicine and Disorders
ISSN : 2379-0822
Launched : 2014
JSM Burns and Trauma
ISSN : 2475-9406
Launched : 2016
Chemical Engineering and Process Techniques
ISSN : 2333-6633
Launched : 2013
Annals of Clinical Cytology and Pathology
ISSN : 2475-9430
Launched : 2014
JSM Allergy and Asthma
ISSN : 2573-1254
Launched : 2016
Journal of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
ISSN : 2334-2307
Launched : 2013
Annals of Sports Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2379-0571
Launched : 2014
JSM Sexual Medicine
ISSN : 2578-3718
Launched : 2016
Annals of Vascular Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2378-9344
Launched : 2014
JSM Biotechnology and Biomedical Engineering
ISSN : 2333-7117
Launched : 2013
Journal of Hematology and Transfusion
ISSN : 2333-6684
Launched : 2013
JSM Environmental Science and Ecology
ISSN : 2333-7141
Launched : 2013
Journal of Cardiology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2333-6676
Launched : 2013
JSM Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine
ISSN : 2334-1815
Launched : 2013
JSM Ophthalmology
ISSN : 2333-6447
Launched : 2013
Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Toxicology
ISSN : 2333-7079
Launched : 2013
Annals of Psychiatry and Mental Health
ISSN : 2374-0124
Launched : 2013
Medical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
ISSN : 2333-6439
Launched : 2013
Annals of Pediatrics and Child Health
ISSN : 2373-9312
Launched : 2013
JSM Clinical Pharmaceutics
ISSN : 2379-9498
Launched : 2014
JSM Foot and Ankle
ISSN : 2475-9112
Launched : 2016
JSM Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementia
ISSN : 2378-9565
Launched : 2014
Journal of Addiction Medicine and Therapy
ISSN : 2333-665X
Launched : 2013
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2378-931X
Launched : 2013
Annals of Public Health and Research
ISSN : 2378-9328
Launched : 2014
Annals of Orthopedics and Rheumatology
ISSN : 2373-9290
Launched : 2013
Journal of Clinical Nephrology and Research
ISSN : 2379-0652
Launched : 2014
Annals of Community Medicine and Practice
ISSN : 2475-9465
Launched : 2014
Annals of Biometrics and Biostatistics
ISSN : 2374-0116
Launched : 2013
JSM Clinical Case Reports
ISSN : 2373-9819
Launched : 2013
Journal of Cancer Biology and Research
ISSN : 2373-9436
Launched : 2013
Journal of Surgery and Transplantation Science
ISSN : 2379-0911
Launched : 2013
Journal of Dermatology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2373-9371
Launched : 2013
JSM Gastroenterology and Hepatology
ISSN : 2373-9487
Launched : 2013
Annals of Nursing and Practice
ISSN : 2379-9501
Launched : 2014
JSM Dentistry
ISSN : 2333-7133
Launched : 2013
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