Loading

Journal of Fractures and Sprains

Cyclist Neck “The Prevalence of Cervical Spine Degeneration in Cyclists Using Different Handlebars”

Research Article | Open Access Volume 1 | Issue 1 |

  • 1. Department of Orthopedics, Queens Surgical Center, USA
+ Show More - Show Less
Corresponding Authors
Harvey R. Manes, Department of Orthopedics, Queens Surgical Center, New York, USA
Abstract

Cyclists that use drop handlebars are forced to hyperextend their c-spine in order to be able to view the road in front of them. Contrarily, cyclists that use a standard handlebar can view the road without the need to hyperextend. It is the contentions of this article that hyper-extension of the c-spine for long periods can result in premature c-spine degeneration. The article is a retrospective study that compares the prevalence of cervical spine degeneration in bicyclist using standard vs. drop handlebars.

Keywords

•    Cyclist neck
•    Byclists
•    Handlebars positions

Citation

Manes HR (2016) Cyclist Neck “The Prevalence of Cervical Spine Degeneration in Cyclists Using Different Handlebars”. J Fract Sprains 1(1): 1001.

INTRODUCTION

In order to reduce wind resistance and go faster, many recreational and experiencedcyclists ride bicycles that have dropped handlebars (bull-whips) and in order to see the road, thec-spine is forced to be held in a position of approximately 35- 45 degrees of hyper-extension. At times the cyclist may changeto a high hand position (on top of the handlebar), but the hyperextended position is usually held continuously for the duration of the ride. In comparison, the cyclist using the standard or flat handlebars can place the cervical spine in a more normal 10-15 degrees of extension (see Figures 1,2).

Bicyclist handling Flat handlebars

Figure 1 Bicyclist handling Flat handlebars

Bicyclist handling Drop handlebars

Figure 2 Bicyclist handling Drop handlebars

The hypothesis of this article is that cycling with dropped handlebars can be very hard on the upper back and neck and can result in the development of premature cervical spine degeneration or a condition that can be called “Cyclist Neck”.This article compares the prevalence of c-spine degeneration in cyclist that use drop handlebars versus those cyclist that use flat handlebars. Degeneration consists of narrowing of the joint space, osteophyte formation, facet hypertrophy, and sclerosis of vertebral end plates [1-3]. There are no other articles in the literature that broach this subject.

METHOD

100 male bicyclists out of 1000 members from the L.I. Bicycle Club, Huntington Bicycle Club, and Suffolk Bicycling Riders Association, were chosen at random, agreed to participate, and provided written consent. The age group was 35-42, otherwise healthy males who have never been diagnosed with any form of arthritis or any condition regarding the cervical spine.Only those bicyclist who ride at least twice per week, minimum 2 hours per ride, for at least 10 years were included in the study. 50 male cyclists who use drop (bull whip) handlebarswere compared to 50 male cyclistsusing standard flat (upright) handlebars to determine evidence of degenerative cervical spine disease based on X-ray examination.There was no significant between the two groups regarding height, weight, amount of riding performed or speed of riding. X-rays were taken in the a/p, lateral and oblique views (Proteus XR-a) of the c-spine and read by the same orthopedist and radiologist. Degeneration consists of narrowing of the joint space, osteophyte formation, facet hypertrophy, and sclerosis of vertebral end plates [1-3]. If there was a difference in opinion a third radiologist was consulted.Clinical signs and symptoms of cervical spondylosis were not studied in this article.

RESULTS

In this study the number of cyclists with X-ray evidence of c-spine degeneration was 15 out of 50, or 30%. The number of cyclists using drop handlebars with degeneration was 23 out of 50 or 46%. There was an increase of 53% of c-spine degeneration in cyclists using drop handlebars.

DISCUSSION

Experienced bicyclists tend to use 2 types of handlebars; 1) standard handlebars and 2) drop handlebars. By using drop handlebars the rider flexes his lumbar spineforward and extends his c-spine in order obtain an aerodynamic advantage, so that there is a reduction in wind resistance and lessenergy is needed to go faster [4].The upright (standard) handlebars are less aerodynamic and therefore more energy is required to go the same speed and distance. However, the disadvantage of using the drop type of handlebaris that the c-spine is forced into extreme hyper-extension (35-45degrees) in order to see the road. By keeping the neck in this unnatural hyper-extended position for extended periods of time, it is the author’s hypothesis that there is increase wear and tear on the c-spine as compared to using the standard handlebars.In the normal population of 35-42 year old men, the prevalence of c-spine degeneration is approximately 25- 37% [5-7] which corresponds to those cyclists using standards handlebars. However in those cyclists using drop handlebars the prevalence of c-spine degeneration was 46% which is an increase of 53%.

CONCLUSION

This study finds that cyclist that use drop handlebars had an increased prevalence of cervical spine degeneration of 53%. Cyclists should be warned of the possible risks of using drop handlebars versus standard handlebars.

Manes HR (2016) Cyclist Neck “The Prevalence of Cervical Spine Degeneration in Cyclists Using Different Handlebars”. J Fract Sprains 1(1): 1001.

Received : 12 Aug 2016
Accepted : 14 Oct 2016
Published : 17 Oct 2016
Journals
Annals of Otolaryngology and Rhinology
ISSN : 2379-948X
Launched : 2014
JSM Schizophrenia
Launched : 2016
Journal of Nausea
Launched : 2020
JSM Internal Medicine
Launched : 2016
JSM Hepatitis
Launched : 2016
JSM Oro Facial Surgeries
ISSN : 2578-3211
Launched : 2016
Journal of Human Nutrition and Food Science
ISSN : 2333-6706
Launched : 2013
JSM Regenerative Medicine and Bioengineering
ISSN : 2379-0490
Launched : 2013
JSM Spine
ISSN : 2578-3181
Launched : 2016
Archives of Palliative Care
ISSN : 2573-1165
Launched : 2016
JSM Nutritional Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3203
Launched : 2017
Annals of Neurodegenerative Disorders
ISSN : 2476-2032
Launched : 2016
Journal of Fever
ISSN : 2641-7782
Launched : 2017
JSM Bone Marrow Research
ISSN : 2578-3351
Launched : 2016
JSM Mathematics and Statistics
ISSN : 2578-3173
Launched : 2014
Journal of Autoimmunity and Research
ISSN : 2573-1173
Launched : 2014
JSM Arthritis
ISSN : 2475-9155
Launched : 2016
JSM Head and Neck Cancer-Cases and Reviews
ISSN : 2573-1610
Launched : 2016
JSM General Surgery Cases and Images
ISSN : 2573-1564
Launched : 2016
JSM Anatomy and Physiology
ISSN : 2573-1262
Launched : 2016
JSM Dental Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1548
Launched : 2016
Annals of Emergency Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1017
Launched : 2016
Annals of Mens Health and Wellness
ISSN : 2641-7707
Launched : 2017
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Health Care
ISSN : 2576-0084
Launched : 2018
Journal of Chronic Diseases and Management
ISSN : 2573-1300
Launched : 2016
Annals of Vaccines and Immunization
ISSN : 2378-9379
Launched : 2014
JSM Heart Surgery Cases and Images
ISSN : 2578-3157
Launched : 2016
Annals of Reproductive Medicine and Treatment
ISSN : 2573-1092
Launched : 2016
JSM Brain Science
ISSN : 2573-1289
Launched : 2016
JSM Biomarkers
ISSN : 2578-3815
Launched : 2014
JSM Biology
ISSN : 2475-9392
Launched : 2016
Archives of Stem Cell and Research
ISSN : 2578-3580
Launched : 2014
Annals of Clinical and Medical Microbiology
ISSN : 2578-3629
Launched : 2014
JSM Pediatric Surgery
ISSN : 2578-3149
Launched : 2017
Journal of Memory Disorder and Rehabilitation
ISSN : 2578-319X
Launched : 2016
JSM Tropical Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2578-3165
Launched : 2016
JSM Head and Face Medicine
ISSN : 2578-3793
Launched : 2016
JSM Cardiothoracic Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1297
Launched : 2016
JSM Bone and Joint Diseases
ISSN : 2578-3351
Launched : 2017
JSM Bioavailability and Bioequivalence
ISSN : 2641-7812
Launched : 2017
JSM Atherosclerosis
ISSN : 2573-1270
Launched : 2016
Journal of Genitourinary Disorders
ISSN : 2641-7790
Launched : 2017
Journal of Autism and Epilepsy
ISSN : 2641-7774
Launched : 2016
Annals of Marine Biology and Research
ISSN : 2573-105X
Launched : 2014
JSM Health Education & Primary Health Care
ISSN : 2578-3777
Launched : 2016
JSM Communication Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3807
Launched : 2016
Annals of Musculoskeletal Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3599
Launched : 2016
Annals of Virology and Research
ISSN : 2573-1122
Launched : 2014
JSM Renal Medicine
ISSN : 2573-1637
Launched : 2016
Journal of Muscle Health
ISSN : 2578-3823
Launched : 2016
JSM Genetics and Genomics
ISSN : 2334-1823
Launched : 2013
JSM Anxiety and Depression
ISSN : 2475-9139
Launched : 2016
Clinical Journal of Heart Diseases
ISSN : 2641-7766
Launched : 2016
Annals of Medicinal Chemistry and Research
ISSN : 2378-9336
Launched : 2014
JSM Pain and Management
ISSN : 2578-3378
Launched : 2016
JSM Women's Health
ISSN : 2578-3696
Launched : 2016
Clinical Research in HIV or AIDS
ISSN : 2374-0094
Launched : 2013
Journal of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity
ISSN : 2333-6692
Launched : 2013
Journal of Substance Abuse and Alcoholism
ISSN : 2373-9363
Launched : 2013
JSM Neurosurgery and Spine
ISSN : 2373-9479
Launched : 2013
Journal of Liver and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2379-0830
Launched : 2014
Journal of Drug Design and Research
ISSN : 2379-089X
Launched : 2014
JSM Clinical Oncology and Research
ISSN : 2373-938X
Launched : 2013
JSM Bioinformatics, Genomics and Proteomics
ISSN : 2576-1102
Launched : 2014
JSM Chemistry
ISSN : 2334-1831
Launched : 2013
Journal of Trauma and Care
ISSN : 2573-1246
Launched : 2014
JSM Surgical Oncology and Research
ISSN : 2578-3688
Launched : 2016
Annals of Food Processing and Preservation
ISSN : 2573-1033
Launched : 2016
Journal of Radiology and Radiation Therapy
ISSN : 2333-7095
Launched : 2013
JSM Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
ISSN : 2578-3572
Launched : 2016
Annals of Clinical Pathology
ISSN : 2373-9282
Launched : 2013
Annals of Cardiovascular Diseases
ISSN : 2641-7731
Launched : 2016
Journal of Behavior
ISSN : 2576-0076
Launched : 2016
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Metabolism
ISSN : 2572-2492
Launched : 2016
Clinical Research in Infectious Diseases
ISSN : 2379-0636
Launched : 2013
JSM Microbiology
ISSN : 2333-6455
Launched : 2013
Journal of Urology and Research
ISSN : 2379-951X
Launched : 2014
Journal of Family Medicine and Community Health
ISSN : 2379-0547
Launched : 2013
Annals of Pregnancy and Care
ISSN : 2578-336X
Launched : 2017
JSM Cell and Developmental Biology
ISSN : 2379-061X
Launched : 2013
Annals of Aquaculture and Research
ISSN : 2379-0881
Launched : 2014
Clinical Research in Pulmonology
ISSN : 2333-6625
Launched : 2013
Journal of Immunology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2333-6714
Launched : 2013
Annals of Forensic Research and Analysis
ISSN : 2378-9476
Launched : 2014
JSM Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
ISSN : 2333-7109
Launched : 2013
Annals of Breast Cancer Research
ISSN : 2641-7685
Launched : 2016
Annals of Gerontology and Geriatric Research
ISSN : 2378-9409
Launched : 2014
Journal of Sleep Medicine and Disorders
ISSN : 2379-0822
Launched : 2014
JSM Burns and Trauma
ISSN : 2475-9406
Launched : 2016
Chemical Engineering and Process Techniques
ISSN : 2333-6633
Launched : 2013
Annals of Clinical Cytology and Pathology
ISSN : 2475-9430
Launched : 2014
JSM Allergy and Asthma
ISSN : 2573-1254
Launched : 2016
Journal of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
ISSN : 2334-2307
Launched : 2013
Annals of Sports Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2379-0571
Launched : 2014
JSM Sexual Medicine
ISSN : 2578-3718
Launched : 2016
Annals of Vascular Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2378-9344
Launched : 2014
JSM Biotechnology and Biomedical Engineering
ISSN : 2333-7117
Launched : 2013
Journal of Hematology and Transfusion
ISSN : 2333-6684
Launched : 2013
JSM Environmental Science and Ecology
ISSN : 2333-7141
Launched : 2013
Journal of Cardiology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2333-6676
Launched : 2013
JSM Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine
ISSN : 2334-1815
Launched : 2013
Journal of Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders
ISSN : 2475-9473
Launched : 2016
JSM Ophthalmology
ISSN : 2333-6447
Launched : 2013
Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Toxicology
ISSN : 2333-7079
Launched : 2013
Annals of Psychiatry and Mental Health
ISSN : 2374-0124
Launched : 2013
Medical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
ISSN : 2333-6439
Launched : 2013
Annals of Pediatrics and Child Health
ISSN : 2373-9312
Launched : 2013
JSM Clinical Pharmaceutics
ISSN : 2379-9498
Launched : 2014
JSM Foot and Ankle
ISSN : 2475-9112
Launched : 2016
JSM Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementia
ISSN : 2378-9565
Launched : 2014
Journal of Addiction Medicine and Therapy
ISSN : 2333-665X
Launched : 2013
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2378-931X
Launched : 2013
Annals of Public Health and Research
ISSN : 2378-9328
Launched : 2014
Annals of Orthopedics and Rheumatology
ISSN : 2373-9290
Launched : 2013
Journal of Clinical Nephrology and Research
ISSN : 2379-0652
Launched : 2014
Annals of Community Medicine and Practice
ISSN : 2475-9465
Launched : 2014
Annals of Biometrics and Biostatistics
ISSN : 2374-0116
Launched : 2013
JSM Clinical Case Reports
ISSN : 2373-9819
Launched : 2013
Journal of Cancer Biology and Research
ISSN : 2373-9436
Launched : 2013
Journal of Surgery and Transplantation Science
ISSN : 2379-0911
Launched : 2013
Journal of Dermatology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2373-9371
Launched : 2013
JSM Gastroenterology and Hepatology
ISSN : 2373-9487
Launched : 2013
Annals of Nursing and Practice
ISSN : 2379-9501
Launched : 2014
JSM Dentistry
ISSN : 2333-7133
Launched : 2013
Author Information X