Journal of Memory Disorder and Rehabilitation

A Review of the Most Recent Longitudinal Studies of ADHD

Research Article | Open Access Volume 2 | Issue 1 |

  • 1. Department of Psychology, Illinois School of Professional Psychology at Argosy University, USA
+ Show More - Show Less
Corresponding Authors
Robert Eme, Department of Psychology, Illinois School of Professional Psychology at Argosy University, Schaumburg Campus, USA

This review examined the findings from the six most recent longitudinal studies of ADHD with a goal of answering the question of what the future likely holds for an individual with childhood ADHD. When the findings from these studies were combined with those of prior longitudinal studies, the two most important answers to emerge were as follows. First, approximately two-thirds of children with childhood ADHD will continue to be moderately or severely impaired in young adulthood. Second, the two most robust predictors of this outcome are severity of ADHD and co morbid conduct problems.


Eme R (2017) A Review of the Most Recent Longitudinal Studies of ADHD. J Mem Disord Rehabil 2(1): 1004.


Among the most pressing questions that parents of children with ADHD, and the clinicians involved, have is what the future likely holds for the child and what are the factors that influence this future [1]. The answer to these questions is provided by long-term longitudinal studies of individuals who have received a diagnosis of ADHD during childhood and then followed for varying lengths of time. The purpose of this article is to provide answers to these questions by reviewing the most recent longitudinal studies of children with ADHD. The article will begin by providing a digest of the major findings of reviews of the most prominent prior longitudinal studies. It is will then proceed to review six of the most recent studies that were not included in the prior reviews with a special focus on how these studies have advanced our knowledge of what the future likely holds for the child with ADHD.

Prior longitudinal studies

The major findings from the reviews of the most important prior longitudinal studies of ADHD are as follows [2-4]. First, regarding the characteristics of the subjects, most of the children with ADHD were white, middle class boys who were typically identified through referral to psychiatric or mental health facilities rather than being true community samples. In addition to the obvious demographic limitation of the samples, it is also important to note that clinical samples of children with ADHD usually include more severe cases than community samples and thus are more likely to report higher persistence rates as well as increased co morbidity with other disorders [3].

Second, regarding outcome, the major findings were:

  • There is a relatively high rate of persistence of ADHD from childhood to adolescence (50-80%) and into adulthood (35-65%).
  • Symptoms of hyperactivity (and perhaps impulsivity) decline more steeply with age than do symptoms of inattention.
  • Children with ADHD are at increased risk for virtually every outcome domain that has been studied including, but not limited to
  • Mental Disorders such as Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Substance Abuse Disorder.
  • Academic impairment, driving problems, social impairment, risky sexual behavior, occupational functioning as adults, criminality.
  • ADHD severity and co morbid conduct disorder in childhood are the two most important predictors for persistence into adulthood as well as adverse outcomes in adulthood.
  • There were few if any gender differences in outcome.

 Recent longitudinal studies of ADHD

The review will be roughly ordered in terms of the chronological baseline for the start of the study. Particular attention will be paid to how the studies have added to the knowledge base established by the prior longitudinal studies and thus advance our knowledge on what the future likely holds for individuals with a history of childhood ADHD.

Prediction of adolescent outcomes among children diagnosed with ADHD at 4-6 years of age

A study by Lahey and colleagues [5] addressed the problem that little is known about the stability and long-term consequence of ADHD when it is diagnosed in early childhood. Participants were 125 children (107 boys) recruited from various mental health settings who were diagnosed with ADHD at 4-6 years and followed prospectively through age 18 years. The major findings were as follows. First, on average, although the children improved over time, they still continued to exhibit more symptoms, functional impairment, and risky behavior through adolescence than demographically matched healthy comparison children. Indeed, only approximately 10% of the children could be classified as functioning in the normal range on multiple measures during the 15-18 years. This finding is especially significant as it supports the predictive validity of the diagnosis of ADHD in early childhood, thereby validating the recommendation of professional groups such as the American Academy of Pediatrics who are calling for recognition and treatment of ADHD as early as age 4. Second, the study confirmed the results of prior longitudinal studies by finding that higher numbers of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms and higher number of concurrent symptoms (oppositional, conduct disorder, anxiety, and depression) measured at baseline predicted higher future levels of the same dimension of symptoms. In addition, higher baseline levels of inattention, oppositional, conduct disorder, and anxiety symptoms predicted greater future functional impairment. Lastly, the authors concluded that although the study demonstrated that future outcomes in general could be predicted, the predictors were not accurate enough to allow prediction on an individual basis of which children would or would not improve.

Early development of co morbidity between ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder

A study by Harvey, Breaux, and Lugo-Candelas [6] sought to advance the understanding of how to explain the substantial co morbidity between ADHD and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) that develops during the preschool years such that between one third and one half of children who are diagnosed with one disorder are also co morbid for the other disorder. Participants were 199 children (107 boys) who were recruited from the community for a longitudinal study of preschoolers with behavior problems. Parental reports of ADHD and ODD symptoms were collected annually from ages 3 to 6 and a family history interview was administered at age 3. The results provided strong support for a developmental precursor’s model to explain the co morbidity. Namely, ADHD was a strong predictor for the development of the argumentative/defiant symptoms of ODD. This progression from ADHD to ODD is best explained by the ADHD symptoms of behavioral and emotional impulsivity which greatly increase the risk for coercive, oppositional interchanges with significant others in the child’s life [7-9]. Indeed, it is estimated that a typical child with ADHD has an astonishing half a million of these negative interchanges each year [10].

Developmental trajectories of ADHD symptoms from grade 3 through 12

Developmental trajectories of clinically significant ADHD symptoms were explored in a sample of 413 children (66% male) who were recruited from the community, having been identified as high risk because of elevated kindergarten conduct problems [11]. Symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity were modeled using parent reports collected in Grades 3, 6, 9, and 12. Three developmental trajectories emerged: (1) low levels of inattention and hyperactivity (71% of sample), (2) initially high but then declining symptoms (16% of sample), and (3) continuously high symptoms that featured hyperactivity in childhood and early adolescence and inattention in adolescence (13% of sample). By late adolescence, children in the high class were significantly more antisocial than those in the low class, with higher rates of arrests, school dropout, and unemployment, whereas children in the declining class did not differ from those in the low trajectory class. This study supports the notion that clinically significant ADHD symptoms persist into adolescence for some children, but not for others. Children who are more hyperactive or aggressive, or whose parents are inconsistent or ineffective with discipline, are more likely to have clinically significant and stable ADHD symptoms and show more antisocial activities and worse graduation and employment rates in late adolescence. In conclusion, the most important contribution of this study was that it provided additional support for the finding from prior studies that severity of ADHD in childhood predicts persistence of ADHD into adolescence as well as increased risk for adverse outcomes in multiple domains.

Adult outcomes 16 years after childhood ADHD: MTA results

The Multimodal Treat Study (MTA) which has conducted several follow-ups of 579 children (465 males) diagnosed with combined type ADHD at ages 7-9 is the largest study to date with the most representative, generalizable clinical sample of children with ADHD [1]. In the most recent follow-up study, Roy and colleagues [12], examined rates and predictors of ADHD persistence versus desistence in 453 of the participants from the MTA trial based on a 16-year follow up at a mean age of 25 years. Regarding persistence, 50% of the participants had persistent ADHD based upon DSM-5 criteria. Regarding predictors, the study found that the most important predictors of adult ADHD persistence were initial severity of ADHD symptoms, increasing but not initial co morbidities (after controlling ADHD severity), and parental mental health problems. Childhood IQ, socioeconomic status, parent education, and parent-child relationships showed no association with adult ADHD symptom persistence. In comparing these findings to those of prior studies, Roy and colleagues [12] reported that their negative findings on initial (baseline) co morbidity, IQ, socioeconomic status and parental income are discrepant from prior studies and require further study. Lastly, the negative findings on the association between parent-child relationships and persistence are congruent with the generally weak findings in this area. A second study by Hechtman and colleagues [13] was built on the findings of Roy and colleagues [12], by further assessing outcome differences between those with persistent versus desistent ADHD and a local normative comparison group (LNCG). Three patterns of functional outcomes were identified. First, the symptom-persistent ADHD group fared the worst on functional outcomes in post-secondary education, times fired/quit a job, current income, receiving public assistance, and risky sexual behavior compared to the LNCG. Second, the desistent group had outcomes that were in between the persistent group and the LNCG. Third, on emotional outcomes (emotional lability, neuroticism, anxiety disorder, mood disorder) and substance use outcomes, the LNGC group and the symptom-desistent group did not differ, but both fared better than the symptom-persistent group. Fourth, there were no significant differences between the groups in jail time or alcohol use disorder. In sum, although degrees of impairment varied by domain, persistent ADHD was associated with the greatest functional problems.

Prediction of young adult outcome for women with childhood ADHD

A study by Owens and Hinshaw [4] investigated whether earlier conduct problems, operational zed as symptoms of ODD and conduct disorder (CD), which predict adult outcomes for males with childhood ADHD also predict adult outcomes for females with childhood ADHD. Participants were 140 females in the Berkeley Girls with ADHD Longitudinal Study who were recruited from various community and mental health settings Data was collected at three times points when the females were on average aged 9.6 years, 14.3 years, and 19.6 years. The study found that among girls with ADHD, after controlling for severity of childhood ADHD, IQ, and demographic factors, childhood and adolescent conduct problems predicted overall functioning, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems during young adulthood. Two major pathways were identified as mechanisms for explaining how these early conduct problems predicted adult outcome. In the first pathway early conduct problems increased risk for school failure and disciplinary problems during adolescence which in turn increased risk of failure to adapt to the demands of young adulthood. In the second pathway early conduct problems increased risk for internalizing problems and peer rejection during adolescence which in turn predicted internalizing problems in young adulthood.

In conclusion, this was the first study to document that earlier conduct problems are as robust a predictor of young adult outcomes for females as they are for males. It also adds to the overall finding in the literature that there are few, if any gender differences in either the future for children with childhood ADHD or predictors of that future, with the possible exception that females may be a higher risk for internalizing disorders and males at higher risk for externalizing disorders [4].

Progression in impairment in adolescents with ADHD though the transition out of high school

Despite declining symptoms levels, children with ADHD show increasingly impaired functioning as they transition into high school most probably because of increased academic workloads and greater demands for independent and organized work [14]. A study by Howard and colleagues [14] using the previously discussed MTA sample [13] sought to extend the investigation of impairments increasing with age to adolescents through and after leaving high school as they transitioned to adulthood. The study found that on average the impairments of adolescents with childhood ADHD increased through high school and after the transition out of high school in contrast to those of LNCG adolescents for whom impairments stabilized or declined after high school. However, these impairments were stabilized after leaving high school for those adolescents with ADHD who attended college. Also, adolescents with childhood ADHD who had more involved parenting had less impairment overall, and those with both histories of involved parenting and who attended college were least impaired overall as young adults. In sum, on average adolescents with childhood ADHD became slightly more impaired through high school, and impairments continued to increase but at a slower rate after the transition out of high school. The progression in impairments was mitigated by involved parenting and college attendance.


First, as a bit of an aside, it should be noted that contrary to the continuing erroneous opinion of some, the reviewed studies served to further establish the validity of ADHD as a real disorder, “as if 20,000 or more earlier studies had not” [2].

To the question of what does the future likely hold for a person with childhood ADHD, the results of recent longitudinal studies in combination with the prior studies suggest the following answers? First, with regard to persistence, a distinction must be made between ADHD symptoms and ADHD-related impairments. With regard to persistence of symptoms, the best answer would appear to be that approximately 50% of children with childhood ADHD will continue to experience significant levels of ADHD symptomatology into young adulthood. With regard to impairment, there are two principal findings. First, overall adult outcomes of children with ADHD fall roughly into three equivalently sized groups ? positively adjusted, moderately impaired, and severely impaired [15]. Second, although ADHD symptoms may decline with age, ADHD-related impairments are less likely to do so and indeed may even increase [2]. Two possible reasons have been advanced to explain why decline in symptoms may not be accompanied by decline in impairments. The first is that despite the decline in symptom frequency and severity, the individual with ADHD remains at a relatively high level of deviancy compared to the non-ADHD [2] Thus, since the individual with ADHD remains at this relatively high level of deviancy, they remain at the same level of risk for impairment or even increased risk of impairment with age because of increasing demands e.g., for independent academic or occupational achievement [14]. The second reason why the decline in symptoms may not be accompanied by decline in impairments is that the decline in symptoms may be illusory. Namely, there is a growing consensus that because the DSM-5 list of 18 symptoms primarily reflects those symptoms that are typical of the preadolescent presentations of ADHD, they are developmentally insensitive to manifestations of ADHD at older ages [7,14,15]. DSM-5 has attempted to address this issue by listing some expressions of the core 18 symptoms that might be more typical beyond preadolescence, but much work remains to be done in this regard. In short then, ADHD-related impairments may continue or even increase because ADHD symptoms, if assessed by developmentally appropriate criteria, are not decreasing and thus continue to cause significant interference in functioning. With regard to the predictors of future outcomes in ADHD, the recent studies have provided additional convincing support in establishing severity of ADHD and co morbidity with other disorders (especially conduct problems) as the most reliable, robust predictors. In addition, outcome is also determined, as it is for virtually all disorders, by environmental demands, compensatory skills of the individual and environmental supports or lack thereof. Lastly, the omission of treatment of ADHD as a predictor of long term outcome in the reviewed studies needs to be addressed is some detail. This omission is especially surprising since hundreds of controlled studies of stimulant treatment for individuals with ADHD (mostly children) have reported success rates approximating 80% over the short term with rates for placebo being dramatically lower (i.e., 13%) [16-18]. Indeed, “There is no medication for any mental health condition that approaches this differential. Sometimes the effects of stimulants are “night and day” [17]. The most probable reason for this omission is a design problem in longitudinal studies which make the consideration of treatment moot. Research that attempts to study the long term predictive of outcome of treatment for ADHD is faced with an intractable design problem of bias once the randomization trial has ended and individuals in the treatment and control groups self-select into various treatment strategies or not. As Caye and colleagues [3] noted: “Disentangling this bias adequately would require a randomized clinical trial with good adherence and retention for several years…However, maintaining adherences to assigned treatment over long periods of time may not be possible.” This bias helps explain the seemingly paradoxical finding in prior longitudinal studies that treatment for ADHD is a predictor of persistence, not desistence [3]! Namely, since it is the most severe cases of ADHD that are selected for treatment [3], treatment is in effect a proxy for severity a robust predictor of persistence. Similarly, although 14 months of state of the art treatment in the MTA study resulted in highly positive short-term outcomes, subsequent self-selected extended use of medication after the trial ended found no effect on outcome in adulthood [3]. Again, this may be because those who elected to continue treatment with medication into adulthood had more severe ADHD than those who chose to discontinue treatment.


1. McGough JJ. New Insights From the MTA: Who Outgrows Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and What Becomes of Those Who Don’t? J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2016; 55: 925-926.

2. Barkley R. Recent longitudinal studies of childhood Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: Important themes and questions for further research. J Abnorm Psychol. 2016; 125: 248-255.

3. Caye A, Swanson J, Thapar A, Sibley M, Arseneault L, Hechtman L, et al. Life Span Studies of ADHD-Conceptual Challenges and Predictors of Persistence and Outcome. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2016; 18: 111.

4. Owens EB, Hinshaw SP. Childhood conduct problems and young adult outcomes among women with childhood attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). J Abnorm Psychol. 2016; 125: 220- 232.

5. Lahey BB, Lee SS, Sibley MH, Applegate B, Molina BS, Pelham WE. Predictors of adolescent outcomes among 4-6-year-old children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Abnorm Psychol. 2016; 125: 168-181.

6. Harvey EA, Breaux RP, Lugo-Candelas CI. Early development of comorbidity between symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). J Abnorm Psychol. 2016; 125: 154-167.

7. Barkley RA. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A handbook for diagnosis & treatment. 4th edn. New York: Guilford Press. 2015; 81- 115.

8. Beauchaine T, Zisner AC, Sauder C. Trait impulsivity and the externalizing spectrum. Ann Rev Clin Psychol. 2017; 13: 1-35.

9. Snyder J. Coercive family processes in the development of externalizing behavior: incorporating neurobiology into intervention research. In: Beauchaine T, Hinshaw S, editors. The Oxford handbook of spectrum disorders (286-302). New York: Oxford University Press. 2016.

10. Pelham WE Jr, Fabiano GA. Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2008; 37: 184-214.

11. Sasser TR, Kalvin CB, Bierman KL. Developmental trajectories of clinically significant ADHD symptoms from grade 3 through 12 in a high-risk sample: Predictors and outcomes. J Abnorm Psychol. 2016; 125: 207-219.

12. Roy A, Hechtamn L, Arnold L, Sibley M, Molina B, Swanson J, et al. Childhood factors affecting persistence and desistence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms in adulthood: Results from MTA study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2016; 55: 937-945.

13. Hechtman L, Swanson JM, Sibley MH, Stehli A, Owens EB, Mitchell JT, et al. Functional Adult Outcomes 16 Years After Childhood Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: MTA Results. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2016; 55: 945-952.

14. Howard AL, Strickland NJ, Murray DW, Tamm L, Swanson JM, Hinshaw SP, et al. Progression of impairment in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder through the transition out of high school: Contributions of parent involvement and college attendance. J Abnorm Psychol. 2016; 125: 233-247.

15. Lee SS, Sibley MH, Epstein JN. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder across development: Predictors, resilience, and future directions. J Abnorm Psychol. 2016; 125: 151-153.

16. Connor D. Stimulant and nonstimulant medications for childhood ADHD. In: Barkley RA, editor. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a handbook for diagnosis & treatment, 4th Edn. New York: Guilford Press. 2015; 666-685.

17. Hinshaw S, Scheffler R. The ADHD explosion. New York: Oxford University Press. 2014.

18. Pliszka S. Treating ADHD and comorbid disorders: Psychosocial and psychopharmacological interventions. New York: Guilford Press. 2009.

Eme R (2017) A Review of the Most Recent Longitudinal Studies of ADHD. J Mem Disord Rehabil 2(1): 1004

Received : 20 Feb 2017
Accepted : 18 Mar 2017
Published : 21 Mar 2017
Annals of Otolaryngology and Rhinology
ISSN : 2379-948X
Launched : 2014
JSM Schizophrenia
Launched : 2016
Journal of Nausea
Launched : 2020
JSM Internal Medicine
Launched : 2016
JSM Hepatitis
Launched : 2016
JSM Oro Facial Surgeries
ISSN : 2578-3211
Launched : 2016
Journal of Human Nutrition and Food Science
ISSN : 2333-6706
Launched : 2013
JSM Regenerative Medicine and Bioengineering
ISSN : 2379-0490
Launched : 2013
JSM Spine
ISSN : 2578-3181
Launched : 2016
Archives of Palliative Care
ISSN : 2573-1165
Launched : 2016
JSM Nutritional Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3203
Launched : 2017
Annals of Neurodegenerative Disorders
ISSN : 2476-2032
Launched : 2016
Journal of Fever
ISSN : 2641-7782
Launched : 2017
JSM Bone Marrow Research
ISSN : 2578-3351
Launched : 2016
JSM Mathematics and Statistics
ISSN : 2578-3173
Launched : 2014
Journal of Autoimmunity and Research
ISSN : 2573-1173
Launched : 2014
JSM Arthritis
ISSN : 2475-9155
Launched : 2016
JSM Head and Neck Cancer-Cases and Reviews
ISSN : 2573-1610
Launched : 2016
JSM General Surgery Cases and Images
ISSN : 2573-1564
Launched : 2016
JSM Anatomy and Physiology
ISSN : 2573-1262
Launched : 2016
JSM Dental Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1548
Launched : 2016
Annals of Emergency Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1017
Launched : 2016
Annals of Mens Health and Wellness
ISSN : 2641-7707
Launched : 2017
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Health Care
ISSN : 2576-0084
Launched : 2018
Journal of Chronic Diseases and Management
ISSN : 2573-1300
Launched : 2016
Annals of Vaccines and Immunization
ISSN : 2378-9379
Launched : 2014
JSM Heart Surgery Cases and Images
ISSN : 2578-3157
Launched : 2016
Annals of Reproductive Medicine and Treatment
ISSN : 2573-1092
Launched : 2016
JSM Brain Science
ISSN : 2573-1289
Launched : 2016
JSM Biomarkers
ISSN : 2578-3815
Launched : 2014
JSM Biology
ISSN : 2475-9392
Launched : 2016
Archives of Stem Cell and Research
ISSN : 2578-3580
Launched : 2014
Annals of Clinical and Medical Microbiology
ISSN : 2578-3629
Launched : 2014
JSM Pediatric Surgery
ISSN : 2578-3149
Launched : 2017
JSM Tropical Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2578-3165
Launched : 2016
JSM Head and Face Medicine
ISSN : 2578-3793
Launched : 2016
JSM Cardiothoracic Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1297
Launched : 2016
JSM Bone and Joint Diseases
ISSN : 2578-3351
Launched : 2017
JSM Bioavailability and Bioequivalence
ISSN : 2641-7812
Launched : 2017
JSM Atherosclerosis
ISSN : 2573-1270
Launched : 2016
Journal of Genitourinary Disorders
ISSN : 2641-7790
Launched : 2017
Journal of Fractures and Sprains
ISSN : 2578-3831
Launched : 2016
Journal of Autism and Epilepsy
ISSN : 2641-7774
Launched : 2016
Annals of Marine Biology and Research
ISSN : 2573-105X
Launched : 2014
JSM Health Education & Primary Health Care
ISSN : 2578-3777
Launched : 2016
JSM Communication Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3807
Launched : 2016
Annals of Musculoskeletal Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3599
Launched : 2016
Annals of Virology and Research
ISSN : 2573-1122
Launched : 2014
JSM Renal Medicine
ISSN : 2573-1637
Launched : 2016
Journal of Muscle Health
ISSN : 2578-3823
Launched : 2016
JSM Genetics and Genomics
ISSN : 2334-1823
Launched : 2013
JSM Anxiety and Depression
ISSN : 2475-9139
Launched : 2016
Clinical Journal of Heart Diseases
ISSN : 2641-7766
Launched : 2016
Annals of Medicinal Chemistry and Research
ISSN : 2378-9336
Launched : 2014
JSM Pain and Management
ISSN : 2578-3378
Launched : 2016
JSM Women's Health
ISSN : 2578-3696
Launched : 2016
Clinical Research in HIV or AIDS
ISSN : 2374-0094
Launched : 2013
Journal of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity
ISSN : 2333-6692
Launched : 2013
Journal of Substance Abuse and Alcoholism
ISSN : 2373-9363
Launched : 2013
JSM Neurosurgery and Spine
ISSN : 2373-9479
Launched : 2013
Journal of Liver and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2379-0830
Launched : 2014
Journal of Drug Design and Research
ISSN : 2379-089X
Launched : 2014
JSM Clinical Oncology and Research
ISSN : 2373-938X
Launched : 2013
JSM Bioinformatics, Genomics and Proteomics
ISSN : 2576-1102
Launched : 2014
JSM Chemistry
ISSN : 2334-1831
Launched : 2013
Journal of Trauma and Care
ISSN : 2573-1246
Launched : 2014
JSM Surgical Oncology and Research
ISSN : 2578-3688
Launched : 2016
Annals of Food Processing and Preservation
ISSN : 2573-1033
Launched : 2016
Journal of Radiology and Radiation Therapy
ISSN : 2333-7095
Launched : 2013
JSM Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
ISSN : 2578-3572
Launched : 2016
Annals of Clinical Pathology
ISSN : 2373-9282
Launched : 2013
Annals of Cardiovascular Diseases
ISSN : 2641-7731
Launched : 2016
Journal of Behavior
ISSN : 2576-0076
Launched : 2016
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Metabolism
ISSN : 2572-2492
Launched : 2016
Clinical Research in Infectious Diseases
ISSN : 2379-0636
Launched : 2013
JSM Microbiology
ISSN : 2333-6455
Launched : 2013
Journal of Urology and Research
ISSN : 2379-951X
Launched : 2014
Journal of Family Medicine and Community Health
ISSN : 2379-0547
Launched : 2013
Annals of Pregnancy and Care
ISSN : 2578-336X
Launched : 2017
JSM Cell and Developmental Biology
ISSN : 2379-061X
Launched : 2013
Annals of Aquaculture and Research
ISSN : 2379-0881
Launched : 2014
Clinical Research in Pulmonology
ISSN : 2333-6625
Launched : 2013
Journal of Immunology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2333-6714
Launched : 2013
Annals of Forensic Research and Analysis
ISSN : 2378-9476
Launched : 2014
JSM Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
ISSN : 2333-7109
Launched : 2013
Annals of Breast Cancer Research
ISSN : 2641-7685
Launched : 2016
Annals of Gerontology and Geriatric Research
ISSN : 2378-9409
Launched : 2014
Journal of Sleep Medicine and Disorders
ISSN : 2379-0822
Launched : 2014
JSM Burns and Trauma
ISSN : 2475-9406
Launched : 2016
Chemical Engineering and Process Techniques
ISSN : 2333-6633
Launched : 2013
Annals of Clinical Cytology and Pathology
ISSN : 2475-9430
Launched : 2014
JSM Allergy and Asthma
ISSN : 2573-1254
Launched : 2016
Journal of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
ISSN : 2334-2307
Launched : 2013
Annals of Sports Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2379-0571
Launched : 2014
JSM Sexual Medicine
ISSN : 2578-3718
Launched : 2016
Annals of Vascular Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2378-9344
Launched : 2014
JSM Biotechnology and Biomedical Engineering
ISSN : 2333-7117
Launched : 2013
Journal of Hematology and Transfusion
ISSN : 2333-6684
Launched : 2013
JSM Environmental Science and Ecology
ISSN : 2333-7141
Launched : 2013
Journal of Cardiology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2333-6676
Launched : 2013
JSM Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine
ISSN : 2334-1815
Launched : 2013
Journal of Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders
ISSN : 2475-9473
Launched : 2016
JSM Ophthalmology
ISSN : 2333-6447
Launched : 2013
Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Toxicology
ISSN : 2333-7079
Launched : 2013
Annals of Psychiatry and Mental Health
ISSN : 2374-0124
Launched : 2013
Medical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
ISSN : 2333-6439
Launched : 2013
Annals of Pediatrics and Child Health
ISSN : 2373-9312
Launched : 2013
JSM Clinical Pharmaceutics
ISSN : 2379-9498
Launched : 2014
JSM Foot and Ankle
ISSN : 2475-9112
Launched : 2016
JSM Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementia
ISSN : 2378-9565
Launched : 2014
Journal of Addiction Medicine and Therapy
ISSN : 2333-665X
Launched : 2013
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2378-931X
Launched : 2013
Annals of Public Health and Research
ISSN : 2378-9328
Launched : 2014
Annals of Orthopedics and Rheumatology
ISSN : 2373-9290
Launched : 2013
Journal of Clinical Nephrology and Research
ISSN : 2379-0652
Launched : 2014
Annals of Community Medicine and Practice
ISSN : 2475-9465
Launched : 2014
Annals of Biometrics and Biostatistics
ISSN : 2374-0116
Launched : 2013
JSM Clinical Case Reports
ISSN : 2373-9819
Launched : 2013
Journal of Cancer Biology and Research
ISSN : 2373-9436
Launched : 2013
Journal of Surgery and Transplantation Science
ISSN : 2379-0911
Launched : 2013
Journal of Dermatology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2373-9371
Launched : 2013
JSM Gastroenterology and Hepatology
ISSN : 2373-9487
Launched : 2013
TEST Journal of Dentistry
ISSN : 1234-5678
Launched : 2014
Annals of Nursing and Practice
ISSN : 2379-9501
Launched : 2014
JSM Dentistry
ISSN : 2333-7133
Launched : 2013
Author Information X