Journal of Preventive Medicine and Health Care

A Comparative Study on the Effects of Matter of Balance and Tai Chi on Measures of Balance in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

Original Research | Open Access Volume 3 | Issue 1 |

  • 1. Associated Institutions: Ventura County Medical Center, 300 Hillmont Avenue, Ventura CA 93003
  • 2. Associated Institutions: Community Memorial Hospital, 147 N. Brent St., Ventura CA 93003
+ Show More - Show Less
Corresponding Authors
Graal Diaz, PhD, 147, N. Brent St., Ventura

Diaz G, Lamb A, Cahatol I, Frugoli A, Romero J, et al. (2021) A Comparative Study on the Effects of Matter of Balance and Tai Chi on Measures of Balance in Community-Dwelling Older Adults. J Prev Med Healthc 3(1): 1021.


Falls are a common concern and health risk for aging adults. According to the CDC, more than 30% of persons over 65 years of age will have a fall this year. This risk increases with age. Approximately, 50% of patients 80 years or older will have a fall.(1) Studies have demonstrated that the most significant risk factor for falls is a single fall earlier in the year. Beyond advancing age and prior falls, several other risk factors for falls have been identified, including lower body weakness, difficulty with balance, vision problems, foot pain or choice of footwear, certain medications, vitamin D deficiency, and physical hazards at home.(2)

The importance of fall prevention in our aging population to prevent mortality and morbidity cannot be understated. Data suggests that falls are the leading cause of unintentional death in individuals age 65 and older. Additionally, the CDC reports that one out of five falls will result in serious injuries such as head injury or fractures. In fact, 95% of hip fractures are caused by falls.(3) While the impact on the quality of life for those who fall may be immediately apparent, the resultant financial impact on our healthcare system is also very significant. Each fallrelated hospital admission is estimated to cost approximately 20,000 dollars. By 2030, fall-related health care expenditures are estimated to cost approximately 54 billion dollars.(2, 3)

To combat this, numerous interventions have been designed, studied, and attempted at the community level. A recent metaanalysis regarding community-level fall-prevention modalities was conducted by the CDC. The study focused on four main categories to prevent falls: exercise, home modifications, clinical interventions, and multifaceted interventions.(4) There were no clear recommendations for the best fall prevention strategies despite the lengthy review of 41 previous studies. However, evidence-based fall prevention exercises have demonstrated good outcomes. Data from the Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy suggests that the minimum duration of exercise to protect an older adult against falls is 50 hours.(4) In addition to physical training, management of psychological stressors is also important in preventing falls. Falling can generate fear, leading to limited activity, deconditioning, and eventually further falls.(4, 5) Thus, the CDC recommends that fall prevention programs have physical and psychological components for it to be effective.(4, 5)

Matter of Balance (MOB) is endorsed by the National Council on Aging as one of the best evidence-based fall prevention program.(6) The original concept for MOB was first developed at Boston University in the 1990s and can be described as an 8-week structured group intervention focused on practical strategies to increase strength and activity and to reduce the fear of falling.(7.8) This is accomplished through exercise, cognitive restructuring, and group skill-building and problem-solving activities. It originally involved physical therapists, occupational therapists, social workers, and registered nurses.(6,7,8) To reduce costs associated with having classes led by these health care professionals, many of these classes have been adapted to a lay leader model, making MOB more accessible to members of the general community.(7,8,9).

The CDC Compendium of Effective Fall Interventions also discusses Tai Chi (TC) as an effective exercise program for fall prevention. TC was developed in China as a form of martial art. Several studies show that TC have several health benefits. (6, 7, 8) Sometimes described as “meditation in motion,” TC focuses on low-impact, coordinated motions to improve balance, flexibility, and strength. In addition to the physical impact which helps reduce falls in participants, TC has also demonstrated stress reduction. When applied to geriatric populations, evidence suggests there may be a decrease in fall risk for those who have completed TC programs; however, continued practice was advocated.(8, 9)

To evaluate the effectiveness of fall prevention programs an objective measurement has to be used. A tool that was used for fall risk evaluation in several studies is the timed up and go (TUG) test.(14, 15, 16)The TUG test, is a simple test that involves having a patient stand-up from a standard chair, walk a fixed distance, turn around, walk back to their chair, and sit down in the same chair.(14) The TUG test is widely used in global risk assessment for falls and is even used for an annual assessment of fall risk by Medicare. Prior studies have suggested that worse TUG scores are associated with prior history of falls.(15, 16) Although the predictive utility of the TUG test is thought to be less useful in relatively healthy adults; it may serve more predictive utility in patients who are older with more comorbidities and worse functional baselines.(16)

In this prospective non-randomized analysis, we set out to investigate the impact of community-based MOB and tai chi programs on decreasing the risk of fall in older adults (age 65 and older) in Ventura County, California.



This study used a quasi-experimental design (pretests and post-tests with MOB and TC groups). Participants were from Ventura County Area Agency on Aging’ Fall Prevention Program from 2014-2018. Participants were assessed via a pretest to post-test using the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test. This study’s outcome variable was the delta score of the TUG test pre and post completion of the fall intervention programs. Delta Tug Score (DTS) of zero or less (no change or negative DTS) was classified as “Negative.” Any DTS of one or greater (improvement in DTS) was classified as “Positive.” The pre-TUG assessment took place at the start of the program, and the post TUG assessment was completed within two weeks of the final MOB and TC sessions.


A total of 527 elderly adults enrolled in the evidence-based programs for the study period, 385 (144 MOB, 241 TC) were able to complete it (Table 1). The mean delta TUG score (DTS) was 1.27 seconds. Sixty-two percent of the participants had positive DTS. MOB had a significantly higher number of positive DTS than TC (69.4% vs. 57.3%, P=0.02) (Table 1). Among those who completed the evidence-based programs, 77% were females. Females who took MOB had significantly higher DTS scores compared to those who took TC (Table 2). The mean age in years of participants who completed the program was 75.8. Approximately 8% of the participants were aged 55 to 64, 37.9% were aged 65 to 74, 38% were aged 75 to 84, and 16% were age >85 (Table 3). MOB participants who were age > 75 had a higher proportion of positive DTS than those with age 85 had the most positive DTS. Those who were age 75 to 84 had the lowest number of improved DTS (Table 3). Among those who completed the EB programs, 31.85% reported pain or numbness in their feet, 33.2% had vision problems, 24.8% had hearing problems, 60.3% had arthritis, 39.8% had difficulty-climbing stairs, 21.3% reported taking-sleeping medications, 38.5% reported taking more than five medications daily, 39% had a history of fall during the last 12 months (Table 4). Some factors were reviewed to determine which program would be better suited for certain patients. Only one factor demonstrated statistical difference. Elderly adults who took Matter of Balance, and reported taking sleep aid medications saw a greater improvement in their Delta TUG Scores (P=0.02). In comparing MOB and TC in regards to DTS, the following variables were evaluated but didn’t show statistical difference: feet pain or numbness, vision problems, hearing problems, arthritis, use of assistive walking devise, falls in the past 12-months, and taking more than five medications daily (Table 5).

Table 1: Delta TUG Score by type of EB class (MOB=144, Tai Chi=241).

Delta TUG score (+/-) N MOB Tai Chi P-value
Positive Outcomes 238 69.40% 57.30% 0.02
Negative Outcomes 147 31.60% 43.70%  

Table 2: Positive Delta TUG Score by gender and type of EB class.

Gender N % + DTS (MOB) % + DTS (Tai Chi) P-value
Male 296 67.50% 65.30% 1
Female 89 70.20% 55.10% 0.02

Table 3. Percent of positive TUG score by EB class type and age category.

Age Category N MOB Tai Chi P-value
A (55-64) 30 71.40% 56.50% 0.79
B (65-74) 146 64.40% 62.40% 0.96
C (75-84) 147 73.20% 47.30% <0.01*
D (85+) 62 69.40% 73.10% 0.98

Table 4: Percent of participants with comorbid conditions (N=385, total EB participants).

Comorbid Condition N % of EB participants (MOB+Tai Chi)
Pain and numbness in feet 100 31.85
Vision problems 107 33.23
Hearing problems 80 24.84
Arthritis 194 60.25
Stair difficulty 128 39.75
Sleeping medications 67 21.34
Assistance walking device 29 9.24
Falls past 12 months 146 45.34
More than 5 meds 125 38.46

Table 5: Positive Delta TUG score by presence of comorbid conditions.

Comorbid Condition % of + DTS (MOB) % of + DTS (TC) P-value
Pain and numbness in feet 71.11 61.82 0.45
Vision problems 63.27 63.79 1
Hearing problems 60.98 53.85 0.68
Arthritis 65.88 55.05 0.17
Stair difficulty 70.00 67.24 0.89
Sleeping medications 76.47 45.45 0.02*
Assisting walking device 57.89 62.90 1
Falls in past 12 months 70.23 62.90 0.45
More than 5 meds 67.92 61.11 0.55



Results from this study indicate that MOB participants had better outcomes in the delta tug score than TC participants did. Sixty-four of all participants demonstrated improvement in delta TUG score. By extrapolation, the decline in TUG score may represent a reduction of each patient’s overall fall risk as well. The improvement for participants of both groups may likely be due to the multimodal nature of each approach, as both MOB and Tai Chi aim to improve physical function while also equipping participants with mental tools to address the fear of falling. Notably, participants in MOB were on average older than those who participated in Tai Chi but still demonstrated similar improvement in delta TUG score. Perhaps, this indicate that MOB may be more effective in older participants or at least have more appeal to these participants. Despite a majority improvement in delta TUG score, 21% of all participants had no change in delta TUG score and 15% had a worsened delta TUG score. Although the ideal program would eliminate the risk of falling altogether, this is unfortunately, an unrealistic goal. Moreover, it is possible that participants with multiple comorbidities will have worsening fall risk over time no matter what intervention is chosen. However, slowing functional decline and maintaining baseline functionality may help prevent falls on a long-term basis. While some participants in this study had no change or worsened delta TUG score, participation in the evidence-based programs may have slowed the decline of functional status and lead to longterm improvements not measured within the 12-week time-span of this study. Future studies may demonstrate that. In addition, starting these programs at an earlier age may be more effective.

Although this study did not have a control, group, previous studies have demonstrated overwhelming evidence that both Matter of Balance and tai chi often result in a reduction for fall risks. MOB has been shown in several studies to improve fall risk reduction.(7.8.9) Some studies suggest that Tai chi, on the other hand, does not have long-term risk reduction effect. (3, 12) The evidence suggests improved outcomes is dependent on continued practice.(12)

Focus should be made not only on improving the DTS for each program, but also how to minimize attrition rates. In this study, 142(27%) participants did not complete the evidence-based programs. Future study should include determining the reasons for the fall out.

This study found that TC had better completion rate compared to MOB. One possible explanation may be that on average, participants in the TC group were younger. Age may have an impact on participation in these fall prevention programs. There are factors that could have influenced non-completion of the program, but were not measured in this study such as transportation, distance, time, or health of participant’s family members. Additionally, style and preference may also explain differences in completion rates.

There were more female participants in this study. Perhaps because women, on average live longer than men, and in this particular community, the elder population has bigger proportion of females.(17)

Aside from the lack of a control group and the difference in gender representation, another limitation of this study included the lack of follow-up data after program completion. Although the decline in TUG scores suggests an improvement in fall risk, a follow-up study examining falls for a period after course completion may be useful to investigate the effectiveness of the programs. Additionally, this study did not quantify the amount of time participants practice at home; a follow-up study investigating practice outside of the classroom may help elucidate differences in the long-term effects of each program.

The third edition of the CDC Compendium of Effective Fall Interventions discusses dozens of fall prevention programs. An investigation of these programs may help pinpoint effective interventions that influences better compliance, improved outcomes, increase accessibility and minimize financial burden. Regardless of the direction of future studies, one thing remains certain; with an aging population, the importance of finding solutions to reduce falls is important.


Both the MOB and TC intervention groups demonstrated improvement in delta TUG scores, suggesting a decreased risk of fall for both groups. MOB may be better for older adults and those who take sleeping medications, have hearing problems, have difficulty climbing stairs, and have history of falls in the past year. TC on the other hand may be better for younger elderly adults and for those who use assistive walking devices.


1. Shubert, Tiffany E. Evidence-Based Exercise Prescription for Balance and Falls Prevention: A Current Review of the Literature. Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy. 2011; 34(3): 100–108.

2. Stevens JA, Corso PS, Finkelstein EA, Miller TR. The costs of fatal and non-fatal falls among older adults. Inj Prev. 2006; 12(5): 290-295

3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Injury prevention & control: data & statistics (WISQARSTM). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2020.

4. National Council on Aging: Evidenced- Based Falls Prevention Programs. National Council on Aging. 2020.

5. Howland, Peterson, Levin, Fried, & Pordon. Fear of falling among the community dwelling elderly. J Aging Health. 1993; 5(2): 229-243.

6. Matter of Balance (MOB). Matter of Balance: A program summary. Mater of Balance. 2020.

7. Cheng Peng, Margaret S. Haynes, Elaine M. McMahon, Joel L. Botler, Laurence Gross et al... The Feasibility and Effectiveness of Translating a Matter of Balance Into a Volunteer Lay Leader Model. J South Geriatric Society. 2008; 27(1).

8. Palmer WE, Mercer VS. Effects of the Matter of Balance Program on Self-Reported Physical Activity in Community-Dwelling Older Adults. Gerontol Geriatr Med. 2019; 5.

9. Sartor-Glittenberg C, Bordenave E, Bay C, Bordenave L & Alexander JL. Effect of a Matter of Balance programme on avoidance behaviour due to fear of falling in older adults. Psychogeriatrics. 2018; 18(3):224- 230.

10. Low S, Ang LW, Goh KS, Chew SK. A systematic review of the effectiveness of Tai Chi on fall reduction among the elderly. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2009; 48(3):325-331.

11. Schleicher MM, Wedam L, Wu G. Review of taichi as an effective exercise on fall prevention in elderly. J Sports Med. 2012;20(1): 37-58.

12. Logghe HJ, Verhagen AP, Rademaker ACH, et al. The effects of Tai Chi on fall prevention, fear of falling and balance in older people: A metaanalysis . Prev Med. 2010;51(-4); 222-227.

13. Logghe, HJ, Verhagen, AP, Zeeuwe, PEM, et al. Tai Chi as a falls prevention strategy in older adults compared to conventional physiotherapy exercise: A review. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2017; 57(1): 7-75

14. Schoene D, Wu SM, Mikolaizak AS, Menant JC & Smith ST et al. Discriminative ability and predictive validity of the timed up and go test in identifying older people who fall: systematic review and metaanalysis. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2013; 61(2):202-208.

15. Beauchet O, Fantino B, Allali G, Muir SW & Montero-Odasso M et al. Timed Up and Go test and risk of falls in older adults: a systematic review. J Nutr Health Aging. 2011; 15(10):933-938.

16. Barry E, Galvin R, Keogh C, Horgan F & Fahey T. Is the Timed Up and Go test a useful predictor of risk of falls in community dwelling older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Geriatr. 2014; 14:14.

17. U.S Census Bureau Ventura County Quick Facts. U.S. Census Bureau. 2020.

Received : 29 Apr 2021
Accepted : 02 Jun 2021
Published : 04 Jun 2021
Annals of Otolaryngology and Rhinology
ISSN : 2379-948X
Launched : 2014
JSM Schizophrenia
Launched : 2016
Journal of Nausea
Launched : 2020
JSM Internal Medicine
Launched : 2016
JSM Hepatitis
Launched : 2016
JSM Oro Facial Surgeries
ISSN : 2578-3211
Launched : 2016
Journal of Human Nutrition and Food Science
ISSN : 2333-6706
Launched : 2013
JSM Regenerative Medicine and Bioengineering
ISSN : 2379-0490
Launched : 2013
JSM Spine
ISSN : 2578-3181
Launched : 2016
Archives of Palliative Care
ISSN : 2573-1165
Launched : 2016
JSM Nutritional Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3203
Launched : 2017
Annals of Neurodegenerative Disorders
ISSN : 2476-2032
Launched : 2016
Journal of Fever
ISSN : 2641-7782
Launched : 2017
JSM Bone Marrow Research
ISSN : 2578-3351
Launched : 2016
JSM Mathematics and Statistics
ISSN : 2578-3173
Launched : 2014
Journal of Autoimmunity and Research
ISSN : 2573-1173
Launched : 2014
JSM Arthritis
ISSN : 2475-9155
Launched : 2016
JSM Head and Neck Cancer-Cases and Reviews
ISSN : 2573-1610
Launched : 2016
JSM General Surgery Cases and Images
ISSN : 2573-1564
Launched : 2016
JSM Anatomy and Physiology
ISSN : 2573-1262
Launched : 2016
JSM Dental Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1548
Launched : 2016
Annals of Emergency Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1017
Launched : 2016
Annals of Mens Health and Wellness
ISSN : 2641-7707
Launched : 2017
Journal of Chronic Diseases and Management
ISSN : 2573-1300
Launched : 2016
Annals of Vaccines and Immunization
ISSN : 2378-9379
Launched : 2014
JSM Heart Surgery Cases and Images
ISSN : 2578-3157
Launched : 2016
Annals of Reproductive Medicine and Treatment
ISSN : 2573-1092
Launched : 2016
JSM Brain Science
ISSN : 2573-1289
Launched : 2016
JSM Biomarkers
ISSN : 2578-3815
Launched : 2014
JSM Biology
ISSN : 2475-9392
Launched : 2016
Archives of Stem Cell and Research
ISSN : 2578-3580
Launched : 2014
Annals of Clinical and Medical Microbiology
ISSN : 2578-3629
Launched : 2014
JSM Pediatric Surgery
ISSN : 2578-3149
Launched : 2017
Journal of Memory Disorder and Rehabilitation
ISSN : 2578-319X
Launched : 2016
JSM Tropical Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2578-3165
Launched : 2016
JSM Head and Face Medicine
ISSN : 2578-3793
Launched : 2016
JSM Cardiothoracic Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1297
Launched : 2016
JSM Bone and Joint Diseases
ISSN : 2578-3351
Launched : 2017
JSM Bioavailability and Bioequivalence
ISSN : 2641-7812
Launched : 2017
JSM Atherosclerosis
ISSN : 2573-1270
Launched : 2016
Journal of Genitourinary Disorders
ISSN : 2641-7790
Launched : 2017
Journal of Fractures and Sprains
ISSN : 2578-3831
Launched : 2016
Journal of Autism and Epilepsy
ISSN : 2641-7774
Launched : 2016
Annals of Marine Biology and Research
ISSN : 2573-105X
Launched : 2014
JSM Health Education & Primary Health Care
ISSN : 2578-3777
Launched : 2016
JSM Communication Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3807
Launched : 2016
Annals of Musculoskeletal Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3599
Launched : 2016
Annals of Virology and Research
ISSN : 2573-1122
Launched : 2014
JSM Renal Medicine
ISSN : 2573-1637
Launched : 2016
Journal of Muscle Health
ISSN : 2578-3823
Launched : 2016
JSM Genetics and Genomics
ISSN : 2334-1823
Launched : 2013
JSM Anxiety and Depression
ISSN : 2475-9139
Launched : 2016
Clinical Journal of Heart Diseases
ISSN : 2641-7766
Launched : 2016
Annals of Medicinal Chemistry and Research
ISSN : 2378-9336
Launched : 2014
JSM Pain and Management
ISSN : 2578-3378
Launched : 2016
JSM Women's Health
ISSN : 2578-3696
Launched : 2016
Clinical Research in HIV or AIDS
ISSN : 2374-0094
Launched : 2013
Journal of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity
ISSN : 2333-6692
Launched : 2013
Journal of Substance Abuse and Alcoholism
ISSN : 2373-9363
Launched : 2013
JSM Neurosurgery and Spine
ISSN : 2373-9479
Launched : 2013
Journal of Liver and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2379-0830
Launched : 2014
Journal of Drug Design and Research
ISSN : 2379-089X
Launched : 2014
JSM Clinical Oncology and Research
ISSN : 2373-938X
Launched : 2013
JSM Bioinformatics, Genomics and Proteomics
ISSN : 2576-1102
Launched : 2014
JSM Chemistry
ISSN : 2334-1831
Launched : 2013
Journal of Trauma and Care
ISSN : 2573-1246
Launched : 2014
JSM Surgical Oncology and Research
ISSN : 2578-3688
Launched : 2016
Annals of Food Processing and Preservation
ISSN : 2573-1033
Launched : 2016
Journal of Radiology and Radiation Therapy
ISSN : 2333-7095
Launched : 2013
JSM Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
ISSN : 2578-3572
Launched : 2016
Annals of Clinical Pathology
ISSN : 2373-9282
Launched : 2013
Annals of Cardiovascular Diseases
ISSN : 2641-7731
Launched : 2016
Journal of Behavior
ISSN : 2576-0076
Launched : 2016
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Metabolism
ISSN : 2572-2492
Launched : 2016
Clinical Research in Infectious Diseases
ISSN : 2379-0636
Launched : 2013
JSM Microbiology
ISSN : 2333-6455
Launched : 2013
Journal of Urology and Research
ISSN : 2379-951X
Launched : 2014
Journal of Family Medicine and Community Health
ISSN : 2379-0547
Launched : 2013
Annals of Pregnancy and Care
ISSN : 2578-336X
Launched : 2017
JSM Cell and Developmental Biology
ISSN : 2379-061X
Launched : 2013
Annals of Aquaculture and Research
ISSN : 2379-0881
Launched : 2014
Clinical Research in Pulmonology
ISSN : 2333-6625
Launched : 2013
Journal of Immunology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2333-6714
Launched : 2013
Annals of Forensic Research and Analysis
ISSN : 2378-9476
Launched : 2014
JSM Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
ISSN : 2333-7109
Launched : 2013
Annals of Breast Cancer Research
ISSN : 2641-7685
Launched : 2016
Annals of Gerontology and Geriatric Research
ISSN : 2378-9409
Launched : 2014
Journal of Sleep Medicine and Disorders
ISSN : 2379-0822
Launched : 2014
JSM Burns and Trauma
ISSN : 2475-9406
Launched : 2016
Chemical Engineering and Process Techniques
ISSN : 2333-6633
Launched : 2013
Annals of Clinical Cytology and Pathology
ISSN : 2475-9430
Launched : 2014
JSM Allergy and Asthma
ISSN : 2573-1254
Launched : 2016
Journal of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
ISSN : 2334-2307
Launched : 2013
Annals of Sports Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2379-0571
Launched : 2014
JSM Sexual Medicine
ISSN : 2578-3718
Launched : 2016
Annals of Vascular Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2378-9344
Launched : 2014
JSM Biotechnology and Biomedical Engineering
ISSN : 2333-7117
Launched : 2013
Journal of Hematology and Transfusion
ISSN : 2333-6684
Launched : 2013
JSM Environmental Science and Ecology
ISSN : 2333-7141
Launched : 2013
Journal of Cardiology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2333-6676
Launched : 2013
JSM Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine
ISSN : 2334-1815
Launched : 2013
Journal of Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders
ISSN : 2475-9473
Launched : 2016
JSM Ophthalmology
ISSN : 2333-6447
Launched : 2013
Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Toxicology
ISSN : 2333-7079
Launched : 2013
Annals of Psychiatry and Mental Health
ISSN : 2374-0124
Launched : 2013
Medical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
ISSN : 2333-6439
Launched : 2013
Annals of Pediatrics and Child Health
ISSN : 2373-9312
Launched : 2013
JSM Clinical Pharmaceutics
ISSN : 2379-9498
Launched : 2014
JSM Foot and Ankle
ISSN : 2475-9112
Launched : 2016
JSM Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementia
ISSN : 2378-9565
Launched : 2014
Journal of Addiction Medicine and Therapy
ISSN : 2333-665X
Launched : 2013
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2378-931X
Launched : 2013
Annals of Public Health and Research
ISSN : 2378-9328
Launched : 2014
Annals of Orthopedics and Rheumatology
ISSN : 2373-9290
Launched : 2013
Journal of Clinical Nephrology and Research
ISSN : 2379-0652
Launched : 2014
Annals of Community Medicine and Practice
ISSN : 2475-9465
Launched : 2014
Annals of Biometrics and Biostatistics
ISSN : 2374-0116
Launched : 2013
JSM Clinical Case Reports
ISSN : 2373-9819
Launched : 2013
Journal of Cancer Biology and Research
ISSN : 2373-9436
Launched : 2013
Journal of Surgery and Transplantation Science
ISSN : 2379-0911
Launched : 2013
Journal of Dermatology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2373-9371
Launched : 2013
JSM Gastroenterology and Hepatology
ISSN : 2373-9487
Launched : 2013
TEST Journal of Dentistry
ISSN : 1234-5678
Launched : 2014
Annals of Nursing and Practice
ISSN : 2379-9501
Launched : 2014
JSM Dentistry
ISSN : 2333-7133
Launched : 2013
Author Information X