Journal of Radiology and Radiation Therapy

Imaging of Jaw Lesions Related to Multiple Myeloma

Review Article | Open Access

  • 1. Department of Oral Pathology and Diagnosis, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  • 2. Department of Internal Medicine, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
+ Show More - Show Less
Corresponding Authors
Sandra R. Torres, Department of Oral Pathology and Diagnosis, Dental School, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Av. Carlos Chagas Filho 373 - Prédio do CCS - Bloco K - 2° andar - Sala 56. Ilha da Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro/RJ - CEP: 21.941-902, Brazil, Tel: 55213938-2012

Multiple myeloma is a hematologic malignancy in which the bones are usually affected. The aim of this study is to describe the imaging of jaw bone lesions of patients with multiple myeloma, as reported in the literature. Nearly one third of the patients diagnosed with multiple myeloma present bone lesions in the jaws, and these lesions may assume a variety of radiographic aspects. Lytic lesions named ‘punched-out’ lesions are the most common observed features, and may appear as solitary or multiple lesions. The mandible is usually more affected than the maxilla, and the body, angle and ramus of the mandible are the most affected regions. Orofacial and dental pain, swelling, dental displacement, and root resorption may be present. Screening imaging of jawbones is necessary to detect bone lesions related to multiple myeloma. The extension and relationship of the jaw lesions with the adjacent structures may be evaluated through different imaging tools.


Feitosa Cavalcanti ÉF, Rocha TG, Guedes Visconti MAP, Guedes FR, Pessoa Magalhães JR, et al. (2017) Imaging of Jaw Lesions Related to Multiple Myeloma. J Radiol Radiat Ther 5(2): 1071.


•    Multiple Myeloma
•    Diagnostic Imaging
•    Radiography
•    Plasmacytoma
•    Jaw


HSV-8: Herpes Simplex Virus 8; RANKL: Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-Kappa B Ligand; MRI: Magnetic Resonance Imaging; PET: Positron Emission Tomography; CT: Computed Tomography


Multiple myeloma represents nearly 10% of all malignant hematological diseases [1,2]. The condition is characterized by a proliferation of neoplastic plasma cells in the bone marrow [3]. The malignant plasma cells infiltrate the bone marrow micro enviroment to cause bone loss, and are usually characterized as osteolytic lesions in the radiographs [4]. The jaw bones may also be affected with these lesions, and a routine dental radiograph could potentially detect the early bone changes in patients with multiple myeloma.

Multiple myeloma affects more males than females in a proportion 3:1 [5], with age varying from 50 and 80 years old [3]. The etiology of multiple myeloma is not clear, but exposition to ionizing radiation [5], professional exposition to chemical agents [6], benzene exposure [7], and Herpes Simplex Virus 8 (HSV-8) [2] infection have been related. Multiple myeloma is not curable, and the treatment consists primarily of chemotherapy, with or without radiotherapy, and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant [2].

The osteolytic bone lesions that occur in multiple myeloma are important events and patients presenting these lesions have a high occurrence of pathologic fractures. These lesions never heal, even if the patient remains in complete remission for many years [4]. The osteolytic lesions can affect multiple bones, including the jaws. There are few published studies on the imaging aspects of the jaw lesions of multiple myeloma. The variety of possible aspects of the disease can lead to difficulty in diagnosing these lesions, especially in relation to the differential diagnosis of the jaws lesions.

The clinical and radiographical descriptions of the oral manifestations of patients with multiple myeloma are not standardized. The majority of the publications on these aspects are case reports [1-3, 8-16].The aim of this review is to describe the imaging aspects of the bone lesions of the jaws of patients with multiple myeloma.


Bone Lesions

The neoplasic plasma B cells in multiple myeloma can stimulate the RANKL protein, which activates the precursors of osteoclastic cells, which in turn cause bone resorption. On the other hand, the same plasma cells inhibit the osteoblasts. Thus, the bone remodeling process is deregulated and more resorption than bone deposition will occur, resulting in osteolytic bone lesions [14]. Persistent bone pain is the most common complaint of patients with multiple myeloma, and the higher risk of pathologic fractures.

It has been reported that 70% of the patients with multiple myeloma present visible radiographically bone lesions, at the time of diagnosis [17]. No part of the body is spared from the disease but the most commons areas affected are the femur, vertebrae column, pelvis, ribs, and skull bones [11,12,14,18]. Conventional radiographic skeletal survey had been the gold standard exam to detect the occurrence of osteolytic lesions in patients affected with multiple myeloma, for many years [17]. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of soft tissue lesions. This imaging exam does not use ionizing radiation and it’s not an invasive procedure, which allows the capture of the multiple image planes with contrast use [19].

It has been published that bone lesions of multiple myeloma are better detected by the positron emission tomography (PET) scan than by MRI [20]. The PET scan indicates areas with altered metabolic activity that clinical exam and other conventional imaging methods are not able to show before anatomic bone changes occur [21]. It can also be used to investigate solitary bone plasmacytoma and extra-medullary plasmacytoma [20]. Although PET scan is least sensitive to diffuse bone marrow infiltration, it has been found to be a good diagnostic tool to anticipate a site of impending fracture throughout the body and to discriminate old from new pathologic fractures. The MRI should, utilized when vertebral bodies are suspected and the risk of vertebral fracture is to be assessed.

Oral features of multiple myeloma

The prevalence oral manifestations of multiple myeloma varies from 14% to 30% [10,22]. The myelomatous lesions can mimic common dental related pathologic conditions [2]. Many unspecific oral manifestations of multiple myeloma may be mistaken by common odontogenic and non-odontogenic bone conditions, which might lead to delay in the diagnosis and treatment of the condition. Clinical signs and symptoms of the disease in the jaws of the patients may comprehend: Orofacial pain, paresthesia, swelling, soft tissue masses, teeth mobility, teeth migration/displacement, root resorption, hemorrhage and pathologic fracture due to cortical destruction of bone [2,10,15].

Imaging features of the jaws

About 30% of the patients with multiple myeloma have bone lesions in the jaws [10]. These lesions are more frequent in the posterior area of the lower jaw, mainly in the ramus, angle, body and coronoid process [2,3,8,11,12]. The upper jaw is rarely affected, and when this happens, it is usually in the tuberosity region [16]. There is no consensus on the main radiographic aspects of bone lesions affecting the jaws of patients with multiple myeloma. Different radiographic aspects have been described, however the most common aspect is the “punched out” lesion (Figure 1), which may be presented as single or multiple osteolytic bone lesions, or even as diffuse and not bounded [12,18]. These lesions appear as a result of focal proliferation of plasma cells in the bone marrow [9,15]. Expansile, well delimited lytic lesions, which can be single or multiple have been described by the International Myeloma Working Group as another common imaging finding [17]. Thus, the three main radiographic bone presentations in multiple myeloma patients are the multilocular “soap-bubble” lesions (Figure 2), the unilocular radiolucency with a cystic appearance, and the ill-defined lesion with destructive bone resorption [3,23,24]. In some cases, large irregular radiolucent areas, with non-defined borders showing destruction of adjacent cortical bone may be observed [12]. The aspect of a “mouth-eaten” image is common in aggressive lesions, and may also be observed in cases where there is root resorption [11,12,25].

Sclerotic presentations of multiple myeloma are rare, and occur in only 3% of the cases [18,26,27]. Osteosclerotic bone aspect in myelomas has been classified into four subgroups: (a) diffuse; (b) focal osteocondensation; (c) bony spiculation on the surface of the bone; and (d) sclerotic reaction at the rim of the lytic lesion [18].

Epstein et al. [10], described three different aspects of bone alterations detected in panoramic radiographies of patients with multiple myeloma: normal aspects in which the bone resorption is mild or undetectable; multiple radiolucency named “punchedout” lesions (Figure 1); or, generalized bone rarefaction and diffuse osteoporotic alterations.


The most effective imaging method to evaluate the bone lesions of multiple myeloma patients affected in the area of the jaws has not yet been determined. The most common imaging methods for evaluating bone lesions in the jaws are following described. The periapical radiography is a uni dimensional intraoral exam that uses low ionizing radiation, and allows a detailed evaluation of the structures around the teeth [19]. The periapical radiography can show bone spicules present in the “punched-out” lesions, and a detailed change of the trabecular bone in the area [28,29].

The panoramic radiograph is considered a screening imaging exam in dental practice. It’s easy, fast and with low costs in the diagnosis of pathologic conditions that occur in the jaws, but does not show details in structures. It’s a two-dimensional exam which uses more ionizing radiation than the intraoral radiograph [19]. It provides an evaluation of the lower and upper jaws at the same time as well as others adjacent structures (maxillary sinus, temporomandibular joint) and the relationship of these structures with the teeth. The “punched-out” lesions are considered much more difficult to identify in both panoramic radiography and magnetic resonance imaging [2]. The magnetic resonance imaging in contrast, may expose the tumor expansion throughout the soft tissues [13].

The cone beam computed tomography has been used in the diagnostic of bone lesions in the jaws of multiple myeloma patients [3,13,16,28]. This imaging method allows a threedimensional view of bone lesions details without overlays. The computed tomography (CT) may be useful to show details in the bone lesions of multiple myelomas and also detect the expansion of the lesion, as well as the cortical bone destruction in the hypodense expansive lesions [3,13,16,28].

Sometimes, a variety of different imaging methods may be necessary for the diagnosis and the degree of extension of the lesions. Therefore, every imaging method presents limitations on the detection, evaluation of the extension of the lesions, and the relationship with the adjacent structures.

The differential diagnosis of bone alterations in the jaws associated to multiple myeloma is a challenge partly because of the variability of imaging presentations. The most common differential diagnosis are osteomyelitis, osteoradionecrosis, or osteonenecrosis as consequence of arteriovenous alteration [12]. Whenever the image is associated with teeth, the suspicion of odontogenic cysts and/or tumors needs to be considered [16]. Maxillary sinus carcinoma is suggested when the mass expansion occur in the palatine are a [16]. In the more aggressive and non-delimited lesions with teeth resorption, the diagnosis of osteossarcoma or Edwing sarcoma should be ruled out [14].

Bone lesions of multiple myeloma frequently affect the jaws, and are commonly found specifically in the area of the mandible. The lesions may be single or multiple, and may assume the typical aspect of “punched-out” lesions, or present as extensive lytic lesion. Osteosclerotic aspect may rarely be observed. Screening imaging of jawbones is necessary to detect bone lesionsrelated to multiple myeloma. The extension and the relationship of the jaw lesions with the adjacent structures may be evaluated through different imaging tools.


Study supported by Foundation for Research Support of the State of Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ) JCNE E-26/103.046/2012, grants for Dr. Torres.


1. Pinto LSS, Campagnoli EB, Leon JE, Lopes MA, Jorge J. Maxillary lesion presenting as a first sign of multiple myeloma: Case report. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2007; 12: 344-347.

2. Cardoso RC, Gerngross PJ, Hofstede TM, Weber DM, Chambers MS. The multiple oral presentations of multiple myeloma. Support Care Cancer. 2014; 22: 259-267.

3. Vieira-Leite-Segundo A, Lima Falcão MF, Correia-Lins Filho R, Marques Soares MS, López López J, Chimenos Küstner E. Multiple myeloma with primary manifestation in the mandible: a case report. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2008; 13: 232-234.

4. Segundo A, Falcao M, Filho R, Soares M, Lopez J, Kustner E. Multiple Myeloma with primary manifestation in the mandible: A case report. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2008; 13: 232-234.

5. Walker RC, Brown TL, Jones-Jackson LB, De Blanche L, Bartel T. Imaging of multiple myeloma and related plasma cell dyscrasias. J Nucl Med. 2012; 53: 1091-1101.

6. Lewis EB. Leukemia, Multiple Myeloma, and Aplastic Anemia in American Radiologists. Science. 1963; 142: 1492-1494.

7. Demers PA, Vaughan TL, Koepsell TD, Lyon JL, Swanson GM, Greenberg RS, et al. A case-control study of multiple myeloma and occupation. Am J Ind Med. 1993; 23: 629-639.

8. Crump KS. Risk of benzene-induced leukemia predicted from the Pliofilm cohort. Environ Health Perspect. 1996; 104: 1437-1441.

9. Yoshimura Y, Takada K, Kawai N, Hasegawa K, Ishikawa T. Two cases of plasmacytoma in the oral cavity. Int J Oral Surg. 1976; 5: 82-91.

10. Barr GS, Zweig B, Itkin AB. Intraoral corroboration of systemic plasma-cell myeloma. Abbreviated case report. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1976; 42: 22-25.

11. Epstein JB, Voss NJ, Stevenson-Moore P. Maxillofacial manifestations of multiple myeloma. An unusual case and review of the literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1984; 57: 267-271.

12. Lee SH, Huang JJ, Pan WL, Chan CP. Gingival mass as the primary manifestation of multiple myeloma: report of two cases. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 1996; 82: 75-79.

13. Mozaffari E, Mupparapu M, Otis L. Undiagnosed multiple myeloma causing extensive dental bleeding: report of a case and review. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2002; 94: 448-453.

14. Zhao XJ, Sun J, Wang YD, Wang L. Maxillary pain is the first indication of the presence of multiple myeloma: A case report. Mol Clin Oncol. 2014; 2: 59-64.

15. Vinayachandran D, Sankarapandian S. Multiple osteolytic lesions. J Clin Imaging Sci. 2013; 3: 6.

16. Jain S, Kaur H, Kansal G, Gupta P. Multiple myeloma presenting as gingival hyperplasia. J Indian Soc Periodontol. 2013; 17: 391-393.

17. Ramaiah KK, Joshi V, Thayi SR, Sathyanarayana P, Patil P, Ahmed Z. Multiple myeloma presenting with a maxillary lesion as the first sign. Imaging Sci Dent. 2015; 45: 55-60.

18. International Myeloma Working Group. Criteria for the classification of monoclonal gammopathies, multiple myeloma and related disorders: a report of the International Myeloma Working Group. Br J Haematol. 2003; 121: 749-757.

19. Witt C, Borges A, Klein K, Neumann H. Radiographic manifestations of multiple myeloma in the mandible: a retrospective study of 77 patients. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1997; 55: 450-453.

20. White S, Pharoah M. Oral Radiology-Principles and Interpretation. 7th Edn. Elsevier Health Sci. 2014: 696.

21. Dammacco F, Rubini G, Ferrari C, Vacca A, Racanelli V. ¹?F-FDG PET/CT: a review of diagnostic and prognostic features in multiple myeloma and related disorders. Clin Exp Med. 2015; 15: 1-18.

22. Peller PJ. Role of positron emission tomography/computed tomography in bone malignancies. Radiol Clin North Am. 2013; 51: 845-864.

23. Neville BW, Damm DD, Allen CM, Bouquot JE. Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology. 2nd Edn. WB Saunders Company. Philadelphia. 2002: 864.

24. Lambertenghi-Deliliers G, Bruno E, Cortelezzi A, Fumagalli L, Morosini A. Incidence of jaw lesions in 193 patients with multiple myeloma. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1988; 65: 533-537.

25. Lae ME, Vencio EF, Inwards CY, Unni KK, Nascimento AG. Myeloma of the jaw bones: a clinicopathologic study of 33 cases. Head Neck. 2003; 25: 373-381.

26. Anacak Y, Kamer S, Donmez A, Haydaroglu A. Destruction of molar roots by metastasis of multiple myeloma. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2002; 40: 515.

27. Ghosh S, Wadhwa P, Kumar a, Pai KM, Seshadri S, Manohar C. Abnormal radiological features in a multiple myeloma patient: A case report and radiological review of myelomas. Dentomaxillofacial Radiol. 2011; 40: 513-518.

28. Li Y, Wu W, Zhang Z, Ding Y, Latif M. Sclerotic multiple myeloma with an unusual sunburst periosteal reaction occuring in the sternum. Skeleta Radiol. 2015; 44: 749-754.

29. Baykul T, Aydin U, O Carroll MK. Unusual combination of presenting features in multiple myeloma. Dentomaxillofacial Radiol. 2004; 33: 413-419.

Received : 17 Sep 2016
Accepted : 23 Aug 2017
Published : 25 Aug 2017
Annals of Otolaryngology and Rhinology
ISSN : 2379-948X
Launched : 2014
JSM Schizophrenia
Launched : 2016
Journal of Nausea
Launched : 2020
JSM Internal Medicine
Launched : 2016
JSM Hepatitis
Launched : 2016
JSM Oro Facial Surgeries
ISSN : 2578-3211
Launched : 2016
Journal of Human Nutrition and Food Science
ISSN : 2333-6706
Launched : 2013
JSM Regenerative Medicine and Bioengineering
ISSN : 2379-0490
Launched : 2013
JSM Spine
ISSN : 2578-3181
Launched : 2016
Archives of Palliative Care
ISSN : 2573-1165
Launched : 2016
JSM Nutritional Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3203
Launched : 2017
Annals of Neurodegenerative Disorders
ISSN : 2476-2032
Launched : 2016
Journal of Fever
ISSN : 2641-7782
Launched : 2017
JSM Bone Marrow Research
ISSN : 2578-3351
Launched : 2016
JSM Mathematics and Statistics
ISSN : 2578-3173
Launched : 2014
Journal of Autoimmunity and Research
ISSN : 2573-1173
Launched : 2014
JSM Arthritis
ISSN : 2475-9155
Launched : 2016
JSM Head and Neck Cancer-Cases and Reviews
ISSN : 2573-1610
Launched : 2016
JSM General Surgery Cases and Images
ISSN : 2573-1564
Launched : 2016
JSM Anatomy and Physiology
ISSN : 2573-1262
Launched : 2016
JSM Dental Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1548
Launched : 2016
Annals of Emergency Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1017
Launched : 2016
Annals of Mens Health and Wellness
ISSN : 2641-7707
Launched : 2017
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Health Care
ISSN : 2576-0084
Launched : 2018
Journal of Chronic Diseases and Management
ISSN : 2573-1300
Launched : 2016
Annals of Vaccines and Immunization
ISSN : 2378-9379
Launched : 2014
JSM Heart Surgery Cases and Images
ISSN : 2578-3157
Launched : 2016
Annals of Reproductive Medicine and Treatment
ISSN : 2573-1092
Launched : 2016
JSM Brain Science
ISSN : 2573-1289
Launched : 2016
JSM Biomarkers
ISSN : 2578-3815
Launched : 2014
JSM Biology
ISSN : 2475-9392
Launched : 2016
Archives of Stem Cell and Research
ISSN : 2578-3580
Launched : 2014
Annals of Clinical and Medical Microbiology
ISSN : 2578-3629
Launched : 2014
JSM Pediatric Surgery
ISSN : 2578-3149
Launched : 2017
Journal of Memory Disorder and Rehabilitation
ISSN : 2578-319X
Launched : 2016
JSM Tropical Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2578-3165
Launched : 2016
JSM Head and Face Medicine
ISSN : 2578-3793
Launched : 2016
JSM Cardiothoracic Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1297
Launched : 2016
JSM Bone and Joint Diseases
ISSN : 2578-3351
Launched : 2017
JSM Bioavailability and Bioequivalence
ISSN : 2641-7812
Launched : 2017
JSM Atherosclerosis
ISSN : 2573-1270
Launched : 2016
Journal of Genitourinary Disorders
ISSN : 2641-7790
Launched : 2017
Journal of Fractures and Sprains
ISSN : 2578-3831
Launched : 2016
Journal of Autism and Epilepsy
ISSN : 2641-7774
Launched : 2016
Annals of Marine Biology and Research
ISSN : 2573-105X
Launched : 2014
JSM Health Education & Primary Health Care
ISSN : 2578-3777
Launched : 2016
JSM Communication Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3807
Launched : 2016
Annals of Musculoskeletal Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3599
Launched : 2016
Annals of Virology and Research
ISSN : 2573-1122
Launched : 2014
JSM Renal Medicine
ISSN : 2573-1637
Launched : 2016
Journal of Muscle Health
ISSN : 2578-3823
Launched : 2016
JSM Genetics and Genomics
ISSN : 2334-1823
Launched : 2013
JSM Anxiety and Depression
ISSN : 2475-9139
Launched : 2016
Clinical Journal of Heart Diseases
ISSN : 2641-7766
Launched : 2016
Annals of Medicinal Chemistry and Research
ISSN : 2378-9336
Launched : 2014
JSM Pain and Management
ISSN : 2578-3378
Launched : 2016
JSM Women's Health
ISSN : 2578-3696
Launched : 2016
Clinical Research in HIV or AIDS
ISSN : 2374-0094
Launched : 2013
Journal of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity
ISSN : 2333-6692
Launched : 2013
Journal of Substance Abuse and Alcoholism
ISSN : 2373-9363
Launched : 2013
JSM Neurosurgery and Spine
ISSN : 2373-9479
Launched : 2013
Journal of Liver and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2379-0830
Launched : 2014
Journal of Drug Design and Research
ISSN : 2379-089X
Launched : 2014
JSM Clinical Oncology and Research
ISSN : 2373-938X
Launched : 2013
JSM Bioinformatics, Genomics and Proteomics
ISSN : 2576-1102
Launched : 2014
JSM Chemistry
ISSN : 2334-1831
Launched : 2013
Journal of Trauma and Care
ISSN : 2573-1246
Launched : 2014
JSM Surgical Oncology and Research
ISSN : 2578-3688
Launched : 2016
Annals of Food Processing and Preservation
ISSN : 2573-1033
Launched : 2016
JSM Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
ISSN : 2578-3572
Launched : 2016
Annals of Clinical Pathology
ISSN : 2373-9282
Launched : 2013
Annals of Cardiovascular Diseases
ISSN : 2641-7731
Launched : 2016
Journal of Behavior
ISSN : 2576-0076
Launched : 2016
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Metabolism
ISSN : 2572-2492
Launched : 2016
Clinical Research in Infectious Diseases
ISSN : 2379-0636
Launched : 2013
JSM Microbiology
ISSN : 2333-6455
Launched : 2013
Journal of Urology and Research
ISSN : 2379-951X
Launched : 2014
Journal of Family Medicine and Community Health
ISSN : 2379-0547
Launched : 2013
Annals of Pregnancy and Care
ISSN : 2578-336X
Launched : 2017
JSM Cell and Developmental Biology
ISSN : 2379-061X
Launched : 2013
Annals of Aquaculture and Research
ISSN : 2379-0881
Launched : 2014
Clinical Research in Pulmonology
ISSN : 2333-6625
Launched : 2013
Journal of Immunology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2333-6714
Launched : 2013
Annals of Forensic Research and Analysis
ISSN : 2378-9476
Launched : 2014
JSM Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
ISSN : 2333-7109
Launched : 2013
Annals of Breast Cancer Research
ISSN : 2641-7685
Launched : 2016
Annals of Gerontology and Geriatric Research
ISSN : 2378-9409
Launched : 2014
Journal of Sleep Medicine and Disorders
ISSN : 2379-0822
Launched : 2014
JSM Burns and Trauma
ISSN : 2475-9406
Launched : 2016
Chemical Engineering and Process Techniques
ISSN : 2333-6633
Launched : 2013
Annals of Clinical Cytology and Pathology
ISSN : 2475-9430
Launched : 2014
JSM Allergy and Asthma
ISSN : 2573-1254
Launched : 2016
Journal of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
ISSN : 2334-2307
Launched : 2013
Annals of Sports Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2379-0571
Launched : 2014
JSM Sexual Medicine
ISSN : 2578-3718
Launched : 2016
Annals of Vascular Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2378-9344
Launched : 2014
JSM Biotechnology and Biomedical Engineering
ISSN : 2333-7117
Launched : 2013
Journal of Hematology and Transfusion
ISSN : 2333-6684
Launched : 2013
JSM Environmental Science and Ecology
ISSN : 2333-7141
Launched : 2013
Journal of Cardiology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2333-6676
Launched : 2013
JSM Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine
ISSN : 2334-1815
Launched : 2013
Journal of Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders
ISSN : 2475-9473
Launched : 2016
JSM Ophthalmology
ISSN : 2333-6447
Launched : 2013
Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Toxicology
ISSN : 2333-7079
Launched : 2013
Annals of Psychiatry and Mental Health
ISSN : 2374-0124
Launched : 2013
Medical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
ISSN : 2333-6439
Launched : 2013
Annals of Pediatrics and Child Health
ISSN : 2373-9312
Launched : 2013
JSM Clinical Pharmaceutics
ISSN : 2379-9498
Launched : 2014
JSM Foot and Ankle
ISSN : 2475-9112
Launched : 2016
JSM Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementia
ISSN : 2378-9565
Launched : 2014
Journal of Addiction Medicine and Therapy
ISSN : 2333-665X
Launched : 2013
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2378-931X
Launched : 2013
Annals of Public Health and Research
ISSN : 2378-9328
Launched : 2014
Annals of Orthopedics and Rheumatology
ISSN : 2373-9290
Launched : 2013
Journal of Clinical Nephrology and Research
ISSN : 2379-0652
Launched : 2014
Annals of Community Medicine and Practice
ISSN : 2475-9465
Launched : 2014
Annals of Biometrics and Biostatistics
ISSN : 2374-0116
Launched : 2013
JSM Clinical Case Reports
ISSN : 2373-9819
Launched : 2013
Journal of Cancer Biology and Research
ISSN : 2373-9436
Launched : 2013
Journal of Surgery and Transplantation Science
ISSN : 2379-0911
Launched : 2013
Journal of Dermatology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2373-9371
Launched : 2013
JSM Gastroenterology and Hepatology
ISSN : 2373-9487
Launched : 2013
Annals of Nursing and Practice
ISSN : 2379-9501
Launched : 2014
JSM Dentistry
ISSN : 2333-7133
Launched : 2013
Author Information X