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Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Research

Prevalence of Subclinical Mastitis and Antibiogram of Escherichia Coli in Cow Milk of Western Chitwan

Review Article | Open Access

  • 1. Livestock Development Officer, Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development, Nepal
  • 2. Veterinarian, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Nepal
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Corresponding Authors
Koirala Aavash, Livestock Development Officer, Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development, Bagamati Province, Nepal, Tel: 9779855011921
Abstract

Mastitis, a management-related disease affecting cow production efficiency, was studied in 90 dairy cattle in Western Chitwan. Subclinical mastitis (SCM) prevalence was determined using the CMT test, with 31.09% (111 out of 357) of milk samples testing positive. No significant difference was found in quarterwise prevalences of SCM. Commercial farms had a higher SCM prevalence (39%) than conventional farms, a statistically significant finding.

The CMT test demonstrated a sensitivity of 95% in identifying SCM. Bacteriological culture and biochemical tests revealed E. coli in 16.25% (18 out of 106) of samples. Among the antibiotics tested on Muller-Hilton Agar using CLSI 2012, Ciprofloxacin, Norfloxacin, and Tetracycline were most effective, while Amoxyclav was completely resistant. Furthermore, 83.33% of isolates displayed a Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) index exceeding 0.2, indicating the need for rational antibiotic use.

The study highlights a concerning SCM prevalence of 31.09% in Chitwan’s dairy cattle, with 16.98% of SCM cases attributed to E. coli. These findings indicate emerging management issues affecting animal health and economic losses. The study emphasizes the importance of farm sanitation and personal hygiene to mitigate the risk of E. coli infection. Additionally, prudent antibiotic use and public awareness are crucial to control the unregulated antibiotic usage.

Overall, the study underscores the significance of managing mastitis in dairy cattle through effective practices and preventive measures. Reducing SCM prevalence can enhance production efficiency and economic outcomes for farmers in the region.

Keywords

Subclinical mastitis, CMT, E. coli

CITATION

Aavash K, Sajita G, Narayan GC, Kumar SA. (2023) Prevalence of Subclinical Mastitis and Antibiogram of Escherichia Coli in Cow Milk of Western Chitwan. J Vet Med Res 10(3): 1248.

INTRODUCTION

Nepal, a developing country heavily reliant on agriculture, has approximately 65.6% of its population engaged in this sector. Agriculture contributes about 32% to the total GDP, with livestock playing a vital role. Traditionally, livestock farming in Nepal was predominantly sustainable, but commercialization has gradually modified this approach. The rise of commercial cattle farms in Chitwan has been notable, with 365 registered farms and several others seeking registration. Despite the economic importance of livestock, farmers often face challenges due to poor management practices and hygiene, resulting in reduced productivity. Mastitis, a prevalent disease worldwide, significantly affects dairy animal production and health, leading to decreased milk yield and higher somatic cell counts. Mastitis can be classified as clinical and subclinical.

Subclinical Mastitis in Cattle

In cattle, mastitis is associated with many different infectious agents, commonly divided into those causing contagious mastitis, which are spread from infected quarters to other quarters and cows; those that are normal teat skin inhabitants and cause opportunistic mastitis; and those causing environmental mastitis, which are usually present in the cow’s environment and reach the teat from that source [1]. The environmental coliforms include the Gram-negative bacteria E. coli, Klebsiella spp., and Enterobacter spp. A. pyogenes mastitis can be an important problem in some herds. Some pathogens involved in mastitis are Contagious pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Mycoplasma bovis, and Corynebacterium bovis Teat skin opportunistic pathogens: coagulase-negative staphylococci, Environmental pathogens: environmental Streptococcus spp., including Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus dysgalactiae, which are the most prevalent; less prevalent is Streptococcus equinus (formerly referred to as Streptococcus bovis). Environmental coliforms include the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., and Arcanobacterium (formerly Actinomyces) pyogenes. Uncommon pathogens: many, including Nocardia spp., Pasteurella spp., Mycobacterium bovis, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas spp., Serratia marcescens, Citrobacter spp., anaerobic bacteria species, fungi, and yeasts. A total of about 140 microbial species, subspecies, and serovars have been isolated from the bovine mammary gland [1].

Detecting subclinical mastitis requires special diagnostic tests since there are no visible milk abnormalities. The somatic cell count (SCC) is commonly used to identify inflammatory changes, with a higher SCC indicating greater tissue inflammation. And bacteriological culture can also identify the pathogens involved in the development of subclinical mastitis [2]. This problem is worldwide. Etiologies for mastitis are like bacteria, mycoplasma, fungus, and viruses, but among them, bacteriological origins are the most common. The sources of infection included an infected cow, contaminated bedding and manure, vaginal and uterine infections, the milker’s hand, a suckling calf, the milking machine, and house flies [2].

Many articles have claimed that the worldwide prevalence of SCM is high and is a major concern regarding the prevention of mastitis. If we can treat or decrease the incidence of SCM, then we can minimize the risk of mastitis. Many studies have been done in different countries to calculate the prevalence of SCM, and some of the findings are: in Chitwan, the prevalence of SCM was found to be 33.33% [3]. An Epidemiological investigation of subclinical bovine mastitis in western Chitwan, Nepal, by Dhakal [4], has found a 30% prevalence of SCM in cattle. Khakural [5], found 17.2% of SCM in the Kathmandu Valley.

Shrestha and Bindari [6], analyzed 200 milk samples collected from 50 dairy cows in Bhaktapur. They found 52% of animals suffering from subclinical mastitis. A study was conducted by Sudhan [7], to determine the prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis and the pathogen associated with sub-clinical mastitis in India. His findings suggest that the prevalence of SCM is 14.43% in cattle.

E. coli in Cattle with SCM

E. coli is responsible for the development of coliform infections, both clinical and subclinical. They are generally found in bedding, manure, and the digestive tract and cause environmental mastitis. Many studies have been done to find out the prevalence of E. coli in SCM. Shrestha and Bindari [6], analyzed 200 milk samples collected from 50 dairy cows in Bhaktapur. They isolated 10% E. coli from the total bacterial growth of a subclinical mastitis-positive sample.

A similar study done by Hamal found that 6.89% of the E. coli in the sample was positive for SCM. Sudhan [7], found 1.72% E. coli in an SCM-positive sample. And this research was done on organized farms only. A study conducted by Hameed et al. [8], in Pakistan to study microorganisms associated with mastitis in cattle found E. coli (16%).

Pathogenesis of E. coli Mastitis

Coliform bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Serratia marcescens, are common pathogens responsible for causing mastitis [9]. These bacteria are natural inhabitants of soil, digestive tracts, manure, and bedding materials. Contaminated bedding, with coliform numbers reaching 1,000,000 or more per gram, increases the likelihood of udder infections and clinical mastitis.

Coliform bacteria invade the udder through the teat sphincter when the teat ends come into contact with them. Once inside the mammary gland, coliform bacteria can either rapidly multiply or remain dormant. As the cow’s immune system attempts to destroy them, coliforms release endotoxins into the cow’s body. These endotoxins cause changes in vascular permeability, leading to edema and acute swelling of the gland, as well as a significant increase in neutrophils in the milk. The concentration of neutrophils may increase 40–250 times, effectively inhibiting the survival of E. coli. This excessive migration of neutrophils is linked to the pronounced systemic leukopenia and neutropenia seen in cases of peracute coliform mastitis [1]. Clinical signs of coliform mastitis are primarily caused by the endotoxins produced by the bacteria. Infected cows display a high fever, a depressed appetite, rapid weight loss, abnormal milk production, and decreased milk production. Seasonal patterns, such as high temperatures, heavy rainfall, and unstable weather conditions, often contribute to new clinical infections. Severe cases are more common in older, high-producing cows early in lactation. Coliform bacteria are widespread in the environment, affecting all dairy herds to varying degrees. While they cause a high percentage of acute clinical cases, they account for less than 5% of total infected quarters within a herd at any given time. In some cases, the release of sufficient endotoxin can lead to seriously ill cows and even death.

Coliform bacteria cause numerous cases of acute clinical mastitis in dairy cows. Affected cows exhibit high fever, udder inflammation, depressed appetite, dehydration, diarrhea, decreased milk production, and abnormal milk. The milk may appear watery with clots, but these characteristics do not necessarily indicate the specific mastitis pathogen. Typically, only one quarter of cows are clinically infected, although coliforms can also cause persistent subclinical infections. Treating these infections is generally not effective, as the majorities are eliminated by the cow’s immune system.

Antibiotic Sensitivity Test for E. coli

Treatment of coliform mastitis in cattle has been controversial, as when E. coli is destroyed by the cow’s immune system, it releases a toxin (endotoxin) called lipopolysaccharide endotoxin, which is the primary cause for the development of clinical signs. Antibiotics act to kill the bacteria, and in this case, these infections would result in the production of endotoxin, which is fatal to cow health [10]. But sometimes the infection becomes systemic and severe; in such cases, the administration of antibiotics through the perenteral route, followed by an intramuscular infusion, fluid therapy, and electrolyte therapy, is recommended [1].

Unregulated uses of antibiotics lead to the development of Extended Spectrum beta-lactamase enzymes producing E. coli (ESBL in E. coli) [11], and multiple antibiotic-resistant strains of E. coli. Hence, proper drug selection and antibiotic sensitivity testing should be performed before prescribing antibiotics.

In a study done by Chandrasekaran et al. [12], on the treatment of resistant mastitis in dairy cows, 86.65% of isolated E. coli were found to be resistant, i.e., resistant to 1 or 2 antimicrobials, and only a few E. coli isolates (13.45%) were found to be multi-drug resistant, i.e., resistant to 3 or more antimicrobials.

Antibiotics have been beneficial in enhancing growth, performance, and treating ailments in the dairy industry. However, treatment is often administered only after cows exhibit clinical signs without early screening tests or proper diagnosis, leading to haphazard antibiotic use. Subclinical mastitis is difficult to detect due to the absence of any visible indications and has major cost implications associated with decreased milk production [13]. In India, the annual economic loss to the dairy industry due to subclinical mastitis is estimated to be Rs. 43653 million [14]. The incidence of coliform mastitis has increased since serious efforts have been made to eliminate Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus sp. Mastitis [15]. Recently, due to the unregulated use of various antimicrobial agents without AST, antibiotic resistance strains of pathogens have been developed, like MRSA [16], and ESBL-producing E. coli. And these strains are transmitted to humans through the ingestion of infected milk and have public health concerns.

Objectives

• To identify subclinical mastitis using an indirect test, i.e., the California Mastitis Test

• Determine the sensitivity of the California mastitis test

• Isolate and phenotypically identify coli from cattle with subclinical mastitis.

• Antibiotic sensitivity test to find out the choice of drugs against E. coli.

METHODS AND MATERIALS

The research was carried out in Geetanagar, Rampur, and Shardanagar of Chitwan district. All these areas were in similar condition and contained significant cattle populations in both conventional and commercial farming systems. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the study area for the determination of the prevalence of subclinical mastitis and the antibiogram of E. coli in cow milk from September, 2017 to December 2017. The cattle milk under study was basically from conventional and commercial farms. A farm having more than 10 livestock units was defined as a commercial farm, and up to 10 large cattle units are considered conventional farms [17]. 357 samples from animals of different farms were taken. Among 90 cattle, 50 cattle from commercial farm and remaining from individual farm were selected purposively. And all the microbiological lab works were done in National Cattle Research Program microbiology lab.

The teats were swabbed with 70% ethyl alcohol and allowed to dry. Initial milk streaks were discarded. Milk was then collected aseptically in sterile vials labeled as fore right, fore left, hind right, and hind left. The samples were used in the laboratory within an hour. Subclinical mastitis detection involved using a subclinical mastitis detector and comparing milk values with the reference range for subclinical mastitis. A California mastitis test was also performed for subclinical mastitis identification.

Microbiological Analysis of Sample

Culture of Milk Sample: The infected milk samples were streaked on nutrient agar and MacConkey agar, followed by overnight incubation at 37°C. Petri plates with no microbial growth after incubation were further incubated for 48 hours. Gram staining of colonies on nutrient agar was performed to identify gram-negative bacteria. The gram-negative bacteria exhibiting grayish-white colonies on nutrient agar and rosepink colonies on MacConkey agar were subcultured on EMB agar at 37°C for 24 hours. Biochemical tests, including the indole test, the methyl red test, the Voges-Proskauer test, the citrate utilization test, and the oxidase test, were conducted using the gram-negative colonies from nutrient agar. The identification of E. coli was based on the following characteristics: large, smooth, opaque, or partially translucent moist greyish-white colonies on nutrient agar; rose-pink colonies on MacConkey agar; metallic sheen seen on EMB agar; positive indole and methyl red tests; negative Voges-Proskauer test; citrate test; and oxidase test.

Antibiotic Sensitivity Test: By Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method using Mueller-Hinton agar plate following guidelines provided by the CLSI [18]. Briefly, 0.5 McFarland of bacterial suspension was inoculated on Muller Hilton Agar and following disk were placed: Gentamycin (10mg), Ciprofloxacin (5mg), Norfloxacin (10mg), Tetracycline (30mg), Cefotoxime (30mg) and Amoxyclav (30mg).

Data Analysis

• Data analysis was done using SPSS version 16.0.

• The association between different variables was analyzed using the Chi square test at a 5% level of significance.

• The MAR index was calculated from the AST data. The MAR index of an isolate is defined as a/b, where ‘a’ represents the number of antibiotics to which the isolate was resistant and ‘b’ represents the number of antibiotics to which the isolate was subjected [19].

 

RESULTS

Prevalence of Subclinical Mastitis Early screening tests were done to identify subclinical mastitis, and out of 357 milk samples, 111 were identified as SCM. Among the 357 samples, 246 (68.90%) showed CMT negativity. 69 (19.32%) showed mild positive (+) and 42 (11.76%) showed strong positive (++). CMT in at least one quarter, but without clinical symptoms, was classified as SCM-positive. So the quarterwise prevalence of SCM was found to be 31.09%. This has been illustrated in Figure 1.

Prevalence of SCM in cow milk.

Figure 1: Prevalence of SCM in cow milk.

Quarter-wise prevalence of SCM

The prevalence of SCM in the left front, right front, left hind, and right hind was found to be 34.44%, 26.14%, 33.33%, and 30.34%, respectively. The highest prevalence was found in the left half. There was no significant difference in the quarter-wise prevalence of SCM (P< 0.05). This has been illustrated in Figure 2.

Quarter wise prevalence of SCM.

Figure 2: Quarter wise prevalence of SCM.

Farming system-wise prevalence of SCM

(Table 1) In my study prevalence of subclinical mastitis was high in commercial farming system which was found to be 39% than conventional (20.6%) which was highly significant (P<0.05).

Sensitivity of CMT in response to bacterial growth

Out of 111 positive milk samples, only 106 showed bacterial growth on bacteriological culture. The remaining five samples did not show any bacterial growth. Hence, the sensitivity of the CMT test in response to bacterial growth was found to be 95% (Figure 3).

Figure 3: Sensitivity of CMT in response to bacterial growth.

Proportion of E. coli in Cow Milk with SCM

Out of 106 bacterial cultures, E. coli was isolated in 18 colonies through colony morphology and biochemical tests. Hence, the proportion of E. coli in cow milk with SCM was found to be 16.98%, which is given in the pie chart below (Figure 4).

Pie chart showing proportion of E. coli in cow milk with SCM.

Figure 4: Pie chart showing proportion of E. coli in cow milk with SCM.

Antibiotic Sensitivity Results of Isolates E. coli

In my study E coli was more sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, Norfloxacin and Tetracycline with 100% sensitivity. Amoxyclav was found to be complete resistance. The graphical representation of sensitivity pattern of different antibiotics against E. coli isolates is given below (Figure 5).

Bar graph showing AST results of isolates E. coli.

Figure 5: Bar graph showing AST results of isolates E. coli.

Multiple Antibiotic Resistant Index of Isolated E. coli

In this study, 6 different antibiotics were used and MAR index was calculated for each E coli isolated. The graphical representation of MAR indices of individual bacterial isolates against 6 different antibiotics is shown in Figure 6.

Bar graph showing MAR indexing of E. coli isolates on 6 different antibiotics.

Figure 6: Bar graph showing MAR indexing of E. coli isolates on 6 different antibiotics.

Here, the maximum isolates showed the MAR index of 0.2 and 83.33% isolates showed MAR index more than 0.2.

DISCUSSION

In a study of mastitis in Western Chitwan District, researchers using the CMT found the prevalence of SCM to be 30% in cows [4], which was similar to the present research findings. Based on CMT, the overall prevalence of SCM was 33.33% [3], in Chitwan, another similar finding.

In contrast to my findings, Shrestha and Bindari [6], found a 52% prevalence of SCM in Bhaktpur, Nepal, on the basis of CMT, which was higher than my findings and could be due to the different management practices used by those farmers. They also explained that their result of a higher prevalence was due to poor management practices. Poor hygiene and milking practices are reported to accelerate the disease [20].

Also, the findings of Sudhan [7], which were contradicted and lower than my findings, which are about 15.62%, the appropriate reason for such a difference, might be due to the seasonality of the research, which was done on organized farms only.

In my study, the prevalence of subclinical mastitis was higher in commercial farming systems than conventional ones, which was statistically significant (P<0.05). This could be due to the high number of animals on commercial farms, and the chance of infection spreading from one animal to another is likely to be high. However, Rahman [21], in Bangladesh found no significant difference among farming systems (P>0.05).

Quarter-wise, the occurrence of SCM was generally high in the left quarters. Statistically, there was no significant difference in the quarter-wise prevalence of SCM (P>0.05) which was similar to the findings of Shittu et al. [22], in Nigeria and Hashemi et al. [23], in Iran. Though an immediate explanation cannot be established for this observation, it is highly likely that in the process of milking, these particular quarters were milked first before the other quarters because most of the operators tend to be right-handed and sit first with the left animals [19].

Out of 111 positive milk samples, only 106 showed bacterial growth on bacteriological culture. My finding was similar to the findings of Saidi [24], who found 96% sensitivity of CMT in response to bacterial growth, and Teklesilasie [25], who found 97.6% sensitivity.

The higher prevalence rate of E. coli in cow milk with SCM on the basis of bacteriological culture and biochemical properties found in the research of Hameed et al. [8], which was 16% in Pakistan, was similar to my findings. And also, the research done by Hashemi et al. [23], (13.64% in Iran) was in agreement with my findings.

However, Sudhan [7], found a prevalence of 1.72% of E. coli in SCM, which was much lower than my findings despite the same procedure. The reason might be due to the different geographical location, climatic conditions during sampling, and hygiene practices of the study area. Also, Hamal [26-30], found a 6.89% prevalence of E. coli in SCM in Chitwan district, which was lower than my findings, which might be due to different climatic conditions and a small sample size [31-35].

E. coli was more sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and Tetracycline. Resistance to Cefotaxime and Amoxyclav might be due to the high use of beta-lactam antibiotics to treat mastitis in cattle. Research done by Chandrasekaran et al., [12, 36-45], found 86.65% isolated E.coli were found to be resistant i.e resistance to 1 or 2 of antimicrobials and few E. coli isolates (13.45 %) were found to be multi-drug resistant i.e. resistance to 3 or more of antimicrobials which is similar to my findings. The reason might be due to the unregulated use of antibiotics or the prescription of drugs without AST that develop multiple antibiotic resistance strains [46-51].

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

My research findings indicate a high prevalence of subclinical mastitis, highlighting its emergence as a significant managemental problem impacting animal health and causing economic losses. Coliform mastitis, caused by the environmental pathogen E. coli, is linked to poor hygiene and management practices. The study revealed a notable difference in infection rates among different farming systems, with commercial farming showing a higher prevalence. However, no significant variation was observed in quarter-wise occurrences of SCM. The sensitivity of 95% for CMT suggests its use as an early screening test for identifying SCM. The high proportion of E. coli in milk with subclinical mastitis underscores the emerging management challenges. The unregulated use of antibiotics without antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) has led to an alarming increase in multiple antibiotic-resistant strains, posing a severe threat to veterinary and public health.

RECOMMENDATIONS

• An antibiotic sensitivity assay should be performed before prescribing antibiotics.

• Emphasis on farm sanitation and personal hygiene to reduce the chance of coliform infection spreading.

• Regular use of early screening tests (CMT) should be done to identify the SCM so that proper prevention measures can be applied before it turns into a clinical infection.

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Aavash K, Sajita G, Narayan GC, Kumar SA. (2023) Prevalence of Subclinical Mastitis and Antibiogram of Escherichia Coli in Cow Milk of Western Chitwan. J Vet Med Res 10(3): 1248.

Received : 03 Aug 2023
Accepted : 30 Aug 2023
Published : 31 Aug 2023
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JSM Regenerative Medicine and Bioengineering
ISSN : 2379-0490
Launched : 2013
JSM Spine
ISSN : 2578-3181
Launched : 2016
Archives of Palliative Care
ISSN : 2573-1165
Launched : 2016
JSM Nutritional Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3203
Launched : 2017
Annals of Neurodegenerative Disorders
ISSN : 2476-2032
Launched : 2016
Journal of Fever
ISSN : 2641-7782
Launched : 2017
JSM Bone Marrow Research
ISSN : 2578-3351
Launched : 2016
JSM Mathematics and Statistics
ISSN : 2578-3173
Launched : 2014
Journal of Autoimmunity and Research
ISSN : 2573-1173
Launched : 2014
JSM Arthritis
ISSN : 2475-9155
Launched : 2016
JSM Head and Neck Cancer-Cases and Reviews
ISSN : 2573-1610
Launched : 2016
JSM General Surgery Cases and Images
ISSN : 2573-1564
Launched : 2016
JSM Anatomy and Physiology
ISSN : 2573-1262
Launched : 2016
JSM Dental Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1548
Launched : 2016
Annals of Emergency Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1017
Launched : 2016
Annals of Mens Health and Wellness
ISSN : 2641-7707
Launched : 2017
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Health Care
ISSN : 2576-0084
Launched : 2018
Journal of Chronic Diseases and Management
ISSN : 2573-1300
Launched : 2016
Annals of Vaccines and Immunization
ISSN : 2378-9379
Launched : 2014
JSM Heart Surgery Cases and Images
ISSN : 2578-3157
Launched : 2016
Annals of Reproductive Medicine and Treatment
ISSN : 2573-1092
Launched : 2016
JSM Brain Science
ISSN : 2573-1289
Launched : 2016
JSM Biomarkers
ISSN : 2578-3815
Launched : 2014
JSM Biology
ISSN : 2475-9392
Launched : 2016
Archives of Stem Cell and Research
ISSN : 2578-3580
Launched : 2014
Annals of Clinical and Medical Microbiology
ISSN : 2578-3629
Launched : 2014
JSM Pediatric Surgery
ISSN : 2578-3149
Launched : 2017
Journal of Memory Disorder and Rehabilitation
ISSN : 2578-319X
Launched : 2016
JSM Tropical Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2578-3165
Launched : 2016
JSM Head and Face Medicine
ISSN : 2578-3793
Launched : 2016
JSM Cardiothoracic Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1297
Launched : 2016
JSM Bone and Joint Diseases
ISSN : 2578-3351
Launched : 2017
JSM Bioavailability and Bioequivalence
ISSN : 2641-7812
Launched : 2017
JSM Atherosclerosis
ISSN : 2573-1270
Launched : 2016
Journal of Genitourinary Disorders
ISSN : 2641-7790
Launched : 2017
Journal of Fractures and Sprains
ISSN : 2578-3831
Launched : 2016
Journal of Autism and Epilepsy
ISSN : 2641-7774
Launched : 2016
Annals of Marine Biology and Research
ISSN : 2573-105X
Launched : 2014
JSM Health Education & Primary Health Care
ISSN : 2578-3777
Launched : 2016
JSM Communication Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3807
Launched : 2016
Annals of Musculoskeletal Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3599
Launched : 2016
Annals of Virology and Research
ISSN : 2573-1122
Launched : 2014
JSM Renal Medicine
ISSN : 2573-1637
Launched : 2016
Journal of Muscle Health
ISSN : 2578-3823
Launched : 2016
JSM Genetics and Genomics
ISSN : 2334-1823
Launched : 2013
JSM Anxiety and Depression
ISSN : 2475-9139
Launched : 2016
Clinical Journal of Heart Diseases
ISSN : 2641-7766
Launched : 2016
Annals of Medicinal Chemistry and Research
ISSN : 2378-9336
Launched : 2014
JSM Pain and Management
ISSN : 2578-3378
Launched : 2016
JSM Women's Health
ISSN : 2578-3696
Launched : 2016
Clinical Research in HIV or AIDS
ISSN : 2374-0094
Launched : 2013
Journal of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity
ISSN : 2333-6692
Launched : 2013
Journal of Substance Abuse and Alcoholism
ISSN : 2373-9363
Launched : 2013
JSM Neurosurgery and Spine
ISSN : 2373-9479
Launched : 2013
Journal of Liver and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2379-0830
Launched : 2014
Journal of Drug Design and Research
ISSN : 2379-089X
Launched : 2014
JSM Clinical Oncology and Research
ISSN : 2373-938X
Launched : 2013
JSM Bioinformatics, Genomics and Proteomics
ISSN : 2576-1102
Launched : 2014
JSM Chemistry
ISSN : 2334-1831
Launched : 2013
Journal of Trauma and Care
ISSN : 2573-1246
Launched : 2014
JSM Surgical Oncology and Research
ISSN : 2578-3688
Launched : 2016
Annals of Food Processing and Preservation
ISSN : 2573-1033
Launched : 2016
Journal of Radiology and Radiation Therapy
ISSN : 2333-7095
Launched : 2013
JSM Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
ISSN : 2578-3572
Launched : 2016
Annals of Clinical Pathology
ISSN : 2373-9282
Launched : 2013
Annals of Cardiovascular Diseases
ISSN : 2641-7731
Launched : 2016
Journal of Behavior
ISSN : 2576-0076
Launched : 2016
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Metabolism
ISSN : 2572-2492
Launched : 2016
Clinical Research in Infectious Diseases
ISSN : 2379-0636
Launched : 2013
JSM Microbiology
ISSN : 2333-6455
Launched : 2013
Journal of Urology and Research
ISSN : 2379-951X
Launched : 2014
Journal of Family Medicine and Community Health
ISSN : 2379-0547
Launched : 2013
Annals of Pregnancy and Care
ISSN : 2578-336X
Launched : 2017
JSM Cell and Developmental Biology
ISSN : 2379-061X
Launched : 2013
Annals of Aquaculture and Research
ISSN : 2379-0881
Launched : 2014
Clinical Research in Pulmonology
ISSN : 2333-6625
Launched : 2013
Journal of Immunology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2333-6714
Launched : 2013
Annals of Forensic Research and Analysis
ISSN : 2378-9476
Launched : 2014
JSM Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
ISSN : 2333-7109
Launched : 2013
Annals of Breast Cancer Research
ISSN : 2641-7685
Launched : 2016
Annals of Gerontology and Geriatric Research
ISSN : 2378-9409
Launched : 2014
Journal of Sleep Medicine and Disorders
ISSN : 2379-0822
Launched : 2014
JSM Burns and Trauma
ISSN : 2475-9406
Launched : 2016
Chemical Engineering and Process Techniques
ISSN : 2333-6633
Launched : 2013
Annals of Clinical Cytology and Pathology
ISSN : 2475-9430
Launched : 2014
JSM Allergy and Asthma
ISSN : 2573-1254
Launched : 2016
Journal of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
ISSN : 2334-2307
Launched : 2013
Annals of Sports Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2379-0571
Launched : 2014
JSM Sexual Medicine
ISSN : 2578-3718
Launched : 2016
Annals of Vascular Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2378-9344
Launched : 2014
JSM Biotechnology and Biomedical Engineering
ISSN : 2333-7117
Launched : 2013
Journal of Hematology and Transfusion
ISSN : 2333-6684
Launched : 2013
JSM Environmental Science and Ecology
ISSN : 2333-7141
Launched : 2013
Journal of Cardiology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2333-6676
Launched : 2013
JSM Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine
ISSN : 2334-1815
Launched : 2013
Journal of Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders
ISSN : 2475-9473
Launched : 2016
JSM Ophthalmology
ISSN : 2333-6447
Launched : 2013
Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Toxicology
ISSN : 2333-7079
Launched : 2013
Annals of Psychiatry and Mental Health
ISSN : 2374-0124
Launched : 2013
Medical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
ISSN : 2333-6439
Launched : 2013
Annals of Pediatrics and Child Health
ISSN : 2373-9312
Launched : 2013
JSM Clinical Pharmaceutics
ISSN : 2379-9498
Launched : 2014
JSM Foot and Ankle
ISSN : 2475-9112
Launched : 2016
JSM Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementia
ISSN : 2378-9565
Launched : 2014
Journal of Addiction Medicine and Therapy
ISSN : 2333-665X
Launched : 2013
Annals of Public Health and Research
ISSN : 2378-9328
Launched : 2014
Annals of Orthopedics and Rheumatology
ISSN : 2373-9290
Launched : 2013
Journal of Clinical Nephrology and Research
ISSN : 2379-0652
Launched : 2014
Annals of Community Medicine and Practice
ISSN : 2475-9465
Launched : 2014
Annals of Biometrics and Biostatistics
ISSN : 2374-0116
Launched : 2013
JSM Clinical Case Reports
ISSN : 2373-9819
Launched : 2013
Journal of Cancer Biology and Research
ISSN : 2373-9436
Launched : 2013
Journal of Surgery and Transplantation Science
ISSN : 2379-0911
Launched : 2013
Journal of Dermatology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2373-9371
Launched : 2013
JSM Gastroenterology and Hepatology
ISSN : 2373-9487
Launched : 2013
Annals of Nursing and Practice
ISSN : 2379-9501
Launched : 2014
JSM Dentistry
ISSN : 2333-7133
Launched : 2013
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