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  • ISSN: 2373-9363
    Volume 3, Issue 3
    Short Communication
    Joanne M. Cannavo*
    Abstract: Family Treatment Courts (FTCs) are courts that were created to therapeutically deal with parents who have a substance abuse problem and are involved with the child welfare system due to having an indicated neglect case. The current research study is phase two replication and extension of research of the same Family Treatment Court study that conducted and examined data for the years 2003 through 2005 (n=186) for an FTC in a moderate size metropolitan city in New York State. The current study examined participants' self-reported data provided upon intake who were involved over the years 2006 through 2013 (n=322) at the same FTC for the variable of drug of choice. This paper focuses on drug of choice trends in an FTC over several years, particularly heroin and opiates as identified drugs of choice. The increase of abuse of opiates and heroin as well as reasons identified for this trend is discussed. Drug of choice is a topic for examination and further study which may explain trends inthe substance abusing society as well as lend to policy changes and practice and research implications. More research is warranted in this area to formally identify and analyze trends for drugs of choice of substance abusers in the general population as well as in FTCs.
    Jose A. Garcia del Castillo*, Alvaro Garcia del Castillo-Lopez, Carmen Lopez-Sanchez and Paulo C. Dias
    Abstract: Alcohol is an addictive substance that is integrated and normalized indifferent cultural contexts, and therefore has different forms of social representation. These have evolved significantly over the years, as evidenced by the changing consideration of alcohol as avice to a disease in developed societies over the last fifty years. Social representation is considered to be a way of building and interpret in reality and of integrating collective beliefs. However, a leitmotif exists in societies that have traditionally consumed alcohol, characterized by a great permissiveness that leads to increased consumption. We have reviewed some works that analyze these issues and in conclusion, we point out that social representation is a modifiable construct that may be used as a preventive action in alcohol consumption in thegeneral population and more specifically, in experimental consumption amongst young people.
    Patrice Perkins*, Kimberly Boyd, and Christopher Brady
    Abstract: The purpose of the present study is to examine the link between cigarette experimentation and other risky behaviors in African American college students. Three hypotheses were proposed. The first hypothesis is individuals who have tried cigarettes are more likely to have tried marijuana. The second hypothesis is individuals who have tried cigarettes are more likely to initiate sexual contact at an earlier age and less likely to use a condom during their last sexual encounter. Lastly, it was hypothesized that individuals who have tried cigarettes were more likely to have tried other drugs. 411 African American college students between the ages of 18 and 57 participated in the study. Data was collected through a self-reported questionnaire. The findings revealed participants who had tried cigarettes were more likely to have tried marijuana. Smoking initiation was not significantly associated with condom use. The age of sexual initiationand first marijuana usage was lower in participants who had tried cigarettes. These findings indicate individuals who try cigarettes may be at a higher vulnerability for other risk practices.
    Brittlyn K. Pearlman, Lorien C. Abroms, and Jonathan Shuter*
    Abstract: Persons living with HIV (PLWH) in the US smoke cigarettes at approximately triple the rate of the general population, and tobacco use has emerged as a leading killer in this highly vulnerable group. Cell phones offer a modern, broad-reach platform to deliver tobacco treatment, although this strategy has not been explored in PLWH smokers. We conducted a cross-sectional survey on cell phone use behaviors in a convenience sample of PLWH smokers attending an urban HIV-care clinic. Fifty subjects completed the survey. Sixty-two percent of participants had smart phones. Android phones were four times as common as iPhones and 28% of subjects had multiple cell phones. Most had both data plans and unlimited texting. The majority received and sent text messages at least daily. Forty-eight percent searched for health information on their phones, and 53%, 68%, and 56% used their cell phones to check email, listen to music, and play games at least daily, respectively. There were some significant differences in cell phone usage patterns by age, race, and educational attainment. Overall, these findings support the development of mobile health (m Health) tobacco treatments targeting PLWH smokers.
    Research Article
    Maria Mercadal-Hally, Maria Falcon, Aurelio Luna, Laura Sanchez-Roig, Luca Morini, Oscar Garcia-Algar*
    Abstract: Alcohol is the most consumed substance of abuse in our environment and at a premature age. Alcohol consumption and abuse in adolescents can lead to a number of health and social issues. Determination of ethanol consumption in adolescents by questionnaire is not a reliable method of screening. Biomarkers of ethanol in alternative biological matrices are useful tools in prevalence studies.
    The aim of our study was to establish the real prevalence of alcohol consumption in preadolescents and adolescents through the evaluation of ethyl glucuronide, an ethanol biomarker, (EtG) in nails. We conducted a prospective study in 127 children between 11 and 16 years at Hospital del Mar (Barcelona) and 107 adolescents between 13 and 18 years at Hospital Virgen de la Arrixaca (Murcia) who consulted for any reason at the Emergency Department. They answered a questionnaire about alcohol and other drugs of abuse consumption and then samples of fingernails were obtained. Twenty-nine samples in Barcelona (22.8%) and 21 samples in Murcia (20%) were positive for EtG. A total of 93.1% of patients that were positive for EtG in nails in Barcelona and 33.3% in Murcia didn't report alcohol consumption in the questionnaire. In conclusion, we found that alcohol consumption in preadolescents and adolescents in our area appeared to be a topic of concern and questionnaires fail to detect chronic consumption of alcohol in the majority of cases. For this reason we suggest EtG determination in nails could be a screening tool for chronic and sustained alcohol use in adolescents.
    Tatiana Ximena Castro Matiz, Fabio Ancizar Aristizabal Gutierrez and Mauricio Rey Buitrago*
    Background: In the study of a multi factorial disease like alcoholism genetic component it is important because it can represent up to 50% of the influence, and there are significant ethnic differences among populations. This work is the first of its type for the Colombian population and aimed to analyze polymorphisms of the ANKK1 (TaqIA), DRD2 (TaqI B and -141C Ins/Del) and SLC6A3 (VNTR 40 bp) genes in a Colombian alcohol-dependent individuals to determine their associations with alcoholism.
    Methods: Genotypes of these polymorphisms were determined by conventional PCR and PCR-RFLP in a population of 214 individuals with non-problematic alcohol use and individuals with problematic alcohol use. The DNA was obtained from peripheral white blood cells.
    Results: Several hypotheses have suggested that people with problem drinking have decreased density and presynaptic dopamine reuptake problems due to disturbances caused by polymorphisms associated with the ANKK1, DRD2 and SLC6A3 genes. The gene and allelic frequencies of 214 individuals showed significant differences for allele - 141C Ins in individuals who had an AUDIT score of 14 to 19 and for the Taq IB allele in women with problematic alcohol consumption. A meta-analysis was done for association of polymorphism of DRD2 gene Taq1A with alcoholism. The results of this meta-analysis may add to the long list of studies that have yielded A1 allele association with alcoholism.
    Conclusion: In the present study no association was found between polymorphism of DRD2 gene Taq1A with alcoholism in this Colombian population. It is also suggested that the Ins -141C allele was a critical factor in the harm phase of dependent alcohol consumption. Similarly, a significant difference for the allele IB TaqIB DRD2 gene polymorphism in the group of women with alcohol dependence was found.
    Surya Raj Niraula*, Devendra Bahadur Chhetri, Girish Kumar Singh, S Nagesh, Frederick A. Connell
    Background: Drug abuse is a serious and global health problem, causing significant morbidity, mortality, and adverse social and economic effects. The deleterious consequences of drug abuse are related not only to drugs themselves but also to the related risk taking behaviors, particularly sexual and injecting behaviors which can lead to other major health problems such as HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis B.
    Objectives: This study describes the pattern of drugs of abuse, sex-related behaviors, and injecting practices among drug abusers in Dharan municipality, Eastern Nepal.
    Methods: A total of 291 drug abusers were interviewed using friendship snowball sampling method with personal and household contacts.
    Results: The average age at drug initiation was 17.1 years. Marijuana appeared to be the major gateway substance in more than half of the respondents. Age group, caste/ethnicity and occupation were significant associates with injecting practice. More than 22% of intravenous drug abusers were injecting through dangerous routes, such as femoral and neck veins. Half of the drug abusers who visited commercial sex workers did not use condom. Almost half of respondents had never been tested for HIV.
    Conclusions: To tackle this situation, there is an urgent need for intervention programs, including harm reduction strategies to address these high risk behaviors and practices.
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