Loading

JSM Biotechnology and Biomedical Engineering

Alcoholism in Adolescence. A Look to the Future

Short Communication | Open Access

  • 1. Department of General Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences of Sagua la Grande, Cuba
+ Show More - Show Less
Corresponding Authors
Claribel Plain Pazos, Department of General Medicine Faculty of Medical Sciences of Sagua la Grande, Villa Clara, Cuba
Citation

Pazos CP, Carmona Pentón CR, Roque NR, Ríos BM, Lugo García IM, et al. (2021) Alcoholism in Adolescence. A Look to the Future. JSM Biotechnol Bioeng 7(1): 1088

INTRODUCTION

Alcohol consumption is currently a complex phenomenon, which has its consequences on the health of individuals and their environment, the use and abuse of this substance represents a health problem at the global, national and local level; its roots involve determining factors and cultural conditioning factors that complicate this problem [1].

Alcoholism is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and has a negative impact on all areas of activity of the individual [2]. Worldwide, more than a quarter (26.5%) of all young people aged 15-19 are drinkers, representing 155 million adolescents. Prevalence rates for alcohol use are highest among 15-19 yearolds in the WHO European Region (43.8%), followed by those in the Americas Region (38.2%) and In the Western Pacific Region (37.9%) [2,3], this consumption is higher in males than in females [3]. Each year 3.3 million deaths occur in the world due to the harmful use of alcohol, representing 5.9% of all deaths [4]. It is not enough to take a look at the past, it is necessary to look at this problem with a view to the future, currently there are conditions for its exacerbation.

Children as young as 9 years of age may be curious about alcohol consumption and may even try it. When a child begins drinking before the age of 15, they are much more likely to become a chronic drinker or a problem drinker. About 1 in 5 teens consider themselves problem drinkers. This means that they get drunk, have alcohol-related accidents, or get in trouble with the law, their families, friends, school, or dating partners [5]. Alcohol, although it is not considered illicit in most of the countries of the world, is a drug that affects both the individual and the family and society.

In this sense, the important physical, social and psychological risks, associated both with the early initiation of drinking, and with the abusive or intensive consumption of alcohol in adolescence, for example, dependency, alcohol-related violence, traffic accidents, risky sexual behaviors or learning difficulties, in addition to serving as a “gateway” to other drugs [6].

Adolescents who drink alcoholic beverages tend to “try and experiment” with the use of stimulant substances with the risk of initiating the use of other drugs [4]. “Illicit” drugs represent a challenge for them, trying the prohibited becomes a goal, but once they try them, in the vast majority of cases, from a challenge it becomes a necessity that directs their life.

Adolescents use alcohol and other drugs for various reasons, including curiosity, and it is difficult to determine which of them will experiment and stop there, and which will develop serious problems [7]. In addition to being associated with a variety of negative physical, emotional, family, school, social problems, etc. [5,7] it is often associated with self-determination, fun, leisure and modernity and constitutes an element that gives status to its group of belonging, which makes its elimination more difficult despite the negative consequences derived from excessive consumption [7,8]. Due to the lack of inhibition produced by alcohol, at this stage of life the possibility of addiction is increased [4]. It is very difficult for adolescents to have a perception of the risk to which they are exposed; acting by instinct predominates more at this age than conscious handling of the situation.

In recent decades, in addition to the increase in alcohol consumption by minors, especially adolescents; the number of heavy drinkers in this population has also increased. During adolescence, changes occur in the endocrine and nervous systems that lead to significant transitions in the biological, cognitive, psychological and social development of the individual [8,9]. The adolescent is becoming an adult, but lacks the experience of these to face life.

In recent years, prevention and intervention measures and mechanisms have been developed against alcohol consumption among adolescents, involving health professionals, teachers, parents, as well as the media [8]. Although in many countries there are laws that prohibit the use of alcohol by minors, in many cases these are not fully complied with, encouraging consumption at these ages.

Despite some positive global trends since 2010 in the prevalence of episodes of binge drinking and in alcohol-related mortality and morbidity, there is no progress in decreasing total alcohol consumption per capita in the world, and the global burden of disease attributable to alcohol remains unacceptably high. Current trends and projections point to an increase in total per capita consumption worldwide in the next 10 years, which will make it impossible to reach the target of a relative reduction of 10% by 2025, unless effective measures are applied. Alcohol control reverse the situation in countries with high and increasing levels of alcohol consumption [3].

Opportunities to reduce the harmful use of alcohol around the world include the inclusion of alcohol-related goals in major global policy and strategic frameworks, such as the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, increased health awareness in the population, the decline in alcohol consumption among young people as observed in a wide range of countries, the recognition of the role of alcohol control policies in reducing health and gender inequalities, and increasing evidence for the efficacy and cost effectiveness of a number of alcohol control measures [3].

Only by uniting the forces of the different spheres can control of this situation be achieved. The government, family, society have to be immersed in the task, educational centers and primary health care have to create the necessary programs to raise the perception of risk in adolescents and demonstrate the negative effects to which they are exposed . The success is in preventing them from succumbing to the addiction, after it appears it is very difficult to eliminate it.

REFERENCES

1. Victorino Barra A, Hernández Ramírez G, Mateo Crisóstomo Y, González Suárez M, Rivas Acuña V. Estrategias de Afrontamiento Familiar y la Prevalencia del Consumo de Alcohol en Adolescentes de Secundaria. Horizonte Sanitario. 2020; 19: 5.

2. Góngora Gómez O, Gómez Vázquez YE, Ricardo Ojeda MA, Pérez Guerrero JL, Hernández González E, Riverón Carralero WJ. Comportamiento del alcoholismo en adolescentes. Acta Médica del Centro. 2019; 13: 315-327.

3. OMS. Informe sobre la situación mundial del alcohol y la salud. 2018. OPS 2019.

4. Vilaplana SE, Vidal ATF, Montoya VJR. Consumo de bebidas alcohólicas en adolescentes del Área IV del municipio de Cienfuegos. Medisur. 2017; 15: 217-228.

5. Biblioteca Nacional de Salud de los estados Unidos. Riesgos del consumo de alcohol en menores de edad. MedlinePlus. 2020.

6. SuárezRelinque C, Arroyo GDM, Ferrer BM, Ochoa GM. Baja percepción de riesgo en el consumo de alcohol en adolescentes españoles. Cadernos de Saúde Pública. 2017; 33: e00129716.

7. Ramos Rivera OC, Mirabal Martínez G. Intervención educativa para la prevención del alcoholismo en adolescentes preuniversitarios. Bahía Honda. Curso 2018//2019. In Primera Jornada Virtual de Psiquiatría. 2020.

8. Kann L, McManus T, Harris WA, Shanklin SL, Flint KH, Hawkins J, et al. Youth risk behavior surveillance-United States, 2015. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. Surveill. Summ. 2016; 65: 1-174.

9. González-Bautista E, Zavala-Arciniega L, Rivera-Rivera L, Leyva-López, A, NateraRey G, ReynalesShigematsu LM. Factores sociales asociados con el consumo de tabaco y alcohol en adolescentes mexicanos de poblaciones menores a 100 000 habitantes. salud pública de México 2020; 61: 764-774.

Received : 14 Apr 2021
Accepted : 12 May 2021
Published : 15 May 2021
Journals
Annals of Otolaryngology and Rhinology
ISSN : 2379-948X
Launched : 2014
JSM Schizophrenia
Launched : 2016
Journal of Nausea
Launched : 2020
JSM Internal Medicine
Launched : 2016
JSM Hepatitis
Launched : 2016
JSM Oro Facial Surgeries
ISSN : 2578-3211
Launched : 2016
Journal of Human Nutrition and Food Science
ISSN : 2333-6706
Launched : 2013
JSM Regenerative Medicine and Bioengineering
ISSN : 2379-0490
Launched : 2013
JSM Spine
ISSN : 2578-3181
Launched : 2016
Archives of Palliative Care
ISSN : 2573-1165
Launched : 2016
JSM Nutritional Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3203
Launched : 2017
Annals of Neurodegenerative Disorders
ISSN : 2476-2032
Launched : 2016
Journal of Fever
ISSN : 2641-7782
Launched : 2017
JSM Bone Marrow Research
ISSN : 2578-3351
Launched : 2016
JSM Mathematics and Statistics
ISSN : 2578-3173
Launched : 2014
Journal of Autoimmunity and Research
ISSN : 2573-1173
Launched : 2014
JSM Arthritis
ISSN : 2475-9155
Launched : 2016
JSM Head and Neck Cancer-Cases and Reviews
ISSN : 2573-1610
Launched : 2016
JSM General Surgery Cases and Images
ISSN : 2573-1564
Launched : 2016
JSM Anatomy and Physiology
ISSN : 2573-1262
Launched : 2016
JSM Dental Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1548
Launched : 2016
Annals of Emergency Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1017
Launched : 2016
Annals of Mens Health and Wellness
ISSN : 2641-7707
Launched : 2017
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Health Care
ISSN : 2576-0084
Launched : 2018
Journal of Chronic Diseases and Management
ISSN : 2573-1300
Launched : 2016
Annals of Vaccines and Immunization
ISSN : 2378-9379
Launched : 2014
JSM Heart Surgery Cases and Images
ISSN : 2578-3157
Launched : 2016
Annals of Reproductive Medicine and Treatment
ISSN : 2573-1092
Launched : 2016
JSM Brain Science
ISSN : 2573-1289
Launched : 2016
JSM Biomarkers
ISSN : 2578-3815
Launched : 2014
JSM Biology
ISSN : 2475-9392
Launched : 2016
Archives of Stem Cell and Research
ISSN : 2578-3580
Launched : 2014
Annals of Clinical and Medical Microbiology
ISSN : 2578-3629
Launched : 2014
JSM Pediatric Surgery
ISSN : 2578-3149
Launched : 2017
Journal of Memory Disorder and Rehabilitation
ISSN : 2578-319X
Launched : 2016
JSM Tropical Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2578-3165
Launched : 2016
JSM Head and Face Medicine
ISSN : 2578-3793
Launched : 2016
JSM Cardiothoracic Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1297
Launched : 2016
JSM Bone and Joint Diseases
ISSN : 2578-3351
Launched : 2017
JSM Bioavailability and Bioequivalence
ISSN : 2641-7812
Launched : 2017
JSM Atherosclerosis
ISSN : 2573-1270
Launched : 2016
Journal of Genitourinary Disorders
ISSN : 2641-7790
Launched : 2017
Journal of Fractures and Sprains
ISSN : 2578-3831
Launched : 2016
Journal of Autism and Epilepsy
ISSN : 2641-7774
Launched : 2016
Annals of Marine Biology and Research
ISSN : 2573-105X
Launched : 2014
JSM Health Education & Primary Health Care
ISSN : 2578-3777
Launched : 2016
JSM Communication Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3807
Launched : 2016
Annals of Musculoskeletal Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3599
Launched : 2016
Annals of Virology and Research
ISSN : 2573-1122
Launched : 2014
JSM Renal Medicine
ISSN : 2573-1637
Launched : 2016
Journal of Muscle Health
ISSN : 2578-3823
Launched : 2016
JSM Genetics and Genomics
ISSN : 2334-1823
Launched : 2013
JSM Anxiety and Depression
ISSN : 2475-9139
Launched : 2016
Clinical Journal of Heart Diseases
ISSN : 2641-7766
Launched : 2016
Annals of Medicinal Chemistry and Research
ISSN : 2378-9336
Launched : 2014
JSM Pain and Management
ISSN : 2578-3378
Launched : 2016
JSM Women's Health
ISSN : 2578-3696
Launched : 2016
Clinical Research in HIV or AIDS
ISSN : 2374-0094
Launched : 2013
Journal of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity
ISSN : 2333-6692
Launched : 2013
Journal of Substance Abuse and Alcoholism
ISSN : 2373-9363
Launched : 2013
JSM Neurosurgery and Spine
ISSN : 2373-9479
Launched : 2013
Journal of Liver and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2379-0830
Launched : 2014
Journal of Drug Design and Research
ISSN : 2379-089X
Launched : 2014
JSM Clinical Oncology and Research
ISSN : 2373-938X
Launched : 2013
JSM Bioinformatics, Genomics and Proteomics
ISSN : 2576-1102
Launched : 2014
JSM Chemistry
ISSN : 2334-1831
Launched : 2013
Journal of Trauma and Care
ISSN : 2573-1246
Launched : 2014
JSM Surgical Oncology and Research
ISSN : 2578-3688
Launched : 2016
Annals of Food Processing and Preservation
ISSN : 2573-1033
Launched : 2016
Journal of Radiology and Radiation Therapy
ISSN : 2333-7095
Launched : 2013
JSM Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
ISSN : 2578-3572
Launched : 2016
Annals of Clinical Pathology
ISSN : 2373-9282
Launched : 2013
Annals of Cardiovascular Diseases
ISSN : 2641-7731
Launched : 2016
Journal of Behavior
ISSN : 2576-0076
Launched : 2016
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Metabolism
ISSN : 2572-2492
Launched : 2016
Clinical Research in Infectious Diseases
ISSN : 2379-0636
Launched : 2013
JSM Microbiology
ISSN : 2333-6455
Launched : 2013
Journal of Urology and Research
ISSN : 2379-951X
Launched : 2014
Journal of Family Medicine and Community Health
ISSN : 2379-0547
Launched : 2013
Annals of Pregnancy and Care
ISSN : 2578-336X
Launched : 2017
JSM Cell and Developmental Biology
ISSN : 2379-061X
Launched : 2013
Annals of Aquaculture and Research
ISSN : 2379-0881
Launched : 2014
Clinical Research in Pulmonology
ISSN : 2333-6625
Launched : 2013
Journal of Immunology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2333-6714
Launched : 2013
Annals of Forensic Research and Analysis
ISSN : 2378-9476
Launched : 2014
JSM Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
ISSN : 2333-7109
Launched : 2013
Annals of Breast Cancer Research
ISSN : 2641-7685
Launched : 2016
Annals of Gerontology and Geriatric Research
ISSN : 2378-9409
Launched : 2014
Journal of Sleep Medicine and Disorders
ISSN : 2379-0822
Launched : 2014
JSM Burns and Trauma
ISSN : 2475-9406
Launched : 2016
Chemical Engineering and Process Techniques
ISSN : 2333-6633
Launched : 2013
Annals of Clinical Cytology and Pathology
ISSN : 2475-9430
Launched : 2014
JSM Allergy and Asthma
ISSN : 2573-1254
Launched : 2016
Journal of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
ISSN : 2334-2307
Launched : 2013
Annals of Sports Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2379-0571
Launched : 2014
JSM Sexual Medicine
ISSN : 2578-3718
Launched : 2016
Annals of Vascular Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2378-9344
Launched : 2014
Journal of Hematology and Transfusion
ISSN : 2333-6684
Launched : 2013
JSM Environmental Science and Ecology
ISSN : 2333-7141
Launched : 2013
Journal of Cardiology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2333-6676
Launched : 2013
JSM Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine
ISSN : 2334-1815
Launched : 2013
Journal of Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders
ISSN : 2475-9473
Launched : 2016
JSM Ophthalmology
ISSN : 2333-6447
Launched : 2013
Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Toxicology
ISSN : 2333-7079
Launched : 2013
Annals of Psychiatry and Mental Health
ISSN : 2374-0124
Launched : 2013
Medical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
ISSN : 2333-6439
Launched : 2013
Annals of Pediatrics and Child Health
ISSN : 2373-9312
Launched : 2013
JSM Clinical Pharmaceutics
ISSN : 2379-9498
Launched : 2014
JSM Foot and Ankle
ISSN : 2475-9112
Launched : 2016
JSM Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementia
ISSN : 2378-9565
Launched : 2014
Journal of Addiction Medicine and Therapy
ISSN : 2333-665X
Launched : 2013
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2378-931X
Launched : 2013
Annals of Public Health and Research
ISSN : 2378-9328
Launched : 2014
Annals of Orthopedics and Rheumatology
ISSN : 2373-9290
Launched : 2013
Journal of Clinical Nephrology and Research
ISSN : 2379-0652
Launched : 2014
Annals of Community Medicine and Practice
ISSN : 2475-9465
Launched : 2014
Annals of Biometrics and Biostatistics
ISSN : 2374-0116
Launched : 2013
JSM Clinical Case Reports
ISSN : 2373-9819
Launched : 2013
Journal of Cancer Biology and Research
ISSN : 2373-9436
Launched : 2013
Journal of Surgery and Transplantation Science
ISSN : 2379-0911
Launched : 2013
Journal of Dermatology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2373-9371
Launched : 2013
JSM Gastroenterology and Hepatology
ISSN : 2373-9487
Launched : 2013
TEST Journal of Dentistry
ISSN : 1234-5678
Launched : 2014
Annals of Nursing and Practice
ISSN : 2379-9501
Launched : 2014
JSM Dentistry
ISSN : 2333-7133
Launched : 2013
Author Information X