JSM Biotechnology and Biomedical Engineering

Wheat Alpha Amylase

Review Article | Open Access

  • 1. Western Australia State Agriculture Biotechnology Centre, Murdoch University, Australia
+ Show More - Show Less
Corresponding Authors
Wujun Ma, Australia-China Joint Centre for Wheat Improvement, Western Australia State Agriculture Biotechnology Centre, School of Veterinary and Life Sciences, Murdoch University. 90 South Street, Perth WA 6150, Australia, Tel: (61) 8 93606836

Alpha amylase (α-amylase) (EC is an endo-amylolytic enzyme that plays an important role in seed germination in wheat. However, excessive α-amylase in post-harvest wheat grains has a negative effect on wheat yield and end-products quality. A wide range of studies have been carried out on wheat alpha amylase due to its important biological roles in post-harvest spouting. In this article, past researches in the aspects of its biochemical activity assay, suppressor, genetic mechanism, and expression regulation in wheat plants were reviewed. Its impacts on breadmaking quality as well as a range of human health related issues were also covered.


Zhao Y, Ma W (2018) Wheat Alpha Amylase. JSM Biotechnol Bioeng 5(2): 1086.


•     α-Amylase; Breadmaking quality; α-Amy genes;
Wheat germination; Breadmaking


α-Amylase plays a key role in hydrolysing starch during seed germination process in plants. The activity of α-amylase was found to have a positive correlation of Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) rates [1]. From the wheat breeding point of view, it is of great importance to maintain a lower α-amylase activity in order to improve PHS tolerance. Seed germination starts with water absorption, which increases the hormonal level in seed endosperm which in turn invokes the activation of α-amylase and other proteolytic enzymes in the aleurone and embryo. Starch in endosperm will thus be hydrolyzed into simple sugars to provide fuel needed for germination [2]. Amylases are the enzymes responsible for this process. There are three major types of amylase based on their mode of action, including endoamylases (α-amylases), exo-amylases (β-amylase, glucoamylases, α-glucosidases), and debranching enzymes (iso-amylases and limit dextrinase). α-Amylase is the key in converting starch into soluble maltodextrins that are subsequently hydrolyzed to maltose and glucose [3,4].

Starch consists of linear amylose with mainly α-1, 4 bonds and branched amylopectin linked with α-1, 4 and α-1, 6 bonds. α-amylase breaks down starch by cleaving α-1, 4 bonds in the starch [5]. The α-amylase protein consists of a large glycosyl hydrolase superfamily (GHS) domain, a C terminal β-sheet domain, along with several well-characterized active sites, catalytic sites, and calcium-binding sites [6]. In wheat, a signal peptide with a length of 24 amino acid (aa) was identified at the N-terminal end of protein. Wheat α-amylase proteins belong to the glycosyl hydrolase 13 (GH13) family according to their amino acid sequences, which is characterized by the presence of three domains with domain A being the main catalytic site known as the TIM-barrel [7].

HPLC identified 8 different kinds of α-amylase in wheat. Among them, 2 kinds of α-amylase were better clarified functionally and genetically, including α-amylase-1 and α-amylase-2 [8]. Analysis on wheat α-amylase isoenzyme indicated that there are at least 22 isoenzymes [8]. Slight differences in the enzymatic properties may make one isozyme better suited to a particular substrate or intracellular environment than another, making them adsorb and degrade starch granules at different rates [9].

During wheat grain development, there exist 3 phases of α-amylase formation: (1) pre-mature state in the absence of germination; (2) excessive deposition of α-amylase in the endosperm after maturity; and (3) germination after breaking down the dormancy. The activity of α-amylase changes through this seed developing process, being hundreds folds higher in germination seeds and before maturity than that in mature seeds [10]. In most varieties, activity of α-amylase reaches the peak at around 14 days after anthesis. As for germination seeds, activity can be tested one day after imbibition of water, it peaks at around 7-8 days and disappears after 12 days [11]. Based on their different modes of enzyme accumulation, α-amylase synthesis routes in wheat can be differentiated as retained pericarp α-amylase activity (RPAA), pre-maturity α-amylase activity (PMAA), prematurity sprouting (PrMS) and postmaturity sprouting (PoMS), and the frequency of occurrence is in the order PoMS>PMAA>PrMS>RPAA. Among those, PMAA is also often called late maturity α-amylase (LMA), which is the most frequent route of alpha amylase accumulation, closely followed by PoMS. Grains with excessive PoMS usually present visible sprouting with severely impaired end use quality [12].

The effects of α-amylase on wheat end use quality

Studies have shown that high α-amylase in wheat lead to grain yield and economic loss and reduced quality, including low falling number, low viscosity, sticky crumb and collapsed loaves. In breadmaking process, excessive levels of natural α-amylase activity in wheat leads to more rapidly degraded starch in flour during mixing and fermentation, which causes the reducing of water holding capacity and this eventually results in sticky dough, decreased loaf volume, compact interior, and dark crust in breadmaking process [13,14]. The extreme stickiness of dough also causes requirement of special handling which can disrupt the bakery operations [15]. Pan bread is more sensitive to high α-amylase activity compared to flat bread and bun [16]. During breadmaking, adding barley α -amylase inhibitor improves the baking quality of sprout damaged wheat flour [17]. For noodle quality, hydrolysis of the protein and starch in the damaged flour resulted in products with less elasticity, darker colour and weaker strength [16]. For Speciality batters, high α-amylase in sprouted wheat generally reduces the quality of batters for many uses, and often causes the loss of shape, light and viscous character [18].

By comparing the α-amylase activity in different parts of already sprouted wheat grains, a study showed the germ and aleurone of sprouted wheat grain contained a significantly higher α-amylase activity than the starchy endosperm. Through removing the germ prior to milling and adjusting pearling procedure, it is possible to produce flour with lower α-amylase activities [19]. In addition, wheat varieties with stronger gluten have more tolerance of germination damage. An extra-strong gluten wheat variety Victoria INTA was found to have less sensitivity to higher α-amylase activity and possesses a lower level of deterioration of breadmaking quality from sprouting [20]. Despite improving milling process and selecting extrastrong wheat; during breadmaking, adding barley α-amylase inhibitor was also proved to improve the baking quality of sprout damaged wheat flour 17].

However, a small portion of α-amylase activity in flour has been shown to enhance bread quality [21]. The bakery industry uses α-amylase to improve the textural properties of bread and to reduce elasticity. α-amylase was reported to attenuate the negative effects of high damaged starch on dough properties [22].

Assay of α-amylase activity

Accurate assay of α-amylase activity is of great importance in monitoring wheat grain breadmaking quality as well as in breeding new varieties. A wide array of analytical methods are available for the measurement of α-amylase activity [23-25]. The measurement of α-amylase usually requires extraction of the enzyme from the sample matrix followed by measurement of hydrolysis rate of dye-labelled starch or other model substrates under controlled conditions. Separating specific α-amylase isozymes can be achieved by isoelectric focusing in a liquid column [26].

The most common method for measuring α-amylase activity is the falling number (FN) method [27], which is a viscometric assay that is assessed as the time required for a plunger to fall through a heated slurry of whole meal and water resulted from the rapid gelatinization and liquefaction of the starch by α-amylase. This method is widely accepted as a standardized method for assessing wheat grain breadmaking quality in relation to the preharvest sprouting trait. FN values of 300 seconds or in some cases 350 seconds are required for inclusion of the delivered wheat grain in high-quality grades by the wheat industries in most countries [28].

Whilst falling number is used universally to assess the wheat grain breadmaking quality and α-amylase activity, other methods such as the Rapid Visco Analyser [29] and near-infrared (NIR) analysis [30] are preferred sometimes as they provide additional important information about protein and starch properties that are relevant to processing and which can be very useful for breadmaking [31]. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) provides an alternative method for detection of preharvest sprouting through the use of antibodies that are specific for α-amylase isozymes [32].


Late maturity amylase (LMA) is also called prematurity αamylase in UK. Wheat germplasm from the UK, Japan, China, Australia, North America, South Africa were all reported to have LMA damage [28]. Since wheat grains affected by LMA are usually without visual sprouting, the presence of LMA is unlikely to affect nutritional value. However, significantly lower FN value suggests inferior end product quality [33,34]. LMA is usually activated by a cool temperature shock (average minimum 8?C, maximum 26? C)during the middle to later stages of grain development and ripening (25-30 days after anthesis) [35].

α-Amylase inhibitors

Amylase inhibitors are substances that bind to α-amylase and make them inactive. They are important research subjects regarding pre-harvest sprouting, plants pathogen resistance, insect tolerance and human health. There are proteinaceous and non-proteinaceous inhibitors [36]. Two multiple amylase inhibitor gene families with MW 12kDa and 24kDa have been extensively investigated [37]. Amylase inhibitors of the cereal family are composed of 120-130 aa. The bifunctional proteinaceous α-amylase/subtilisin inhibitors (ASI) and α-amylase/trypsin (ATI) have been identified and characterized in wheat [38,39]. ASIs were reported to be reductively inactivated by thioredoxin (trx) [40], and transformed wheat lines with anti-trxs genes to have reduced α-amylase activity and better pre-harvest sprouting resistance [41,42]. ATIs appear to play important roles in promoting adaptive immunity of celiac disease and other immune-mediated diseases within and outside the GI tract; they may however serve as prime candidates of severe forms of non-celiac gluten (wheat) sensitivity [43].

A major wheat flour allergen with a molecular weight of 15 kDa exists, which is an α-amylase inhibitor that plays an important role in the pathogenesis of baker’s asthma disease [44]. The presence of α-amylase inhibitory activity is an important cause of baker’s asthma. It has been demonstrated that the most prominent allergenic components are glycoproteins which belong to the subunits of tetrameric α-amylase inhibitors [44]. In addition, α-amylase inhibitors are the potential targets in the developing compounds for the treatment of diabetes and postprandial hyperglycemia [45]. The α-amylase inhibitors also have been reported to have effects similar to insulin in reducing α-amylase activity as well as glucose level [46]

Three α-amylase inhibitor loci (Isa-1) were identified in common wheat and located on the long arms of chromosomes 2A, 2B and 2D. The most frequent electrophoretic pattern of common wheat cultivars consisted of two isoforms, encoded by the Isa-Blb, Isa-D1a alleles and the Isa- Al null allele [47]. Dimeric α-amylase inhibitors formed three groups and were clustered with 0.19 inhibitors. It is predicted that dimeric α-amylase inhibitors colocalized into chloroplast and mitochondria [48].

In plants vegetative organs and seeds, several kinds of amylase inhibitors were found to regulate a number of phytophagous insects [49,50]. α-amylase inhibitors improve plant insects tolerance through altering the digestive action of alpha amylases and proteinases in the gut of insects [51]. Wheat kernels contain several types of α-amylase inhibitors that block the digestive α-amylases of various gramnivorous insets [52,53].

As for pathogen resistance, two winter wheat lines with different Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) resistance were analyzed to identify crucial proteins associated with resistance to FHB. Monomeric α-amylase and dimeric α-amylase inhibitors were found both highly accumulated in the more resistant line after inoculation and in the control conditions. Higher level of α-amylase enzyme activity in more susceptible lines after F. culmorum infection confirmed that the inhibition of pathogen amylase activity could be one of the most crucial mechanisms to prevent infection progress [54]. Appling wheat α-amylase inhibitors to in vitro culture containing a pathogen mycelium disc resulted in a reduction in both pathogen growth and α-amylase activity, suggesting that α-amylase inhibitor contributed to resistance against pathogen attack, acting in a diversified manner for different fungal species [55].

Heredity of α-amylase

The length of wheat α-amylase gene is 1,472 bp with 3 exons and 2 introns [56]. According to their pI values, α-amylases identified in wheat can be categorized into three major groups: α-amylase-1, α-amylase-2 and α-amylase-3. These different kinds of α-amylases are controlled by different genes (Table 1). α-amylase-1 has high pI and is encoded by α-Amy1 gene that is located on chromosome 6A, 6B and 6D; while α-amylase-2 has low pI and it is controlled by gene α-Am2 on chromosome 7A, 7B and 7D [57,58]. α-amylase-3 has high pI and only exists on the out layer of pericarp and few gene copies of α-Amy3 were observed on chromosome 5 [59]. Unlike the above three gene family, α-Amy4 is a recently discovered new gene family, gene copies were identified on chromosome 2 and 3 [60].

Late maturity amylase (LMA), which also has a high pI, is completely independent of pre harvest sprouting and can be expressed in sprouting tolerant or dormant genotypes [61,62]. Unlike α-amylase-1, which is detected during seed germination, LMA is expressed at the later stage of grain maturity. This trait appeared to be multigenic. The relevant QTL were identified on chromosomes 7B, 3B, 3A, 2D, and 6B [58,62-64]. Further fine mapping of the LMA QTL on 7B and 3B has been conducted [33]. According to Barrero et al. [34], gene α-Amy1 and α-Amy2 were expressed around 23 DPA in +LMA double haploid lines. Abundant allelic variations exist in both α-Amy1 and α-Amy2 gene families [65,66], and different genes are not expressed equally in LMA. The relationship between gene expression of different α-Amy genes and LMA is worthy of a further study.

The presence of dwarfing or gibberellic acid (GA) insensitivity genes can reduce the expression of LMA genes [61]. Individual presence of Rht1 or Rht2 gene will partially inhibit the gene expression, while in the case of Rht3 and the combination Rht1+Rht2, gene expression of LMA appears to be almost completely inhibited. The masking effects of individual presence of Rht1 or Rht2 gene makes it more difficult to select LMA tolerance wheat lines in breeding program.


The plant hormones abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid play major and opposing roles in the development and germination of cereal grains [67]. In wheat, the up-regulation of α-amylase by GA was shown to be achieved via interaction of different regulatory proteins with gibberellin response elements (GAREs) and the motif TAACAAACTCCGG in promoters of α-amylase genes was vital for its function [68,69]. On the other hand, the ABA-induced down-regulation was regulated via interactions with the ABA response elements (ABREs) [70].

The mechanism of α-amylase synthesis through GA signalling in wheat is still yet to be unravelled. However, studies on rice, arabidopsis and barley suggested that GA signalling process is quite conserved, it is therefore believed that wheat shares similar pathway [71]. Exogenous GA can bind to the GID1 receptor, this promotes binding to DELLA proteins, which refer to a kind of proteins that contain a consensus amino acid sequence D-E-LL-A in the N-terminal and have been known to rapidly degrade upon the application of GA [72] and Rht-D1 & -B1 genes in wheat encode for DELLA homologues [73]. This complex, GA-GID1- DELLA, will attract a specific ubiquitin E3 ligase complex (SCFGID2) to further form a larger SCF complex, which stimulates the poly ubiquitination of DELLA targeting its destruction through the 26S proteasome [74] followed by the induction of α-Amy gene transcription factor GAMYB. Finally, binding of GAMYB protein promotes the expression of α-Amy genes (Figure 1).

Exogenous GA treatment induced the expression of α-Amy1 and α-Amy2 in mature wheat aleurone in one study, along with the upregulation of the GAMYB transcription factor and the ABA catabolic gene ABA89OH-1, showing the evidence of the abovementioned GA regulation mechanism and the existence of a crosstalk response between GA and ABA [34]. The use of the hormonebiosynthesis inhibitors also confirmed the effects of altered abscisic acid and gibberellin levels on pre-maturity α-amylase formation in wheat grains, with an association between GA levels at mid-grain development and PMA formation was observed [75].

With better understanding of α-amylase gene regulation mechanism by hormones, breeders will be able to improve wheat α-amylase character by manipulating the related genes. Application of altered GA expression in wheat was proved to be effective by introducing a gibberellin 2-oxidase gene (PcGA2ox1) originated from legume. Expression of two GA biosynthesis genes (TaGA20ox1 and TaGA3ox2) was up-regulated, and that of two α-amylase gene families (α-Amy1 and α-Amy2) down regulated in transgenic wheat plants [76]. Another example was a transgenic study on gene trxs. When a foreign trxs gene, which is known to regulate the balances of ABA and GAs, was introduced into wheat, the ABA and ABA/GAs contents in transgenic lines increased significantly (P < 0.01) by 18.39% and 23.47%, respectively, at 10-30 day after anthesis while the GAs content decreased [77].

Studies showed that the expression of α-amylase genes were enhanced by sugar starvation and repressed by sugar provision [78,79]. An TATCCA element on the upstream of the transcription starting site was proved to be essential for this sugar regulation mechanism. Since this element is a component of the GA response complex, the regulation of α-amylase gene expression by GA and sugar may share a common regulatory protein that binds to this element. It was confirmed that in rice and barley MYB proteins are the relevant regulatory proteins [80]. The expression of α-amylase gene (α-Amy2) was observed to be inhibited in the cell culture of wheat embryos by sucrose and glucose [81]. Mannose, raffinose, and galactose (60-70% at the concentration of 10 mM) were also observed to show a pronounced suppression of α-amylase genes [82]. In addition, glucose phosphates exerted a somewhat greater effect than unmodified glucose, and this sugar repression of α-amylase synthesis in the embryo is specific while the effect on the cells of the aleurone layer is nonspecific (osmotic) [82].


The roles of α-amylase in wheat germination, preharvest sprouting, and wheat end product quality are of great importance. In modern breeding programmes, selecting wheat materials with both low α-amylase activity and low α-Amy gene expression should be taken into consideration in PHS resistance breeding. Studies on regulation of α-Amy genes and inhibitors require more attention as they can provide potential approaches in the manipulation of α-Amy genes. More studies on α-amylase inhibitors are also essential to reduce human’s baker’s asthma disease meanwhile maintain the wheat’s pathogen resistance.


1. Wu Y, H Hu, G Wang, Y Zhang, J Ji. Relationship between alpha-amylase activity and resistance of pre-harvest sprouting in spring wheat. Acta Agriculturae Universitatis Jilinensis. 2002; 24: 22-25.

2. Daussant J, HA Renard, Skakoun A. Application of direct tissue rocket? line immuno?electrophoresis to the study of α?amylase production and its localization in wheat seeds during the early stages of germination. Electrophoresis. 1982; 3: 99-101.

3. Swain RR, Dekker EE. Seed germination studies I. Purification and properties of an α-amylase from the cotyledons of germinating peas. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Enzymology and Biological Oxidation. 1966; 122: 75-86.

4. Beck E, Ziegler P. Biosynthesis and degradation of starch in higher plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol. 1989; 40: 95-117.

5. Van Der Maarel MJ, Van Der Veen B, Uitdehaag JC, Leemhuis H, Dijkhuizen L. Properties and applications of starch-converting enzymes of the α-amylase family. J Biotechnol. 2002; 94: 137-155.

6. Janecek S, Balaz S. Structure and Stability of Alpha-Amylases. Chemicke Listy. 1992; 86: 830-838.

7. Farber GK, Petsko GA. The evolution of α/β barrel enzymes. Trends Biochem Sci. 1990; 15: 228-234.

8. Marchylo BA, Kruger JE, Macgregor AW. Production of Multiple Forms of Alpha-Amylase in Germinated, Incubated, Whole, De-Embryonated Wheat Kernels. Cereal Chemistry. 1984; 61: 305-310.

9. Huang N, Stebbins GL, Rodriguez RL. Classification and evolution of alpha-amylase genes in plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992; 89: 7526-7530.

10. Marchylo B, LaCroix L, Kruger J. THE SYNTHESIS OF α-AMYLASE IN SPECIFIC TISSUES OF THE IMMATURE WHEAT KERNEL. Cereal Research Communications. 1980; 8: 61-68.

11. Silano V, Furia M, Gianfreda L, Macri A, Palescandolo R, Rab A, et al. Inhibition of amylases from different origins by albumins from the wheat kernel. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1975; 391: 170-178.

12. Lunn BJ, Major, Kettlewell PS, Scott RK. Mechanisms Leading to Excess Alpha -Amylase Activity in Wheat (Triticum aestivum, L) Grain in the U.K. J Cereal Sci. 2001; 33: 313-329.

13. Mansour K. Sprout Damage in Wheat and Its Effect on Wheat-Flour Products. Pre-Harvest Sprouting in Cereals. 1993; 1992: 8-9.

14. Fu BX, Hatcher DW, Schlichting L. Effects of sprout damage on durum wheat milling and pasta processing quality. Can J Plant Sci. 2014; 94: 545-553.

15. aulsen GM, Auld AS. Preharvest sprouting of cereals. In: Benech-Arnold RL, Sánchez RA, editors. Handbook of seed physiology applications to agriculture. Food Products Press, New York, London and Oxford: The Haworth Reference Press and imprints of The Haworth Press. 2004.

16. Xiao SH, CS Yan, S Tang. Wheat Pre-harvesting Research, China Agriculture Scientific and Technology Press. 2005; 2-180.

17. Zawistowska Urszula, Langstaff J, Friesen AD. Purification And Characterization Of Two Double?Headed Triticale Isoinhibitors Of Endogenous Alpha?Amylase And Subtitlisin. J Food Biochem. 1989; 13: 215-239.

18. Benech-Arnold R, Rodolfo S. Handbook of seed physiology: Applications to agriculture, CRC Press. 2004.

19. Olaerts H, De Bondt Y, Courtin CM. The heterogeneous distribution of alpha-amylase and endoxylanase activity over a population of preharvest sprouted wheat kernels and their localization in individual kernels. J Cereal Sci. 2017; 74: 200-209.

20. Ichinose Y, Takata K, Kuwabara T, Iriki N, Abiko T, Yamauchi H. Effects of increase in α-amylase and endo-protease activities during germination on the breadmaking quality of wheat. Food Science and Technology Research. 2001; 7: 214-219.

21. Nielsen MA, Sumner AK, Whalley LL. Fortification of Pasta with Pea Flour and Air-Classified Pea Protein-Concentrate. Cereal Chemistry. 1980; 57: 203-206.

22. Barrera GN, Tadini CC, Leon AE, Ribotta PD. Use of alpha-amylase and amyloglucosidase combinations to minimize the bread quality problems caused by high levels of damaged starch. J Food Sci Technol. 2016; 53: 3675-3684.

23. Mathewson PR, BS Miller, Y Pomeranz, GD Booth, CH Fahrenholz. Collaborative Study of Sprouted Wheat by Colorimetric AlphaAmylase, Falling Number, and Amylograph Assays. Cereal Foods World. 1979; 24: 453-453.

24. Moot DJ, Every D. A Comparison of Bread Baking, Falling Number, Alpha-Amylase Assay and Visual Method for the Assessment of Preharvest Sprouting in Wheat. J Cereal Sci. 1990; 11: 225-234.

25. McKie VA, McCleary BV. A rapid, automated method for measuring alpha-amylase in pre-harvest sprouted (sprout damaged) wheat. J Cereal Sci. 2015; 64: 70-75.

26. Mrva K, Mares DJ. Regulation of high pI alpha-amylase synthesis in wheat aleurone by a gene(s) located on chromosome 6B. Euphytica. 1999; 109: 17-23.

27. Hagberg S. A rapid method for determining alpha-amylase activity. Cereal Chem. 1960; 37: 218-222.

28. Mares D, Mrva K. Late-maturity alpha-amylase: Low falling number in wheat in the absence of preharvest sprouting. J Cereal Sci. 2008; 47: 6-17.

29. Ross A, Walker C, Booth R, Orth R, Wrigley C. The Rapid ViscoAnalyzer-A New Technique for the Estimation of Sprout Damage. Cereal Foods World. 1987; 32: 827-829.

30. Czuchajowska Z, Szczodrak J, Pomeranz Y. Characterization and Estimation of Barley Polysaccharides by near-Infrared Spectroscopy .1. Barleys, Starches, and Beta-Deuterium-Glucans. Cereal Chemistry. 1992; 69: 413-418.

31. Mares DJ. Preharvest sprouting damage and sprouting tolerance: assay methods and instrumentation. 1989.

32. Verity JCK, Hac L, Skerritt JH. Development of a field enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of alpha-amylase in preharvest-sprouted wheat. Cereal Chemistry. 1999; 76: 673-681.

33. Mares DJ, Mrva K. Wheat grain preharvest sprouting and late maturity alpha-amylase. Planta. 2014; 240: 1167-1178.

34. Barrero JM, K Mrva, MJ Talbot, RG White, J Taylor, F Gubler, et al. Genetic, hormonal, and physiological analysis of late maturity alphaamylase in wheat. Plant Physiol. 2013; 161: 1265-1277.

35. Mrva K, J Cheong, B Yu, HY Law, D Mares. Late maturity alpha-amylase in synthetic hexaploid wheat. Euphytica. 2009; 168: 403-411.

36. Buonocore V, T Petrucci, V Silano. Wheat protein inhibitors of α-amylase. Phytochemistry. 1977; 16: 811-820.

37. Mrva K, DJ Mares. Inheritance of late maturity alpha-amylase in wheat. Euphytica. 1996; 88: 61-67.

38. Mundy J, J Hejgaard, I Svendsen. Characterization of a bifunctional wheat inhibitor of endogenous α-amylase and subtilisin. FEBS letters. 1984; 167: 210-214.

39. Philippe S, P Robert, C Barron, L Saulnier, F Guillon. Deposition of cell wall polysaccharides in wheat endosperm during grain development: Fourier transform-infrared microspectroscopy study. J Agric Food Chem. 2006; 54: 2303-2308.

40. JIAO JA, B Yee, J Wong, K Kobrehel, B Buchanan. Thioredoxin-linked changes in regulatory properties of barley α-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor protein. Plant Physiol Biochem. 1993; 31: 799-804.

41. Wei L, JP Ren, WW Kong, J Yin. Influnce on the Seed α-amylase Activity by Transforming Anti-trxs Gene. Acta Agriculturae Boreali-Sinica. 2004; 19: 6-7.

42. Guo H, H Zhang, Y Li, J Ren, X Wang, H Niu, et al. Identification of changes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seeds proteome in response to anti-trx s gene. PloS One. 2011; 6: e22255.

43. Schuppan D, Zevallos V. Wheat amylase trypsin inhibitors as nutritional activators of innate immunity. Dig Dis. 2015; 33: 260-263.

44. Franken J, Stephan U, Meyer HE, König W. Identification of AlphaAmylase Inhibitor as a Major Allergen of Wheat Flour. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 1994; 104: 171-174.

45. Chakrabarti R, Rajagopalan R. Diabetes and insulin resistance associated disorders: disease and the therapy. Current Science. 2002; 83: 1533-1538.

46. Reddy S, Anarthe S, Raghavendra N. In vitro Antioxidant and Antidiabetic activity of Asystasia gangetica (Chinese Violet) Linn. (Acanthaceae). J Res Biomed Sci. 2010; 1: 72-75.

47. Masojc P, Zawistowski J, Howes NK, Aung T, Gale MD. Polymorphism and Chromosomal Location of Endogenous Alpha-Amylase Inhibitor Genes in Common Wheat. Theor Appl Genet. 1993; 85: 1043-1048.

48. Pandey B, Saini M, Sharma P. Molecular phylogenetic and sequence variation analysis of dimeric α-amylase inhibitor genes in wheat and its wild relative species. Plant Gene. 2016; 6: 48-58.

49. Chrispeels MJ, MF G. de Sa, T Higgins. Genetic engineering with α-amylase inhibitors makes seeds resistant to bruchids. Seed Sci Res. 1998; 8: 257-264.

50. Konarev AV. Interaction of insect digestive enzymes with plant protein inhibitors and host-parasite coevolution. Euphytica. 1996; 92: 89-94.

51. Kumanan R, Manimaran S, Saleemulla K, Dhanabal S, Nanjan M. Screening of bark of Cinnamomum tamala (Lauraceae) by using α-amylase inhibition assay for anti-diabetic activity. Int J Pharm Biomed Res. 2010; 1: 69-72.

52. Feng GH, M Richardson, MS Chen, KJ Kramer, TD Morgan, GR Reeck. α-Amylase inhibitors from wheat: amino acid sequences and patterns of inhibition of insect and human α-amylases. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 1996; 26: 419-426.

53. Hubert J, M Nesvorna, T Erban. Growth-suppressive effect of the α-amylase inhibitor of Triticum aestivum on stored-product mites varies by the species and type of diet. Exp Appl Acarol. 2014; 62: 57- 65.

54. Perlikowski D, H Wi?niewska, T Góral, M Kwiatek, M Majka, A Kosmala. Identification of kernel proteins associated with the resistance to Fusarium head blight in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). PloS One. 2014; 9: e110822.

55. Mendes GRL, CL Alves, P Lopes Cavalheiro, CC Bretanha, FA Pagnussatt, E Badiale-Furlong. α-amylase inhibitors from wheat against development and toxigenic potential of Fusarium verticillioides. Cereal Chem. 2015; 92: 611-616.

56. Sethi S, JS Saini, A Mohan, NK Brar, S Verma, NK Sarao, KS Gill. Comparative and evolutionary analysis of α-amylase gene across monocots and dicots. Funct Integr Genomics. 2016; 16: 545-555.

57. Gale MD, CN Law, AJ Chojecki, RA Kempton. Genetic-Control of AlphaAmylase Production in Wheat. Theor Appl Genet. 1983; 64: 309-316.

58. Emebiri LC, JR Oliver, K Mrva, D Mares. Association mapping of late maturity α-amylase (LMA) activity in a collection of synthetic hexaploid wheat. Molecular Breeding. 2010; 26: 39-49.

59. Baulcombe DC, AK Huttly, RA Martienssen, RF Barker, MG Jarvis. A Novel Wheat Alpha-Amylase Gene (Alpha-Amy3). Mol Gen Genet. 1987; 209: 33-40.

60. Mieog JC, Š Jane?ek, JP Ral. New insight in cereal starch degradation: identification and structural characterization of four α-amylases in bread wheat. Amylase. 2017; 1: 35-49.

61. Mrva K, DJ Mares. Expression of late maturity α-amylase in wheat containing gibberellic acid insensitivity genes. Euphytica. 1996; 88: 69-76.

62. Mrva K, DJ Mares. Quantitative trait locus analysis of late maturity alpha-amylase in wheat using the doubled haploid population Cranbrook x Halberd. Aust J Agri Res. 2001; 52: 1267-1273.

63. Mares D, J Rathjen, K Mrva, J Cheong. Genetic and environmental control of dormancy in white-grained wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Euphytica. 2009; 168: 311-318.

64. Mohler V, T Albrecht, K Mrva, G Schweizer, L Hartl. Genetic analysis of falling number in three bi?parental common winter wheat populations. Plant Breeding. 2014; 133: 448-453.

65. Ainsworth CC, P Doherty, KGK Edwards, RA Martienssen, MD Gale. Allelic Variation at Alpha-Amylase Loci in Hexaploid Wheat. Theor Appl Genet. 1985; 70: 400-406.

66. Cheng CR, K Oldach, K Mrva, D Mares. Analysis of high pI alpha-Amy-1 gene family members expressed in late maturity alpha-amylase in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Mol Breed. 2014; 33: 519-529.

67. Higgins TJ, JV Jacobsen, JA Zwar. Gibberellic acid and abscisic acid modulate protein synthesis and mRNA levels in barley aleurone layers. Plant Mol Biol. 1982; 1: 191-215.

68. Skriver K, FL Olsen, JC Rogers, J Mundy. cis-acting DNA elements responsive to gibberellin and its antagonist abscisic acid. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991; 88: 7266-7270.

69. Lanahan MB, TH Ho, SW Rogers, JC Rogers. A Gibberellin Response Complex in Cereal Alpha-Amylase Gene Promoters. Plant Cell. 1992; 4: 203-211.

70. Mundy J, K Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, NH Chua. Nuclear proteins bind conserved elements in the abscisic acid-responsive promoter of a rice rab gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990; 87: 1406-1410.

71. Sun TP. Gibberellin-GID1-DELLA: a pivotal regulatory module for plant growth and development. Plant Physiol. 2010; 154: 567-570.

72. Hauvermale AL, KM Tuttle, Y Takebayashi, M Seo, CM Steber. Loss of Arabidopsis thaliana seed dormancy is associated with increased accumulation of the GID1 GA hormone receptors. Plant Cell Physiol. 2015; 56: 1773-1785.

73. Peng J, DE Richards, NM Hartley, GP Murphy, KM Devos, JE Flintham, et al. ‘Green revolution’genes encode mutant gibberellin response modulators. Nature. 1999; 400: 256-261.

74. Ariizumi T, Steber C. Ubiquitin becomes ubiquitous in GA signaling. Department of Crop and Soil Science, and USDA-ARS. 2006.

75. Kondhare K, P Hedden, P Kettlewell, A Farrell, J Monaghan. Use of the hormone-biosynthesis inhibitors fluridone and paclobutrazol to determine the effects of altered abscisic acid and gibberellin levels on pre-maturity α-amylase formation in wheat grains. J Cereal Sci. 2014; 60: 210-216.

76. Appleford NE, MD Wilkinson, Q Ma, DJ Evans, MC Stone, SP Pearce, et al. Decreased shoot stature and grain α-amylase activity following ectopic expression of a gibberellin 2-oxidase gene in transgenic wheat. J Exp Bot. 2007; 58: 3213-3226.

77. Jiangping R, W Na, W Xinguo, L Yongchun, N Hongbin, W. Xiang. Relationship between ABA and GAs Contents and Pre-harvest Sprouting in Grains of Transgenic Anti-trxs Gene Wheat. Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin. 2010; 26: 65-69.

78. Yu SM, YC Lee, SC Fang, MT Chan, SF Hwa, LF Liu. Sugars act as signal molecules and osmotica to regulate the expression of α-amylase genes and metabolic activities in germinating cereal grains. Plant Mol Biol. 1996; 30: 1277-1289.

79. Sheu JJ, TS Yu, WF Tong, SM Yu. Carbohydrate starvation stimulates differential expression of rice α-amylase genes that is modulated through complicated transcriptional and posttranscriptional processes. J Biol Chem. 1996; 271: 26998-27004.

80. Lu CA, TH Ho, SL Ho, SM Yu. Three novel MYB proteins with one DNA binding repeat mediate sugar and hormone regulation of α-amylase gene expression. Plant Cell. 2002; 14: 1963-1980.

81. Laurie S, RS McKibbin, NG Halford. Antisense SNF1?related (SnRK1) protein kinase gene represses transient activity of an α?amylase (α? Amy2) gene promoter in cultured wheat embryos. J Exp Bot. 2003; 54: 739-747.

82. Mamytova N, V Kuzovlev, A Khakimzhanov, O Fursov. Sugars as repressors of gibberellin-induced synthesis of α-amylase in wheat. Russian J Plant Physiol. 2014; 61: 384-389.

83. Gubler F, R Kalla, JK Roberts, JV Jacobsen. Gibberellin-regulated expression of a myb gene in barley aleurone cells: evidence for Myb transactivation of a high-pI alpha-amylase gene promoter. Plant Cell. 1995; 7: 1879-1891.

84. Tuttle KM. Hormonal and genetic mechanism controlling preharvest sprouting and late maturity alpha-amylase in wheat, WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY. 2015. 85.Suzuki Y, M Kitagawa, JP Knox, I Yamaguchi. A role for arabinogalactan proteins in gibberellin?induced α?amylase production in barley aleurone cells. Plant J. 2002; 29: 733-741.

Received : 26 May 2018
Accepted : 06 Jul 2018
Published : 07 Jul 2018
Annals of Otolaryngology and Rhinology
ISSN : 2379-948X
Launched : 2014
JSM Schizophrenia
Launched : 2016
Journal of Nausea
Launched : 2020
JSM Internal Medicine
Launched : 2016
JSM Hepatitis
Launched : 2016
JSM Oro Facial Surgeries
ISSN : 2578-3211
Launched : 2016
Journal of Human Nutrition and Food Science
ISSN : 2333-6706
Launched : 2013
JSM Regenerative Medicine and Bioengineering
ISSN : 2379-0490
Launched : 2013
JSM Spine
ISSN : 2578-3181
Launched : 2016
Archives of Palliative Care
ISSN : 2573-1165
Launched : 2016
JSM Nutritional Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3203
Launched : 2017
Annals of Neurodegenerative Disorders
ISSN : 2476-2032
Launched : 2016
Journal of Fever
ISSN : 2641-7782
Launched : 2017
JSM Bone Marrow Research
ISSN : 2578-3351
Launched : 2016
JSM Mathematics and Statistics
ISSN : 2578-3173
Launched : 2014
Journal of Autoimmunity and Research
ISSN : 2573-1173
Launched : 2014
JSM Arthritis
ISSN : 2475-9155
Launched : 2016
JSM Head and Neck Cancer-Cases and Reviews
ISSN : 2573-1610
Launched : 2016
JSM General Surgery Cases and Images
ISSN : 2573-1564
Launched : 2016
JSM Anatomy and Physiology
ISSN : 2573-1262
Launched : 2016
JSM Dental Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1548
Launched : 2016
Annals of Emergency Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1017
Launched : 2016
Annals of Mens Health and Wellness
ISSN : 2641-7707
Launched : 2017
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Health Care
ISSN : 2576-0084
Launched : 2018
Journal of Chronic Diseases and Management
ISSN : 2573-1300
Launched : 2016
Annals of Vaccines and Immunization
ISSN : 2378-9379
Launched : 2014
JSM Heart Surgery Cases and Images
ISSN : 2578-3157
Launched : 2016
Annals of Reproductive Medicine and Treatment
ISSN : 2573-1092
Launched : 2016
JSM Brain Science
ISSN : 2573-1289
Launched : 2016
JSM Biomarkers
ISSN : 2578-3815
Launched : 2014
JSM Biology
ISSN : 2475-9392
Launched : 2016
Archives of Stem Cell and Research
ISSN : 2578-3580
Launched : 2014
Annals of Clinical and Medical Microbiology
ISSN : 2578-3629
Launched : 2014
JSM Pediatric Surgery
ISSN : 2578-3149
Launched : 2017
Journal of Memory Disorder and Rehabilitation
ISSN : 2578-319X
Launched : 2016
JSM Tropical Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2578-3165
Launched : 2016
JSM Head and Face Medicine
ISSN : 2578-3793
Launched : 2016
JSM Cardiothoracic Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1297
Launched : 2016
JSM Bone and Joint Diseases
ISSN : 2578-3351
Launched : 2017
JSM Bioavailability and Bioequivalence
ISSN : 2641-7812
Launched : 2017
JSM Atherosclerosis
ISSN : 2573-1270
Launched : 2016
Journal of Genitourinary Disorders
ISSN : 2641-7790
Launched : 2017
Journal of Fractures and Sprains
ISSN : 2578-3831
Launched : 2016
Journal of Autism and Epilepsy
ISSN : 2641-7774
Launched : 2016
Annals of Marine Biology and Research
ISSN : 2573-105X
Launched : 2014
JSM Health Education & Primary Health Care
ISSN : 2578-3777
Launched : 2016
JSM Communication Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3807
Launched : 2016
Annals of Musculoskeletal Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3599
Launched : 2016
Annals of Virology and Research
ISSN : 2573-1122
Launched : 2014
JSM Renal Medicine
ISSN : 2573-1637
Launched : 2016
Journal of Muscle Health
ISSN : 2578-3823
Launched : 2016
JSM Genetics and Genomics
ISSN : 2334-1823
Launched : 2013
JSM Anxiety and Depression
ISSN : 2475-9139
Launched : 2016
Clinical Journal of Heart Diseases
ISSN : 2641-7766
Launched : 2016
Annals of Medicinal Chemistry and Research
ISSN : 2378-9336
Launched : 2014
JSM Pain and Management
ISSN : 2578-3378
Launched : 2016
JSM Women's Health
ISSN : 2578-3696
Launched : 2016
Clinical Research in HIV or AIDS
ISSN : 2374-0094
Launched : 2013
Journal of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity
ISSN : 2333-6692
Launched : 2013
Journal of Substance Abuse and Alcoholism
ISSN : 2373-9363
Launched : 2013
JSM Neurosurgery and Spine
ISSN : 2373-9479
Launched : 2013
Journal of Liver and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2379-0830
Launched : 2014
Journal of Drug Design and Research
ISSN : 2379-089X
Launched : 2014
JSM Clinical Oncology and Research
ISSN : 2373-938X
Launched : 2013
JSM Bioinformatics, Genomics and Proteomics
ISSN : 2576-1102
Launched : 2014
JSM Chemistry
ISSN : 2334-1831
Launched : 2013
Journal of Trauma and Care
ISSN : 2573-1246
Launched : 2014
JSM Surgical Oncology and Research
ISSN : 2578-3688
Launched : 2016
Annals of Food Processing and Preservation
ISSN : 2573-1033
Launched : 2016
Journal of Radiology and Radiation Therapy
ISSN : 2333-7095
Launched : 2013
JSM Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
ISSN : 2578-3572
Launched : 2016
Annals of Clinical Pathology
ISSN : 2373-9282
Launched : 2013
Annals of Cardiovascular Diseases
ISSN : 2641-7731
Launched : 2016
Journal of Behavior
ISSN : 2576-0076
Launched : 2016
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Metabolism
ISSN : 2572-2492
Launched : 2016
Clinical Research in Infectious Diseases
ISSN : 2379-0636
Launched : 2013
JSM Microbiology
ISSN : 2333-6455
Launched : 2013
Journal of Urology and Research
ISSN : 2379-951X
Launched : 2014
Journal of Family Medicine and Community Health
ISSN : 2379-0547
Launched : 2013
Annals of Pregnancy and Care
ISSN : 2578-336X
Launched : 2017
JSM Cell and Developmental Biology
ISSN : 2379-061X
Launched : 2013
Annals of Aquaculture and Research
ISSN : 2379-0881
Launched : 2014
Clinical Research in Pulmonology
ISSN : 2333-6625
Launched : 2013
Journal of Immunology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2333-6714
Launched : 2013
Annals of Forensic Research and Analysis
ISSN : 2378-9476
Launched : 2014
JSM Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
ISSN : 2333-7109
Launched : 2013
Annals of Breast Cancer Research
ISSN : 2641-7685
Launched : 2016
Annals of Gerontology and Geriatric Research
ISSN : 2378-9409
Launched : 2014
Journal of Sleep Medicine and Disorders
ISSN : 2379-0822
Launched : 2014
JSM Burns and Trauma
ISSN : 2475-9406
Launched : 2016
Chemical Engineering and Process Techniques
ISSN : 2333-6633
Launched : 2013
Annals of Clinical Cytology and Pathology
ISSN : 2475-9430
Launched : 2014
JSM Allergy and Asthma
ISSN : 2573-1254
Launched : 2016
Journal of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
ISSN : 2334-2307
Launched : 2013
Annals of Sports Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2379-0571
Launched : 2014
JSM Sexual Medicine
ISSN : 2578-3718
Launched : 2016
Annals of Vascular Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2378-9344
Launched : 2014
Journal of Hematology and Transfusion
ISSN : 2333-6684
Launched : 2013
JSM Environmental Science and Ecology
ISSN : 2333-7141
Launched : 2013
Journal of Cardiology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2333-6676
Launched : 2013
JSM Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine
ISSN : 2334-1815
Launched : 2013
Journal of Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders
ISSN : 2475-9473
Launched : 2016
JSM Ophthalmology
ISSN : 2333-6447
Launched : 2013
Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Toxicology
ISSN : 2333-7079
Launched : 2013
Annals of Psychiatry and Mental Health
ISSN : 2374-0124
Launched : 2013
Medical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
ISSN : 2333-6439
Launched : 2013
Annals of Pediatrics and Child Health
ISSN : 2373-9312
Launched : 2013
JSM Clinical Pharmaceutics
ISSN : 2379-9498
Launched : 2014
JSM Foot and Ankle
ISSN : 2475-9112
Launched : 2016
JSM Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementia
ISSN : 2378-9565
Launched : 2014
Journal of Addiction Medicine and Therapy
ISSN : 2333-665X
Launched : 2013
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2378-931X
Launched : 2013
Annals of Public Health and Research
ISSN : 2378-9328
Launched : 2014
Annals of Orthopedics and Rheumatology
ISSN : 2373-9290
Launched : 2013
Journal of Clinical Nephrology and Research
ISSN : 2379-0652
Launched : 2014
Annals of Community Medicine and Practice
ISSN : 2475-9465
Launched : 2014
Annals of Biometrics and Biostatistics
ISSN : 2374-0116
Launched : 2013
JSM Clinical Case Reports
ISSN : 2373-9819
Launched : 2013
Journal of Cancer Biology and Research
ISSN : 2373-9436
Launched : 2013
Journal of Surgery and Transplantation Science
ISSN : 2379-0911
Launched : 2013
Journal of Dermatology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2373-9371
Launched : 2013
JSM Gastroenterology and Hepatology
ISSN : 2373-9487
Launched : 2013
TEST Journal of Dentistry
ISSN : 1234-5678
Launched : 2014
Annals of Nursing and Practice
ISSN : 2379-9501
Launched : 2014
JSM Dentistry
ISSN : 2333-7133
Launched : 2013
Author Information X