Loading

Journal of Hematology and Transfusion

HIV Seroprevalence among Blood Donors in Ilorin, Nigeria

Research Article | Open Access

  • 1. Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Lagos State University College of Medicine, Nigeria
  • 2. Department of Hematology, University of Ilorin, Nigeria
+ Show More - Show Less
Corresponding Authors
Oluwadamilare Afolabi Obe, Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Lagos State University College of Medicine, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria, Tel: 2348032470420
Cite this article

Owoeye OA, Obe OA, Olawumi HO, Babatunde AS (2022) HIV Seroprevalence among Blood Donors in Ilorin, Nigeria. J Hematol Transfus 9(1): 1105.

Abstract

Introduction: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can be transmitted through blood transfusion. It is therefore important to screen all blood donors properly for HIV in order to ensure the safety of all blood products that will be transfused into recipients.

Aims and Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV infection among the different types of blood donors visiting the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH), and also to determine the age range and sex of HIV positive blood donors.

Method: Observational cross-sectional study among blood donors at the blood bank of UITH. A total of 208 donors were screened for HIV using GenscreenTM ULTRA HIV-1 Ag/Ab EIA kits. A total of 164 (78.8%) donors were family replacement, 27 (13%) were paid while 17 (8.2%) were voluntary unremunerated.

Result: The overall prevalence of p24 antigen was 6.7%. There was no prevalence among females, all the positive donors were males, and they all fell within the 21-40 years age group. Prevalence of p24 antigen was significantly higher among paid donors (11.1%) compared to family replacement donors (6.7%) and voluntary donors (0%) (P = 0.002).

In conclusion, this study showed a high prevalence of HIV infection in the studied population, exclusively among paid and family replacement donors. There is therefore a need for proper screening of blood donors as well as encouraging voluntary blood donation in order to ensure the safety of transfused blood products.

Keywords

Prevalence, Blood donor, Human immunodeficiency virus, p24, Blood transfusion

ABBREVIATIONS

HIV: Human Immunodeficiency Virus; EIA: Enzymes Immunoassays; AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; UITH: University Of Ilorin Teaching Hospital; NAT: Nucleic Acid Test; WHO: World Health Organization.

INTRODUCTION

Transfusion of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected blood is one of the most effective ways of transmitting HIV [1]. Research shows that those transfused with blood contaminated with HIV have at least 90% chance of becoming infected [1]. World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that about 5-10% of HIV infections worldwide have been acquired through transfusion of infected blood and blood products [2]. Each year, up to 13 million units out of more than 75 million units of the global blood supply are not screened for HIV or other transfusion-transmissible infections [2]. Most of these unscreened blood and blood products come from and are transfused in Sub-Saharan Africa [2]. In addition, Sub-Saharan Africa bears the greatest burden (in terms of epidemic proportions, acquisition of new infections, and mortality) of HIV and AIDS in the world [3].

According to WHO estimates, of the 112.5 million blood donations made in 2013, only 5.6 million (accounting for only about 4% of global donations) were made in Africa. The median donation rates per 1000 samples in lower middle income and low-income countries, which largely make up sub-Saharan Africa, were 7.8 and 4.6 respectively [4]; this shows that availability of blood in Africa and her sub-Saharan region is grossly inadequate. Collection of donor blood in sub-Saharan Africa is mainly hospital-based and is largely from family replacement donors and commercial remunerated donors. These family replacement donors are usually under undue pressure to donate and might not reveal any risky behaviour during donor selection. Also, they are typically at a greater risk of HIV infection than voluntary nonremunerated donors [5].

Nigeria has the twenty-first highest adult HIV prevalence rate (2.9%) and the second-largest HIV epidemic in the world [6,7]. As at 2015, about 3.5 million people were reported to be living with HIV in the country [8]. It has been reported that Nigeria together with Uganda and South Africa account for almost half of all new HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa every year [3]. Studies have also shown that transfusion-transmitted HIV infection persists in sub-Saharan Africa, with a high incidence among pregnant women due to haemorrhage-related anaemia and in children with malaria-related anaemia [9].

In a previous study conducted in a teaching hospital in Sokoto, North West Nigeria, from 2010 – 2013, the prevalence of p24 antigen in HIV seronegative blood donors was 5.84% [10]. Another study conducted in Enugu, South-East Nigeria in 2009 showed the incidence of transfusion-related HIV infection to be 1.2% [11]. Other studies from South-West Nigeria, in Ile-Ife and Ibadan, also reported transfusion-related HIV infection in children [12,13].

Therefore, it is imperative to assess the safety of blood transfusion especially in centers where transfusion occurs on a daily basis. The University of Ilorin Teaching hospital is a major tertiary health center in the North central region of Nigeria where, like most tertiary health centers in the country, blood transfusion is often an urgent clinical decision. In addition to this, resources are usually limited. This usually leads to an almost exclusive reliance on rapid diagnostic testing (Rdt), which is antibody based, for donor screening. This practice of over-reliance on rapid diagnostic kits often misses out donors in acute phase of HIV infection. This puts recipients of blood transfusion at a high risk of HIV infection when they are transfused with blood from such donors. The objective of this study is to determine the seroprevalence of p24 antigen among HIV seronegative blood donors in university of Ilorin teaching Hospital.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Study design and location

This was an observational cross-sectional study designed to determine the prevalence of HIV infection among the various classes of blood donors visiting the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH) blood bank as well as the age range and sex of HIV positive blood donors.

University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH) is located within the central senatorial districts, in Ilorin East local government area of the state. It renders both in-patient and outpatient specialist care services and has many clinical and nonclinical departments. A 640-bedded facility serves as a referral center for patients within and outside the state.

Study population

The participants are male and female blood donors in the hospital’s blood bank domiciled within the hematology department of the hospital

Sample size determination

The required sample size was calculated using Fischer’s statistical formula for estimating minimum sample size in descriptive health studies [14]. A prevalence rate of 5.8% was used [15].

The total annual number of donors seen in the blood transfusion unit of UITH was not up to 10,000 as at the time of study. Therefore, using a correction factor (nf), a minimum sample size of 84 was obtained.

However, a sample size of 208 (191 (92%) family replacement and paid donors and 17 (8%) voluntary non-remunerated donors) was used in this study so as to have more data, ensure a more precise estimate, and ultimately reduce the margin of error.

Laboratory procedure

All classes of donors were considered in this study. However, other criteria for donor selection were predominantly based on WHO guidelines.

A structured questionnaire, specifically designed for this study and based on WHO donor selection criteria, was administered to the donors. Sociodemographic information, including age, tribe, gender, religion, level of education and occupation was obtained from the questionnaire

Sample collection, transport and storage

Participants were asked to sit comfortably with the forearm extended. A tourniquet was tied about 5-10 cm above the cubital fossa and the antecubital region was properly cleaned with cotton wool dipped in 70% alcohol solution, after which the region was wiped dry with a clean dry cotton wool. A plain, anticoagulantfree, Vacutainer tube, together with the tube holder and needle was inserted into an antecubital vein and 5 mls of blood was collected. The samples were transported to the laboratory immediately where the sera were separated by centrifugation. The separated sera were pipetted into plain sera bottles and Rdt for HIV antibodies was perfomed. Also, Rdt was performed to rule out other transfusion transmissible infections like Hepatitis B, C and Syphilis. The sera were then stored and kept frozen at -20 to -25o C until they were assayed for p24 antigen about a month later.

Rapid diagnostic test for HIV-1/2 antibodies

A micropipette was used to add 50µl of the already separated test serum onto the end of the AlereTM DetermineTM strip that is designed for the test sample. The above step was replicated using CHEMBIO HIV-1/2 STAT-PAK. The test was left for at least 15 minutes (results are produced within 15 -30 minutes). After the specified period of time, the result was read. Negative samples are indicated by reaction at the control window only while positive samples are indicated by double reaction at both test and control windows. Any reaction outside these is invalid.

HIV p24 antigen assay

Conjugate 1 was added into the microplate wells. Serum samples to be assayed and controls were pipetted into the wells. (If present, HIV antigens bind to the solid phase coated with monoclonal antibodies and the conjugate 1. HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 antibodies, if any, bind to the antigens immobilized on the solid phase. Also, deposition of conjugate 1 and sample is validated through a colour change, from yellow-green to blue). After incubation at 37o C and washing, conjugate 2 was added: streptavidin reacts with biotinylated Ab-Ag-Ab complexes; peroxidase labeled, purified HIV-1 and HIV-2 antigens bind in turn to the IgG, IgM or IgA antibodies captured on the solid phase. After incubation at 18-30o C the unbound conjugate 2 fraction was removed by washing. After incubation in presence of the substrate at room temperature (18-30o C) the presence of the complexed conjugate was shown by a change in colour. The reaction was stopped and absorbances were read using a spectrophotometer at 450/620-700 nm. The absorbance measured on a sample determines the presence or absence of HIV Ag.

Ethical Approval

Ethical approval was obtained from Health Research and Ethics Committee of University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Reference No- ERCPAN/2017/10/1756. Also a written informed consent was obtained from the study participants. The informed consent form contained the following information: names and affiliation of investigator, description of the study in plain and simple language, duration of the study, statement of confidentiality including the right of the participant to withdraw from the study at any time, ethics committee approval.

Data Analysis

Biodata, sociodemographic findings and laboratory results were recorded in the study proforma. Data collected from the study proforma were entered using numeric codes on Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. Data obtained were analyzed using the statistical package for the social sciences version 22 computer software. Descriptive statistics was depicted using absolute numbers, simple percentages, mean and range. Cross tabulations and chi-square were used to analyze and compare relationship between variables. The level of statistical significance was set at 95% confidence interval (P ≤ 0.005). Conclusion and recommendations were based on evidence from the study.

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Sociodemographic characteristics of study population

Tables 1 and 2 show the sociodemographic characteristics of the study population.

The mean age and age range of blood donors were 30.5 ± 8.1 and 18-57 years respectively. The study population was made up of 204 (98.1%) males and 4 (1.9%) females; 76 (36.5%) and 132 (63.5%) practice Christianity and Islam respectively, 107 (51.4%) were single while 101 (48.6%) were married.

16 (7.7%) of the donors had primary education, 60 (28.8%) had secondary education, 128 (61.5%) had tertiary education while 4 (1.9%) had no formal education. Also, 184 (88.5%) were Yoruba; 7 (3.4%) were Igbo, 2 (1%) were Hausa. Three (1.4%) and 2 (1.0%) were from Fulani and Nupe tribes respectively while 10 (4.9%) belonged to other tribes. Furthermore, 138 (66.3%) of the donors were employed while 70 (33.7%) were unemployed.

Table 1: Distribution of the study population based on age, sex, religion and marital status

Age

Frequency

Percent %

Valid %

Cumulative %

≤ 20 years

      7

     3.4

     3.4

         3.4

21-40 years

    182  

    87.5

    87.5

      90.9

41-60 years

    19

    9.1

   9.1

      100.0

Total

    208

   100.0

  100.0

 

Mean age – 30.5 ± 8.1, range 18 – 57 years

Sex

Female

     4

     1.9

    1.9

         1.9

Male

    204

    98.1

    98.1

        100.0

Total

    208

   100.0

   100.0

 

Religion

Christianity

     76

    36.5

   36.5

        36.5

Islam

    132

    63.5

   63.5

       100.0

Total

    208

   100.0

   100.0

 

Marital status

Single

   107

    51.4

   51.4

       51.4

Married

   101

    48.6

   48.6

      100.0

Total

   208

   100.0

  100.0

 

 Table 2: Distribution of the study population based on education, tribe and employment status

Educational level

Frequency

Percent (%)

Valid (%)

Cumulative (%)

Primary

   16

    7.7

   7.7

      7.7

Secondary

   60

    28.8

   28.8

      36.5

Tertiary

  128

    61.5

   61.5

      98.1

None

    4

    1.9

   1.9

     100.0

Total

  208

   100.0

  100.0

 

Tribe

Yoruba

  184

   88.5

   88.5

    88.5

Igbo

   7

   3.4

   3.4

    91.9

Hausa

   2

   1.0

   1.0

    92.9

Fulani

   3

   1.4

   1.4

    94.3

Nupe

   2

   1.0

   1.0

    95.3

Ebira

   2

   1.0

   1.0

    96.3

Igala

   3

   1.4

   1.4

    97.7

Others

   5

   2.4

   2.4

    100.1

Total

 208

  100.1

 100.1

 

Employment status

Employed

  138

   66.3

   66.3

    66.3

Not employed

  70

   33.7

   33.7

    100.0

Total

 208

  100.0

  100.0

 

 Prevalence of HIV infection by p24 assay

The seroprevalence of p24 antigen among the study population with the fourth generation GenscreenTM ULTRA HIV Ag-Ab EIA kit for p24. Fourteen out of the 208 individuals recruited for the study were repeatedly positive for p24. This puts the prevalence at 6.7%. This is shown in Table 3.

Table 3: Prevalence of p24 antigen

               P24

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent (%)

Cumulative Percent (%)

 

Negative

194

93.3

93.3

93.3

Positive

14

6.7

6.7

6.7

 

Total

208

100.0

100.0

100.0

 Proportion of types of blood donors in the study population

The study population consisted of 164 (78.8%) family replacement donors, 27 (13%) paid donors and 17 (8.2%) voluntary non-remunerated blood donors. This is demonstrated in Table 4

Table 4: Proportion of types of blood donors in the study population.

 

Frequency

Percent (%)

Valid Percent (%)

Cumulative Percent (%)

Valid

FRP

164

78.8

78.8

78.8

VOL

17

8.2

8.2

87.0

PD

27

13.0

13.0

100.0

Total

208

100.0

100.0

 

*FRP – family replacement donor, PD – paid donor, VOL- voluntary donor

 Distribution of p24 antigen among study population

All the 14 donors who tested positive for p24 antigen fell within the 21-40 years age group and were males. However, there was no significant association between p24 antigen positivity and the age group (P = 0.067) as well as sex (P = 0.603) of the study population.

Furthermore, all the p24 antigen positive donors belonged to the Yoruba tribe and were predominantly Muslims (12); only two were Christians. Nine (64.3%) of the total number of p24 antigen positive donors were single while 5 (35.7%) were married. Also, p24 antigen positivity occurred more among unemployed donors (6). However, p24 antigen positivity was not significantly associated (P > 0.05) with the tribe, religion, marital status or employement status of the donors.

Paid donors had the highest prevalence of p24 antigen (11.1%) followed by family replacement donors (6.7%). There was zero prevalence among voluntary non-remunerated donors. Also, the prevalence of p24 antigen positivity was higher among donors with primary education (18.8%) than other educational groups: tertiary (7.0%) and secondary (3.3%). There was zero p24 antigen prevalence among donors with no formal education. However, the prevalence of p24 antigen was not significantly associated with the level of education (P = 0.303). Further details are shown in table 5.

Table 5: Comparison of p24 antigen positivity with sociodemographic variables and other parameters of the study population

 

Variables

 

Number

(n)

 

(n) positive for P24 antigen

 

 (%) positive for  P24 antigen

 

(n) negative for P24 antigen

 

 

X2

 

P value

Age Group

< 20yrs

7

0

      0

7

 

2.645

 

0.067

21-40yrs

182

14

    6.7

168

41-60yrs

19

0

      0

19

Sex

Male

204

14

     6.7

190

 

0.271

 

0.603

Female

4

0

       0

4

Marital Status

Single

107

9

     8.4

98

 

0.404

 

0.956

Married

101

5

     5.0

96

Religion

Christianity

76

2

      2.6

98

 

2.849

 

0.61

Islam

132

12

      9.1

120

Tribe

Yoruba

184

14

      7.6

170

 

 

 

1.929

 

 

 

0.197

Igbo

7

0

      0

7

Hausa

2

0

      0

2

Fulani

3

0

      0

3

Nupe

2

0

      0

2

Others

10

0

      0

10

Occupation

Not Employed

58

6

      10.3

52

 

 

 

13.792

 

 

 

0.841

Artisan

41

3

      7.3

38

Students

12

2

     16.6

10

Teaching

11

2

     18.0

9

Military

3

1

     33.3

2

Others

93

0

      0

93

Types of donor

FRP

164

11

     6.7

153

 

1.866

 

0.002

PD

27

3

     11.1

24

VOL

17

0

     0

17

Level of Education

Primary

16

3

     18.8

13

 

 

3.639

 

 

0.303

Secondary

60

2

     3.3

58

Tertiary

128

9

     7.0.

119

None

4

0

     0

4

* FRP – Family replacement donor, PD – Paid donor, VOL – Voluntary donor, X2 – Chi-square, level of significance – P value < 0.05
DISCUSSION

Transmission of HIV by transfusion of blood and blood products still carries a high risk in Sub-Saharan Africa2 compared to most developed countries of the world, where infection is detected much earlier through the use of p24 antigen and Nucleic acid testing (NAT) [16]. Although, NAT detects acute HIV infection earlier than p24 antigen screening, screening for the antigen still offers the benefit of reduction in the window period by about one to two weeks [17].

This study observed that p24 antigen positivity occurred only among people aged between 21-40 years. This finding is consistent with those from similar studies by Kwaru et al., in Kano, North Western Nigeria [18], and Japhet et al., in Ile-Ife South Western Nigeria [19]. Kwaru et al., reported the highest p24 antigen positivity in the 31-40 years age group while Japhet et al reported the highest prevalence in the 18–30 years age group. These age groups represent the youths, who are the most sexually active age group of any population and are more disposed to certain high risk behaviours such as keeping multiple sex partners, engaging in casual sex and wild sex adventures, having unprotected sexual intercourse, tattooing, intravenous drug abuse, alcoholism, than any other age group within a population. This observation is worrisome since the most active and productive group of the population is most affected.

p24 antigen positivity was observed, in this study, to be more among single donors than married donors, a finding consistent with a similar study conducted in Sokoto Northwest Nigeria [20]. However, there was no significant association between the donors’ marital status and p24 antigen positivity (P = 0.956).

p24 antigen positivity, among the study population, occurred only among male donors. This finding is consistent with observations from similar studies done in the country [18,21], but at variance with other similar studies that were also conducted in the country [22]. The fact that females are usually excluded from blood donation due to normal physiological states like pregnancy and lactation tilts the scale towards men as regards blood donation. However, this difference is more pronounced here in Nigeria where in addition to above, certain bias like, undue masculinization of blood donation, discouraging women from donating blood because of menstruation, religious and certain cultural practices, are employed as tools to prevent women from donating blood. This may explain why there are always more male donors compared to females.

However, there was no significant association between the gender of donors and p24 antigen positivity (0.603) in this study. It was observed that all 14 donors who were confirmed positive for p24 antigen were either family replacement or paid donors; with the highest prevalence observed among paid donors (11.1%). A similar finding was observed in a study done in Northern Thailand which reported that HIV-1 seropositivity was highest among professional paid donors. The study also reported that HIV prevalence dropped in the region after discontinuation of the use of paid donors [20]. Fiekumo et al., Ejele et al., in similar studies conducted at Osogbo South Western Nigeria, Port Harcourt South Southern Nigeria at different times respectively, also observed that the prevalence of transfusiontransmissible HIV infection was higher among commercial paid donors [23,24]. In a study conducted by Osaro et al., in Sokoto Northwestern Nigeria, it was observed that all seven donors that were seropositive to HIV were family replacement donors [25]. This observation is at slight variance to that obtained in this study, where even though eleven of the fourteen p24 antigen positive samples were from family replacement donors, the prevalence of the antigen (11.1%) was higher among paid donors. This difference in observations is most likely due to the fact that paid donors were not part of the studied population in the research conducted by Osaro et al. The larger proportion of blood supply in most tertiary health centres in the country come from family replacement and paid donors [26,27]. Olawumi et al., reported that most of the blood donors from University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, where this study was carried out, were family replacement donors [26]. This could explain the reason for the high number of blood donors and consequently the higher frequency of p24 antigen in that category as shown in this study. However, the prevalence of the antigen was more among paid donors which is interesting because this class of donors is hardly encountered in the hospital. This may be due to the fact that some of the so-called family replacement donors may actually be paid donors who hide their true identity and take advantage of the usually desperate and extremely urgent situation under which blood transfusion is often carried out (as is the case in most clinical settings in Nigeria) in the hospital.

Transfusion of blood collected from either a family replacement or paid donor carries a significantly higher risk of HIV transmission than blood donated by voluntary non-remunerated donors [5]. In the Sub-Saharan African setting including Nigeria, prospective blood donors who are usually either family replacement or paid donors, seldom give correct information about their risky behavioural practices even in health facilities where the donor questionnaire is strictly enforced [5]. Also most of these type of donors, especially paid donors, are usually from impoverished parts of the community. They are more likely to be poorly nourished and often tend to donate blood more than is recommended. In addition, most of them do not usually pay attention to their social behaviour and are more likely to engage in high risk practices like keeping multiple sexual partners, having casual unprotected sexual intercourse and intravenous drug abuse [28,29].

This study also observed zero prevalence of p24 antigen among voluntary non-remunerated blood donors. This observation is similar to that reported by Osaro et al in Sokoto North Western Nigeria as well as Busch et al, Alamawi et al., in USA and Saudi Arabia respectively [25,27]. WHO recommends transfusion from voluntary non-remunerated blood donors as it is the safest among the three classes of donors. The goal of the WHO is for all countries to obtain all their blood supplies through unpaid voluntary donors [4,30].

The distribution of p24 antigen based on the religion, tribe, occupation and educational level of the study population showed that prevalence of p24 antigen positivity was higher among Muslim donors than Christian donors. Furthermore, all donors who tested positive for the antigen were from the Yoruba tribe which is similar to what Olowe et al observed at Osogbo, South Western Nigeria [20]. Yorubas are the predominant tribe in Ilorin and Osogbo and this may explain why findings from both studies are similar in that regard. The city of Ilorin is predominantly inhabited by Muslim Yoruba people. This most likely accounted for the higher prevalence of the antigen among Muslims who are of Yoruba extraction. Religion was not significantly associated with p24 antigen positivity in this study (P = 0.61)

The prevalence of p24 antigen was higher among the military group (33.3%), despite the fact that the antigen occurred more frequently among the unemployed. This finding is at variance with similar studies done around the country. Olowe et al in Osogbo observed that both cases of p24 antigen positivity in their study were from self-employed donors, though in comparison with other occupational groups in that study, this was not statistically significant [18], A similar study conducted in Sokoto and China reported a higher prevalence among farmers [25], Okocha et al., in another study conducted at Nnewi South Eastern Nigeria reported the highest prevalence of transfusiontransmissible HIV among students and traders and observed the lowest prevalence among unemployed donors [31]. The main reason for this observation among the Military group, may be due to the extremely small size of the subpopulation in this study. In addition, another possible contributory factor is that individuals belonging to this occupational group are more exposed to sexually transmitted infections, than the other occupational subpopulations studied [32]. However, p24 antigen positivity was not significantly associated with donors’ occupation (P = 0.841).

The prevalence of p24 antigen positivity was higher among donors with primary education (18.8%), than those with either tertiary or secondary education. This finding was consistent with that of Song et al in China who observed a higher prevalence of transfusion-transmissible HIV infection among lower educated donors [32]. However, this finding is at variance with that of Olowe et al., who in a similar study done at Osogbo South Western Nigeria reported a higher prevalence among donors with a higher level of education [18]. The higher prevalence of p24 antigen positivity among donors with primary education observed in this study may be due to lack of adequate formal education, which may hamper the knowledge base of these donors on transmission of HIV and its preventive methods, especially when these information are presented in complex ways. p24 antigen positivity was not found among donors with no formal education. This has not been reported in any of the previous research conducted in the country or elsewhere. The reason for this finding may be due to the extremely small size of this subpopulation in the sample population. Educational level of donors had no significant association with p24 antigen positivity in this study (P = 0.303) [33-40].

CONCLUSION

The prevalence of p24 antigen positivity was observed to be 6.7%. All p24 antigen positive donors in the study population were young, between 21-40 years, and were either family replacement or paid donors (with prevalence being higher among paid donors). No voluntary non-remunerated donor tested positive for p24 antigen.

It may be concluded from this study that blood transfusion still carries a significant amount of risk in Nigeria, especially when HIV donor screening is based exclusively on serological detection of HIV antibodies and blood supply still comes from commercial and family replacement donors.

RECOMMENDATIONS

1. All centers where blood transfusion services occur in the country must try as much as possible to adhere to strict donor selection criteria as recommended by WHO; and the country should be committed to implementing the National Blood Transfusion Policy

2. Donation of blood from commercial donors must be abolished while donation from replacement donors discouraged. However, all efforts should be geared towards increasing voluntary non-remunerated blood donation.

3. Sustained Health education programmes aimed at increasing public awareness on the need to donate blood voluntarily and the benefits associated with it, should be put up by the government and all stakeholders. Also, Youths should be educated on high risk behaviours and lifestyles that can predispose them readily to contracting HIV infection.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Acknowledgement goes to all staff in the department for their unalloyed support. The Resident doctors, Medical Laboratory Technicians and Scientists who provided assistance in one way or the other during the course of this work.

REFERENCES

1. Donegan E, Lee H, Operskalski EA, Shaw GM, Kleiman SH, Busch MP, et al. Transfusion transmission of retroviruses: human T lymphotrophic virus types 1 and 11 compared with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Transfusion. 1994; 34: 478-433.

2. World Health Organization, Department of Blood safety and clinical Technology. Blood Transfusion safety: Information sheet for National Health Authorities. 2017.

3. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). The Gap Report 2014. UNAIDS. ISBN 978-92-9253-062-4

4. Global status report on blood safety and availability 2016. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2017.

5. Kimani D, Mwangi J, Mwangi M, Bunnell R. Blood donors in Kenya: a comparison of voluntary and family replacement donors based on a population-based survey. Vox sang. 2011; 2: 212-218

6. CIA world factbook. HIV/AIDS – Adults prevalence rate (2016).

7. National agency for the control of AIDS (NACA). Global Aids Response Progress Report (GARPR), 2015.

8. UN Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). Prevention Gap Report. 2016.

9. Lefrere J, Dahourou H, Dokekias AE, Kouao MD. Estimate of the residual risk of transfusion-transmitted human immunodeficiency virus infection in sub-Saharan Africa: a multinational collaborative study. Transfusion. 2011; 51: 486-492

10.International committee on the taxonomy of viruses 2002. National institutes of Health. “Lentivirus and Retroviridae”.

11.Ubesie A, Emodi I, Ikefuna A. High incidence of Transfusion-Related HIV infection in Nigeria. Int J Haemtol. 2009; 7: 1-6

12.Adejuyigbe EA, Durosinmi MA, Onyia FN, Adeodu OO. Blood transfusion related paediatric HIV/AIDS in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. AIDS care 2003; 15: 329-335

13.Brown BJ, Oladokun RE, Ogunbosi BO, Osinusi K. Blood transfusionassociated HIV infection in children in Ibadan, Nigeria. J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care. 2013; 00: 1-6.

14.HIV sequence compendium 2008 introduction.

15.Osaro E, Mohammed N, Zama I, Yakubu A, Ikhuenbor D, Aghedo F, et al. Prevalence of p24 antigen among a cohort of HIV antibody negative blood donors in Sokoto, North Western Nigeria – the question of safety of blood transfusion in Nigeria. Pan Afr Med J. 2014; 18: 174.

16.Thoai Duong L, Laperche S, Brennan C. Evaluation of the sensitivity and specificity of six HIV comined p24 antigen and antibody assays. J Virol methods. 2004; 122: 185-194

17.Allain JP, Laurian Y, Paul DA, Senn D. Serological markers in early stages of human immunodeficiency virus infection in haemophiliacs. Lancet. 1986; 2: 1233-1236

18.Kwaru AH, Kuliya GA, Jegede FE, Ofula T, Imoru MO, Abubakar AG, et al. Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) p24 antigen among HIV antibody negative donors in Kano, Nigeria. J Med Lab science. 2006; 15.

19.Japhet MO, Adewumi MO, Adesina OA, Donbraye E. High prevalence of HIV p24 antigen among HIV antibody negative prospective blood donors in Ile-Ife Nigeria. J Immunoassay Immunochem. 2016; 37: 555- 563.

20.Mundee Y, Kamtorn N, Chaiyaphruk S, Nantachit N, Ness PM, Nelson KE. Infectious disease markers in blood donors in Northern Thailand. Transfusion. 1995; 35: 264-267.

21. Nneli RO, Ekpo BO, Ohaeri OC, Egene J. Prevalence of Rh and ABO blood groups in HIV seropositive pregnant women in Enugu Nigeria. J Physiol Sci. 2004; 19: 7-9.

22.Akani CI, Erhabor O, Babatunde S. Pre-marital HIV testing in couples from faith-based organizations: experience in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Niger j Med. 2005; 14: 39-44.

23.Fiekumo IB, Musa AM, Zacchaeus AJ. Seroepidemiology of transfusiontransmissible infectious diseases among blood donors in Osogbo, South West Nigeria. Blood Transfus. 2009; 7: 293-299.

24. Ejele OA, Erhabor O, Nwauche CA. Trends in the prevalence of some transfusion-transmissible infections among blood donors in Port Harcourt Nigeria. Haema. 2005; 8: 273-277.

25.Osaro E, Ismaila U, Abubakar W, Hauwa B, Yakubu A, Onuigue F, et al. Prevalence of transfusion-transmissible HIV infection among blood donors in Sokoto, North Western Nigeria. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2014; 1: 36-42. 

26.Olawumi HO, Adewuyi JO. Blood donation trend in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Savannah J Med Res Prac. 2012; 1: 25-28.

27.Nwogoh B, Ikpomwen OD, Isoa EM. Donor procurement and the risk of transfusion-transmissible viral infections in a tertiary health facility in South-South Nigeria. Niger Med J. 2011; 52: 227-229.

28.Van der Bij AK, Coutinho RA, Van der Poel CL. Surveillance of risk profiles among new and repeat blood donors with transfusiontransmitted ifections from 1995 through 2003 in the Netherlands. Transfusion. 2006; 46: 1729-36.

29.Kalibatas V. Payment for whole blood donations in Lithuania: the risk for infectious disease markers. Vox Sang. 2008; 94: 209-215.

30.Sayal SK, Das AL, Nema SK. Study of blood groups in HIV seropositive patients. Indian J Dermatol Venerol Leprol. 1996; 62: 295-297.

31.Okocha EC, Aneke JC, Ezeh TU, Ibeh NC, Nwosu GA, Okorie IO et al. The epidemiology of transfusion-transmissible infections among blood donors in Nnewi, South-East Nigeria. Afr J Med Health sci. 2015; 14: 125-129. 32.Song Y, Bian Y, Petzold M, Ung COL. Prevalence and trend of major transfusion-transmissible infections among blood donors in Western China, 2005 through 2010. PLOS ONE. 2014; 9: e9458.

33.Olawumi HO, Shittu AO, Ogunfemi MK. Prevalence of some transfusion transmissible infections among first time and repeat voluntary and family replacement donors in North central Nigeria. Sudan Medical J. 2016; 52: 131-136.

34.Olawumi HO, Shittu AO, Durotoye AI. Prevalence and trend of HBsAg, Anti-HCV and Anti-HIV among blood Donors in a Tertiary Hospital in North central Nigeria. SMU Med J. 2017; 4: 33-41.

35.Weber B. Screening of HIV infection: role of molecular and immunological assays. Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2006; 6: 399-411.

36.Darr ES, Moudgil T, Meyer RD, Ho DD. Transient high levels of viraemia in patients with primary immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. N Engl J Med. 1991; 324: 961-964.

37.Lackritz EM, Satten GA, Aberle-Grasse J, Dodd RY, Raimondi VP, Janssen RS et al. Estimated risk of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus by screened blood in the United States. N Engl J Med. 1995; 333: 1721-1725.

38.Feibig EW, Wright DJ, Rawald BD, Garrett PE, Schumacher RT, Peddada L et al. Dynamics of HIV viraemia and antibody seroconversion in plasma donors: implications for diagnosis and staging of primary HIV infection. AIDS. 2003; 17: 1871-1879.

39.Sickinger E, Jonas G, Yem AW, Goller A, Stieler M, Brennan C et al. Performance evaluation of the new fully automated virus antigen antibody combination assay designed for blood screening. Transfusion. 2008; 48: 584 -593.

40.Okoroiwu HU, Okafor IM, Asemota EA, Okpokam DC. Seroprevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections (HBV, HCV, Syphilis and HIV) among prospective blood donors in a tertiary healthcare facility in Calabar, Nigeria; an eleven years evaluation. BMC Public Health 2018; 18: 645.

Owoeye OA, Obe OA, Olawumi HO, Babatunde AS (2022) HIV Seroprevalence among Blood Donors in Ilorin, Nigeria. J Hematol Transfus 9(1): 1105.

Received : 02 Nov 2022
Accepted : 15 Dec 2022
Published : 16 Dec 2022
Journals
Annals of Otolaryngology and Rhinology
ISSN : 2379-948X
Launched : 2014
JSM Schizophrenia
Launched : 2016
Journal of Nausea
Launched : 2020
JSM Internal Medicine
Launched : 2016
JSM Hepatitis
Launched : 2016
JSM Oro Facial Surgeries
ISSN : 2578-3211
Launched : 2016
Journal of Human Nutrition and Food Science
ISSN : 2333-6706
Launched : 2013
JSM Regenerative Medicine and Bioengineering
ISSN : 2379-0490
Launched : 2013
JSM Spine
ISSN : 2578-3181
Launched : 2016
Archives of Palliative Care
ISSN : 2573-1165
Launched : 2016
JSM Nutritional Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3203
Launched : 2017
Annals of Neurodegenerative Disorders
ISSN : 2476-2032
Launched : 2016
Journal of Fever
ISSN : 2641-7782
Launched : 2017
JSM Bone Marrow Research
ISSN : 2578-3351
Launched : 2016
JSM Mathematics and Statistics
ISSN : 2578-3173
Launched : 2014
Journal of Autoimmunity and Research
ISSN : 2573-1173
Launched : 2014
JSM Arthritis
ISSN : 2475-9155
Launched : 2016
JSM Head and Neck Cancer-Cases and Reviews
ISSN : 2573-1610
Launched : 2016
JSM General Surgery Cases and Images
ISSN : 2573-1564
Launched : 2016
JSM Anatomy and Physiology
ISSN : 2573-1262
Launched : 2016
JSM Dental Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1548
Launched : 2016
Annals of Emergency Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1017
Launched : 2016
Annals of Mens Health and Wellness
ISSN : 2641-7707
Launched : 2017
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Health Care
ISSN : 2576-0084
Launched : 2018
Journal of Chronic Diseases and Management
ISSN : 2573-1300
Launched : 2016
Annals of Vaccines and Immunization
ISSN : 2378-9379
Launched : 2014
JSM Heart Surgery Cases and Images
ISSN : 2578-3157
Launched : 2016
Annals of Reproductive Medicine and Treatment
ISSN : 2573-1092
Launched : 2016
JSM Brain Science
ISSN : 2573-1289
Launched : 2016
JSM Biomarkers
ISSN : 2578-3815
Launched : 2014
JSM Biology
ISSN : 2475-9392
Launched : 2016
Archives of Stem Cell and Research
ISSN : 2578-3580
Launched : 2014
Annals of Clinical and Medical Microbiology
ISSN : 2578-3629
Launched : 2014
JSM Pediatric Surgery
ISSN : 2578-3149
Launched : 2017
Journal of Memory Disorder and Rehabilitation
ISSN : 2578-319X
Launched : 2016
JSM Tropical Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2578-3165
Launched : 2016
JSM Head and Face Medicine
ISSN : 2578-3793
Launched : 2016
JSM Cardiothoracic Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1297
Launched : 2016
JSM Bone and Joint Diseases
ISSN : 2578-3351
Launched : 2017
JSM Bioavailability and Bioequivalence
ISSN : 2641-7812
Launched : 2017
JSM Atherosclerosis
ISSN : 2573-1270
Launched : 2016
Journal of Genitourinary Disorders
ISSN : 2641-7790
Launched : 2017
Journal of Fractures and Sprains
ISSN : 2578-3831
Launched : 2016
Journal of Autism and Epilepsy
ISSN : 2641-7774
Launched : 2016
Annals of Marine Biology and Research
ISSN : 2573-105X
Launched : 2014
JSM Health Education & Primary Health Care
ISSN : 2578-3777
Launched : 2016
JSM Communication Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3807
Launched : 2016
Annals of Musculoskeletal Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3599
Launched : 2016
Annals of Virology and Research
ISSN : 2573-1122
Launched : 2014
JSM Renal Medicine
ISSN : 2573-1637
Launched : 2016
Journal of Muscle Health
ISSN : 2578-3823
Launched : 2016
JSM Genetics and Genomics
ISSN : 2334-1823
Launched : 2013
JSM Anxiety and Depression
ISSN : 2475-9139
Launched : 2016
Clinical Journal of Heart Diseases
ISSN : 2641-7766
Launched : 2016
Annals of Medicinal Chemistry and Research
ISSN : 2378-9336
Launched : 2014
JSM Pain and Management
ISSN : 2578-3378
Launched : 2016
JSM Women's Health
ISSN : 2578-3696
Launched : 2016
Clinical Research in HIV or AIDS
ISSN : 2374-0094
Launched : 2013
Journal of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity
ISSN : 2333-6692
Launched : 2013
Journal of Substance Abuse and Alcoholism
ISSN : 2373-9363
Launched : 2013
JSM Neurosurgery and Spine
ISSN : 2373-9479
Launched : 2013
Journal of Liver and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2379-0830
Launched : 2014
Journal of Drug Design and Research
ISSN : 2379-089X
Launched : 2014
JSM Clinical Oncology and Research
ISSN : 2373-938X
Launched : 2013
JSM Bioinformatics, Genomics and Proteomics
ISSN : 2576-1102
Launched : 2014
JSM Chemistry
ISSN : 2334-1831
Launched : 2013
Journal of Trauma and Care
ISSN : 2573-1246
Launched : 2014
JSM Surgical Oncology and Research
ISSN : 2578-3688
Launched : 2016
Annals of Food Processing and Preservation
ISSN : 2573-1033
Launched : 2016
Journal of Radiology and Radiation Therapy
ISSN : 2333-7095
Launched : 2013
JSM Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
ISSN : 2578-3572
Launched : 2016
Annals of Clinical Pathology
ISSN : 2373-9282
Launched : 2013
Annals of Cardiovascular Diseases
ISSN : 2641-7731
Launched : 2016
Journal of Behavior
ISSN : 2576-0076
Launched : 2016
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Metabolism
ISSN : 2572-2492
Launched : 2016
Clinical Research in Infectious Diseases
ISSN : 2379-0636
Launched : 2013
JSM Microbiology
ISSN : 2333-6455
Launched : 2013
Journal of Urology and Research
ISSN : 2379-951X
Launched : 2014
Journal of Family Medicine and Community Health
ISSN : 2379-0547
Launched : 2013
Annals of Pregnancy and Care
ISSN : 2578-336X
Launched : 2017
JSM Cell and Developmental Biology
ISSN : 2379-061X
Launched : 2013
Annals of Aquaculture and Research
ISSN : 2379-0881
Launched : 2014
Clinical Research in Pulmonology
ISSN : 2333-6625
Launched : 2013
Journal of Immunology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2333-6714
Launched : 2013
Annals of Forensic Research and Analysis
ISSN : 2378-9476
Launched : 2014
JSM Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
ISSN : 2333-7109
Launched : 2013
Annals of Breast Cancer Research
ISSN : 2641-7685
Launched : 2016
Annals of Gerontology and Geriatric Research
ISSN : 2378-9409
Launched : 2014
Journal of Sleep Medicine and Disorders
ISSN : 2379-0822
Launched : 2014
JSM Burns and Trauma
ISSN : 2475-9406
Launched : 2016
Chemical Engineering and Process Techniques
ISSN : 2333-6633
Launched : 2013
Annals of Clinical Cytology and Pathology
ISSN : 2475-9430
Launched : 2014
JSM Allergy and Asthma
ISSN : 2573-1254
Launched : 2016
Journal of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
ISSN : 2334-2307
Launched : 2013
Annals of Sports Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2379-0571
Launched : 2014
JSM Sexual Medicine
ISSN : 2578-3718
Launched : 2016
Annals of Vascular Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2378-9344
Launched : 2014
JSM Biotechnology and Biomedical Engineering
ISSN : 2333-7117
Launched : 2013
JSM Environmental Science and Ecology
ISSN : 2333-7141
Launched : 2013
Journal of Cardiology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2333-6676
Launched : 2013
JSM Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine
ISSN : 2334-1815
Launched : 2013
Journal of Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders
ISSN : 2475-9473
Launched : 2016
JSM Ophthalmology
ISSN : 2333-6447
Launched : 2013
Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Toxicology
ISSN : 2333-7079
Launched : 2013
Annals of Psychiatry and Mental Health
ISSN : 2374-0124
Launched : 2013
Medical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
ISSN : 2333-6439
Launched : 2013
Annals of Pediatrics and Child Health
ISSN : 2373-9312
Launched : 2013
JSM Clinical Pharmaceutics
ISSN : 2379-9498
Launched : 2014
JSM Foot and Ankle
ISSN : 2475-9112
Launched : 2016
JSM Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementia
ISSN : 2378-9565
Launched : 2014
Journal of Addiction Medicine and Therapy
ISSN : 2333-665X
Launched : 2013
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2378-931X
Launched : 2013
Annals of Public Health and Research
ISSN : 2378-9328
Launched : 2014
Annals of Orthopedics and Rheumatology
ISSN : 2373-9290
Launched : 2013
Journal of Clinical Nephrology and Research
ISSN : 2379-0652
Launched : 2014
Annals of Community Medicine and Practice
ISSN : 2475-9465
Launched : 2014
Annals of Biometrics and Biostatistics
ISSN : 2374-0116
Launched : 2013
JSM Clinical Case Reports
ISSN : 2373-9819
Launched : 2013
Journal of Cancer Biology and Research
ISSN : 2373-9436
Launched : 2013
Journal of Surgery and Transplantation Science
ISSN : 2379-0911
Launched : 2013
Journal of Dermatology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2373-9371
Launched : 2013
JSM Gastroenterology and Hepatology
ISSN : 2373-9487
Launched : 2013
TEST Journal of Dentistry
ISSN : 1234-5678
Launched : 2014
Annals of Nursing and Practice
ISSN : 2379-9501
Launched : 2014
JSM Dentistry
ISSN : 2333-7133
Launched : 2013
Author Information X