Journal of Hematology and Transfusion

The Incidence of Adverse Reaction and Its Predictors among Ethiopian Whole Blood Donors: A Retrospective Cohort Study

Research Article | Open Access | Volume 9 | Issue 1

  • 1. Department of Public Health, School of Health Science, Madda Walabu University, Ethiopia
  • 2. Ethiopian National Blood Bank Service (ENBBS)
  • 3. Department of Epidemiology, Public Health Faculty, Institute of Health, Jimma University, Ethiopia
  • 4. Department of Midwifery, School of Health Science, Madda Walabu University, Ethiopia
+ Show More - Show Less
Corresponding Authors
Habtemu Jarso Hebo, Department of Public Health, School of Health Science, Madda Walabu University, Ethiopia, Email: hebo.habtemu@gmail.com

Background: Blood donations are generally well tolerated but they are not completely without risk. Adverse reactions are complications of blood donations with significant donor discomfort and negative effect on donor satisfaction and return for donation. Published evidence from Ethiopia on this area is scanty.

Objective: This study assessed the incidence of adverse reaction and its predictors.

Methods: A cohort study was conducted using national data of volunteer whole blood donors. We analyzed the data by SPSS 26. We performed modified binary logistic regression to identify predictors of adverse reaction.

Results: We included 6019 donors in the analysis. The incidence of adverse reactions was 3% (95% CI: 2.56%-3.42%). A female had 83% lower chance; a young donor (<23 years old) had 69% lower risk compared to ≥ 23 years old; a donor who donated at mobile donation site had 94% lower chance of having adverse reaction. A donor who donated 450ml had 3 times higher chance compared to that who donated 350ml; first-time donor had at least 34% lower risk of having adverse reactions.

Conclusions: Interventions to reduce adverse reactions should consider sex, age, donation site, the volume of blood donated and donation history of the donors.


Volunteer donors, Whole blood, Incidence, Adverse reactions, Ethiopia


Hebo HJ, Gebremeskel LT, Tesfamichael FA, Bedecha DY, Edaso AU (2022) The Incidence of Adverse Reaction and Its Predictors among Ethiopian Whole Blood Donors: A Retrospective Cohort Study. J Hematol Transfus 9(1): 1104.


ARR: Adjusted Relative Risk; BCA: Blood Collecting Agency; CI: Confidence Interval; CRR: Crude Relative Risk; NGO: NonGovernmental Organization; RR: Relative Risk; SD: Standard Deviation; AR: Adverse Reactions


According to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, blood shall be collected from voluntary and nonremunerated donors (1). National blood transfusion services (NBTS) have the responsibility to collect blood only from donors who are unlikely to jeopardize their own health by blood donation (2). Blood donations are generally well tolerated, but they are not completely without risk. Adverse reactions are among the most common complications of blood donations (2-6).

Adverse reactions are systemic reactions and defined as symptoms or signs of donor discomfort that are severe enough to either warrant the donor calling for the attention of the blood bank staff or was noticed by the staff. These include increased perspiration, shallow respiration, dizziness, sweating, pallor, nausea, vomiting, unconsciousness (fainting/syncope), rigidity/ tremor of extremities (convulsions), and loss of bladder or bowel control (3,7,8). Moderate adverse reactions have been observed in up to 1.4% to 7% of donors; however, serious reactions are rarely encountered (only 0.08% to 0.5%) (4,7,9-11). Adverse reactions have significant implications not only for the welfare of donors but also on the retention of donors and security of the blood supply (7,9,12). Donors who had adverse reactions may never attempt to donate again or take a longer time to return (11,13-18).

Some donor characteristics including young age, low weight(low blood volume), previous donation history, gender, (7,18) and pre-donation anxiety (19) have been variously reported to reliably predict the development of adverse reactions in potential blood donors. In view of the negative influence of adverse reactions on donor retention and attainment of sufficient blood availability by maximizing donor retention, the interest to assess the incidence and predictors of adverse reactions among volunteer whole blood donors was felt. Both small and large scale studies of a similar kind are limited though the number of volunteer blood donors is still inadequate in our setup.


Study design, population and data extraction

A retrospective record-based cohort study with both descriptive and analytic components was conducted on all volunteer whole blood donors who donated blood during 11th September 2012 – 5th September 2013 at National Blood Bank, Addis Ababa. National Blood Transfusion Services was established in 1969 by Ethiopian Red Cross Society and transferred to Ethiopian Federal Ministry of Health in 2004. Its mission is to ensure the availability of safe and adequate supply of blood and blood products to all transfusing health facilities in Ethiopia. In Ethiopia, any healthy person aged from 18-65 years and weighing not less than 45 kilograms may become a donor. A donor should weigh at least 45 kg to donate 350ml and 50 kg to donate 450ml (2,20).

Baseline donor data and history of donor reaction were extracted from existing databases. Type of blood collection center (fixed site or mobile site), donor’s age, sex, occupation, previous donation experience, the volume of blood donated (350ml vs 450ml), ABO blood group, Rh factor, and weight were extracted data. The adverse reaction assessed in this study were the reaction that occurred during or immediately after donation, but before the donor leaves the donation site. Donors were observed for at least 10 minutes after donation to check occurrence of donor adverse reaction. Adverse reactions were identified by observation and recording of reactions by the collection staff or report of discomfort by the donor.

Data analysis

Data were imported into SPSS version 26 statistical software from Microsoft Excel for cleaning and analysis. All analyses were performed by SPSS 26. Descriptive analyses such as frequency distributions and percentage were computed. Bivariate and multivariable modified binary logistic regressions were performed to assess the association between donors’ adverse reaction and baseline characteristics. Before modeling, binary logistic regression model assumptions were checked.

During modeling, multivariable logistic regression was preceded by bi-variate logistic regression. P-value of less than 0.20 and clinical importance of variables were considered to identify candidates for multivariable analysis. Before running multivariable logistic regression, multicollinearity among candidate variables was checked in linear regression with collinearity diagnostics. Variance inflation factor (VIF) > 5 was considered as the presence of collinearity, but the maximum VIF detected was 2.174 and thus, there was not any collinearity. The interaction/effect modification between each pair of independent variables was also assessed using Breslow-Day test in cross-tabs. A significant interaction between age (categorical) and volume,occupation and volume, and previous donation experience and sex were detected. Finally, multiple logistic regression was performed to identify the independent predictors of adverse reaction. Interaction terms between baseline characteristics were also included in the regression, but there was not any significant interaction detected in multiple regression. The strength of association was reported by adjusted relative risk (ARR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI). P-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant for all independent variables in the final model. Model fitness was assessed by the Hosmer-Lemeshow test (p-value = 0.199) and the overall percentage of correct classification (97.1%) at the last step.


The incidence of adverse reactions and its predictors Six thousand and nineteen voluntary blood donors donated blood during the study period. The incidence of adverse reactions was nearly 3% (180/6019). Bivariate binary logistic regression showed that sex, age, weight, blood group B, donation site, the volume of blood donated, donation experience and occupation (student, civil servant) were associated with adverse reaction at p-value < 0.05 whereas Rh factor was not associated with adverse reaction (Table 1).

Table 1: Incidence and crude association between adverse reaction and characteristics of blood donors, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Donor characteristics

Total Donors

Adverse reaction

CRR (95%CI)





164 (4.26)





16 (0.74)

0.173 (0.103,0.289)

< 0.001

Age (years)

Young (< 23)


26 (1.10)

0.259 (0.170,0.394)


< 0.001

≥ 23


154 (4.23)


Weight (in Kg)*, Mean (SD) = 65.41 (11.82)


1.055 (1.044,1.066)

< 0.001

Blood group



87 (3.47)





47 (2.74)

0.790 (0.551,1.132)





33 (2.31)

0.665 (0.443,0.999)





13 (3.49)

1.004 (0.555,1.816)





162 (2.90)





18 (4.10)

1.412 (0.860,2.320)

Donation site



176 (5.64)





4 (0.14)

0.024 (0.009,0.066)




42 (0.98)





138 (8.01)

8.192 (5.774,11.624)

Donation experience

Repeat donor


109 (2.56)



1st-time donor


71 (4.04)

1.578 (1.164,2.138)




Private/NGO worker


123 (3.35)





24 (1.21)

0.362 (0.233,0.562)


Civil servant


26 (9.39)

2.804 (1.805,4.355)




3 (8.33)

2.489 (0.756,8.194)




4 (8.00)

2.390 (0.850,6.721)


*continuous variables, †2 cells (20%) have expected count less than 5, ** daily laborer (2), driver (17), housewife (9), policeman/policewoman (6), religious leader (1), teacher (15)

In multivariable analysis, sex, age, donation site, the volume of blood donated and donation experience were factors significantly associated with adverse reaction at p-value < 0.05. A female donor had at least 83% lower risk [ARR = 0.166, 95%CI (0.067, 0.412)] of having adverse reaction. A young (< 23 years old) donor had at least 69% lower risk [ARR = 0.308, 95%CI (0.108, 0.878)] of having adverse reaction compared to a donor whose age is 23 and above years. A first-time donor had at least 34% lower risk [ARR = 0.658, 95%CI (0.469, 0.925)] of having adverse reaction. The risk of having adverse reaction for one who donated at mobile donation site was at least 94% lower [ARR = 0.057, 95%CI (0.020, 0.160)]. With regard to the volume of blood donated, one who donated 450ml had nearly 3 times higher risk [ARR = 2.734, 95%CI (1.859,4.021)] of having adverse reaction compared to who donated 350ml (Table 2).

Table 2: Adjusted association between adverse reaction and characteristics of blood donors, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Donor characteristics

Coefficient of regression (B)


ARR (95%CI)







< 0.001






Age (years)

Young (< 23)



0.308 (0.108,0.878)


≥ 23





Donation site




0.057 (0.020,0.160)

< 0.001

Fixed center










< 0.001




2.734 (1.859,4.021)


Donation experience

1st time donor



0.658 (0.469,0.925)


Repeat donor





Age by volume




2.825 (0.895,8.919)


Donation experience by sex



2.950 (0.964,9.033)


†interaction term



This study investigated the incidence of adverse reactions and associated factors. The incidence of adverse reaction determined was 3%. Sex, age, donation site, the volume of blood donated, and previous donation history (experience) were factors found significantly associated with the occurrence of adverse reactions.

The incidence of adverse reaction determined in this study was comparable to the finding of a study conducted in Nigeria (21). However, our finding was higher than most reports of previous studies. It was higher than the report of a study conducted in India (22) where a total of 2.04% adverse reaction was observed. It was also more than eight times higher than the finding of a study conducted in Bangladesh (4); five times higher than the finding of another study conducted in India (23); and almost 3 times higher than report of study conducted in Saudi Arabia (24). The finding was also much lower than the finding of a study conducted in Pakistan where a prevalence of at least 8.2% was reported (23).

In this analysis, a female donor had 83% reduced chance of having adverse reactions. One of the potential explanations for the lower prevalence among women would be the fact that women have fewer donations than men, due to menarche, pregnancy, and breastfeeding. However, this finding was different from the finding of studies conducted in Bangladesh, India, and Nigeria (4,21,25) where the female donor was found significantly more prone to develop adverse reactions. In our analysis, first-time donors had a 34% lower risk of having adverse reactions. This could be because first-time donors may be motivated about blood donation and thus, they are not in anxiety. It could also be because blood collecting professionals were more careful with first-time donors. But, this finding was different from the report of earlier studies where the first-time donor had increased risk of having donor reaction (21,24,25).

The volume of blood donated was another factor significantly associated with the chance of developing adverse reaction. A participant who donated 450ml was three times at higher risk of developing adverse reaction than a participant who donated 350ml. A study conducted among first-time young donors (16-18 years) detected that collecting 350ml has a large and significant reduction in reaction rates among all females and most males except the higher weight subgroups (26). One who donated blood at mobile donation sites was also at much reduced (94% lower).

risk of developing adverse reactions. This could be because those who donated 350ml are more than 9 times more likely to donate at mobile sites, age and sex being constant. Younger age (< 23 years old) donors had 69% lower risk of having adverse reaction contrary to earlier studies that reported an increased risk of adverse reaction in younger age donors (21,24,27). This could also be because, in this study, younger donors are nearly 4 times more likely to donate at mobile sites, volume and sex being constant. Females are also 30% higher likely to donate at mobile sites, age and volume being constant. In the study conducted in India, age ≥ 45 years was found to be at higher risk of developing adverse reaction (25).

Blood group was not found associated with the occurrence of adverse reaction in this study contrary to the previous study that reported an increased risk of adverse reaction in a donor with blood group B (21). Weight was also not associated with adverse reactions in current study. This finding was different from earlier study conducted in Saudi Arabia which reported increased chance having adverse reactions among lower weight donors (< 75 kg) (24). It was also different from earlier study conducted in Pakistan that reported increased risk of developing adverse reaction with weight < 70 kg (27). Occupation and Rh were also not associated with adverse reactions in current study.


This analysis has some limitations. There was no access to delayed adverse reactions (reactions occurring after the donor leaves the blood donation site). In addition, the research was unable to classify reactions into different levels (minor/mild and major/severe) which is important for interventions. This data is applicable to the reactions seen with whole blood donation, but not with automated collection methods.


The risk of adverse reactions related to blood donation was high in this study. Thus, attention towards donor’s adverse reactions is warranted, as it would have detrimental effects on the return of donors for subsequent donations, and the rate of complications resulting in long-term morbidity and disability is not negligible. It is important to follow strict donor selection criteria and ensure careful monitoring during the donation process to avoid fatal consequences. A well-trained and experienced phlebotomist and pre-evaluation counseling of blood donors could further minimize the adverse reactions.


Ethics approval and consent to participate

Ethical approval was obtained from Ethical Review Board of the Institute of Health, Jimma University. Permission was obtained from the Office of National Blood Bank Services to use the data for this study. All the information obtained from the donors’ record was kept confidential by excluding personal identifiers. Information obtained was also used only for the purpose of the study.

Availability of data and materials

All datasets on which the conclusions of the paper rely were presented in the main manuscript.

Competing interests

The authors have declared that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

HJ conceptualized the study, participated in its design and performed statistical analysis, and drafted the manuscript. LT participated in the design of the study and carried out data extraction. FA participated in the design of the study. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.


The authors appreciate the National Blood Bank data officers for the permission given to use the data.


1. WHO. National Standards for Blood Transfusion Service. World Health Organization; 2013.

2. World Health Organization. Blood Donor Selection: Guidelines on Assessing Donor Suitability for Blood Donation. World Health Organization; 2012.

3. ISBT, IHN. Standard for Surveillance of Complications Related to Blood Donation. International Society of Blood Transfusion and International Haemovigilance Network; 2014.

4. Rahman A, Biswas J, Islam MA, Khatun A, Shil N, Shaheen SSI, et al. The Incidence of Vaso-vagal Reactions Among Whole Blood Donors During or Immediately After Donation. Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Med Univ J . 2011 ;4: 106-109.

5. Seheult JN, Lund ME, Yazer MH, Titlestad K. Factors associated with adverse reactions in apheresis plasma and whole blood donors: a statistical-epidemiological study in a European donor cohort. Blood Res [Internet]. 2016 ; 51: 293-296.

6. Thijsen A, Masser B. Adverse reactions in blood donors: risks, prevention and management. Transfus Med. 2017.

7. John CA, Theodora UE, Gloria AN, Chika EA. Adverse reactions to blood donation: A descriptive study of 3520 blood donors in a Nigerian tertiary hospital. Med J Dr Patil Univ . 2017; 10: 36.

8. Newman BH. Management of Young Blood Donors. Transfus Med Hemother . 2014; 41: 284-295.

9. ABC. ABC News Letter: Current Events and Trends in Blood Services. America’s Blood Centers. 2017.

10.Amrein K, Valentin A, Lanzer G, Drexler C. Adverse events and safety issues in blood donation: a comprehensive review. Blood Rev. 2012; 26: 33-42.

11.Fisher SA, Allen D, Doree C, Naylor J, Angelantonio ED, Roberts DJ. Interventions to reduce adverse reactions in blood donors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Transfus Med. 2016.

12.van Dongen A, Abraham C, Ruiter R, Veldhuizen I. The influence of adverse reactions, subjective distress, and anxiety on retention of first-time blood donors. Transfusion. 2013; 53: 337-343.

13.Custer B, Rios JA, Schlumpf K, Kakaiya RM, Gottschall JL, Wright DJ. Adverse reactions and other factors that impact subsequent blood donation visits. Transfusion (Paris) [Internet]. 2012 Jan [cited 2017; 52: 118–126.

14.Eder AF, Notari EP, Dodd RY. Do reactions after whole blood donation predict syncope on return donation? Transfusion. 2012; 52: 2570- 2576.

15.Kasraian L. Causes of discontinuity of blood donation among donors in Shiraz, Iran: cross-sectional study. Sao Paulo Med J. 2010; 128: 272- 275.

16.Kasraian L, Tavassoli A. Relationship between first-year blood donation, return rate for subsequent donation and demographic characteristics. Blood Transfus. 2012 10: 448-452.

17.Newman BH, Newman DT, Ahmad R, Roth AJ. The effect of wholeblood donor adverse events on blood donor return rates. Transfusion. 2006; 46: 1374-1379.

18.Wiersum-Osselton JC, Marijt-van der Kreek T, Brand A, Veldhuizen I, van der Bom JG, et al. Risk factors for complications in donors at first and repeat whole blood donation: a cohort study with assessment of the impact on donor return. Blood Transfus Trasfus Sangue. 2014; 12: s28-36.

19.Viar M, Atzel E, Ciesielski B, Olatunji B. Disgust, anxiety, and vasovagal syncope sensations: a comparison of injection-fearful and nonfearful blood donors. J Anxiety Disord. 2010; 24: 941-945. 20.Ethiopian Federal Ministry of Health. National Blood Transfusion Services Strategy. Ethiopian Federal Ministry of Health; 2005.

21.Eluke BC, Okonji CU, Ukaejiofo E, Eluke CC, Uchendu KI, et al. Prevalence of Adverse Reaction to Whole Blood Donation Among Voluntary Donors in Asaba, Nigeria. Afr J Biomed Res [Internet]. 2017; 20: 261-265.

22.Abhishekh B, Mayadevi S, Usha K. Adverse Reactions to Blood Donation. Innov J Med Health Sci. 2013; 3: 158-160.

23.Pathak C, Pujani M, Pahuja S, Jain M. Adverse reactions in whole blood donors: an Indian scenario. Blood Transfus. 2011; 9: 46-49.

24.Almutairi H, Salam M, Alajlan A, Wani F, Al-Shammari B, Al-Surimi K. Incidence, predictors and severity of adverse events among whole blood donors. PLOS ONE. 2017; 12: e0179831.

25.Philip J, Sarkar R, Jain N. A single-centre study of adverse reaction in blood donors: Influence of age, sex, donation status, weight, total blood volume and volume of blood collected. Asian J Transfus Sci. 2014; 8: 43-46.

26.Wong H, Lee C, Leung J, Lee I, Lin C. Reduction in vasovagal reaction rate in young first-time blood donors by collecting 350 mL rather than 450 mL. Transfusion. 2013; 53: 2763-2765.

27.Sultan S, Baig MA, Irfan SM, Ahmed SI, Hasan SF. Adverse Reactions in Allogeneic Blood Donors: A Tertiary Care Experience from a Developing Country. Oman Med J [Internet]. 2016; 31: 124-128.

Hebo HJ, Gebremeskel LT, Tesfamichael FA, Bedecha DY, Edaso AU (2022) The Incidence of Adverse Reaction and Its Predictors among Ethiopian Whole Blood Donors: A Retrospective Cohort Study. J Hematol Transfus 9(1): 1104.

Received : 19 Jul 2022
Accepted : 31 Jul 2022
Published : 02 Aug 2022
Annals of Otolaryngology and Rhinology
ISSN : 2379-948X
Launched : 2014
JSM Schizophrenia
Launched : 2016
Journal of Nausea
Launched : 2020
JSM Internal Medicine
Launched : 2016
JSM Hepatitis
Launched : 2016
JSM Oro Facial Surgeries
ISSN : 2578-3211
Launched : 2016
Journal of Human Nutrition and Food Science
ISSN : 2333-6706
Launched : 2013
JSM Regenerative Medicine and Bioengineering
ISSN : 2379-0490
Launched : 2013
JSM Spine
ISSN : 2578-3181
Launched : 2016
Archives of Palliative Care
ISSN : 2573-1165
Launched : 2016
JSM Nutritional Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3203
Launched : 2017
Annals of Neurodegenerative Disorders
ISSN : 2476-2032
Launched : 2016
Journal of Fever
ISSN : 2641-7782
Launched : 2017
JSM Bone Marrow Research
ISSN : 2578-3351
Launched : 2016
JSM Mathematics and Statistics
ISSN : 2578-3173
Launched : 2014
Journal of Autoimmunity and Research
ISSN : 2573-1173
Launched : 2014
JSM Arthritis
ISSN : 2475-9155
Launched : 2016
JSM Head and Neck Cancer-Cases and Reviews
ISSN : 2573-1610
Launched : 2016
JSM General Surgery Cases and Images
ISSN : 2573-1564
Launched : 2016
JSM Anatomy and Physiology
ISSN : 2573-1262
Launched : 2016
JSM Dental Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1548
Launched : 2016
Annals of Emergency Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1017
Launched : 2016
Annals of Mens Health and Wellness
ISSN : 2641-7707
Launched : 2017
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Health Care
ISSN : 2576-0084
Launched : 2018
Journal of Chronic Diseases and Management
ISSN : 2573-1300
Launched : 2016
Annals of Vaccines and Immunization
ISSN : 2378-9379
Launched : 2014
JSM Heart Surgery Cases and Images
ISSN : 2578-3157
Launched : 2016
Annals of Reproductive Medicine and Treatment
ISSN : 2573-1092
Launched : 2016
JSM Brain Science
ISSN : 2573-1289
Launched : 2016
JSM Biomarkers
ISSN : 2578-3815
Launched : 2014
JSM Biology
ISSN : 2475-9392
Launched : 2016
Archives of Stem Cell and Research
ISSN : 2578-3580
Launched : 2014
Annals of Clinical and Medical Microbiology
ISSN : 2578-3629
Launched : 2014
JSM Pediatric Surgery
ISSN : 2578-3149
Launched : 2017
Journal of Memory Disorder and Rehabilitation
ISSN : 2578-319X
Launched : 2016
JSM Tropical Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2578-3165
Launched : 2016
JSM Head and Face Medicine
ISSN : 2578-3793
Launched : 2016
JSM Cardiothoracic Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1297
Launched : 2016
JSM Bone and Joint Diseases
ISSN : 2578-3351
Launched : 2017
JSM Bioavailability and Bioequivalence
ISSN : 2641-7812
Launched : 2017
JSM Atherosclerosis
ISSN : 2573-1270
Launched : 2016
Journal of Genitourinary Disorders
ISSN : 2641-7790
Launched : 2017
Journal of Fractures and Sprains
ISSN : 2578-3831
Launched : 2016
Journal of Autism and Epilepsy
ISSN : 2641-7774
Launched : 2016
Annals of Marine Biology and Research
ISSN : 2573-105X
Launched : 2014
JSM Health Education & Primary Health Care
ISSN : 2578-3777
Launched : 2016
JSM Communication Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3807
Launched : 2016
Annals of Musculoskeletal Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3599
Launched : 2016
Annals of Virology and Research
ISSN : 2573-1122
Launched : 2014
JSM Renal Medicine
ISSN : 2573-1637
Launched : 2016
Journal of Muscle Health
ISSN : 2578-3823
Launched : 2016
JSM Genetics and Genomics
ISSN : 2334-1823
Launched : 2013
JSM Anxiety and Depression
ISSN : 2475-9139
Launched : 2016
Clinical Journal of Heart Diseases
ISSN : 2641-7766
Launched : 2016
Annals of Medicinal Chemistry and Research
ISSN : 2378-9336
Launched : 2014
JSM Pain and Management
ISSN : 2578-3378
Launched : 2016
JSM Women's Health
ISSN : 2578-3696
Launched : 2016
Clinical Research in HIV or AIDS
ISSN : 2374-0094
Launched : 2013
Journal of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity
ISSN : 2333-6692
Launched : 2013
Journal of Substance Abuse and Alcoholism
ISSN : 2373-9363
Launched : 2013
JSM Neurosurgery and Spine
ISSN : 2373-9479
Launched : 2013
Journal of Liver and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2379-0830
Launched : 2014
Journal of Drug Design and Research
ISSN : 2379-089X
Launched : 2014
JSM Clinical Oncology and Research
ISSN : 2373-938X
Launched : 2013
JSM Bioinformatics, Genomics and Proteomics
ISSN : 2576-1102
Launched : 2014
JSM Chemistry
ISSN : 2334-1831
Launched : 2013
Journal of Trauma and Care
ISSN : 2573-1246
Launched : 2014
JSM Surgical Oncology and Research
ISSN : 2578-3688
Launched : 2016
Annals of Food Processing and Preservation
ISSN : 2573-1033
Launched : 2016
Journal of Radiology and Radiation Therapy
ISSN : 2333-7095
Launched : 2013
JSM Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
ISSN : 2578-3572
Launched : 2016
Annals of Clinical Pathology
ISSN : 2373-9282
Launched : 2013
Annals of Cardiovascular Diseases
ISSN : 2641-7731
Launched : 2016
Journal of Behavior
ISSN : 2576-0076
Launched : 2016
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Metabolism
ISSN : 2572-2492
Launched : 2016
Clinical Research in Infectious Diseases
ISSN : 2379-0636
Launched : 2013
JSM Microbiology
ISSN : 2333-6455
Launched : 2013
Journal of Urology and Research
ISSN : 2379-951X
Launched : 2014
Journal of Family Medicine and Community Health
ISSN : 2379-0547
Launched : 2013
Annals of Pregnancy and Care
ISSN : 2578-336X
Launched : 2017
JSM Cell and Developmental Biology
ISSN : 2379-061X
Launched : 2013
Annals of Aquaculture and Research
ISSN : 2379-0881
Launched : 2014
Clinical Research in Pulmonology
ISSN : 2333-6625
Launched : 2013
Journal of Immunology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2333-6714
Launched : 2013
Annals of Forensic Research and Analysis
ISSN : 2378-9476
Launched : 2014
JSM Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
ISSN : 2333-7109
Launched : 2013
Annals of Breast Cancer Research
ISSN : 2641-7685
Launched : 2016
Annals of Gerontology and Geriatric Research
ISSN : 2378-9409
Launched : 2014
Journal of Sleep Medicine and Disorders
ISSN : 2379-0822
Launched : 2014
JSM Burns and Trauma
ISSN : 2475-9406
Launched : 2016
Chemical Engineering and Process Techniques
ISSN : 2333-6633
Launched : 2013
Annals of Clinical Cytology and Pathology
ISSN : 2475-9430
Launched : 2014
JSM Allergy and Asthma
ISSN : 2573-1254
Launched : 2016
Journal of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
ISSN : 2334-2307
Launched : 2013
Annals of Sports Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2379-0571
Launched : 2014
JSM Sexual Medicine
ISSN : 2578-3718
Launched : 2016
Annals of Vascular Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2378-9344
Launched : 2014
JSM Biotechnology and Biomedical Engineering
ISSN : 2333-7117
Launched : 2013
JSM Environmental Science and Ecology
ISSN : 2333-7141
Launched : 2013
Journal of Cardiology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2333-6676
Launched : 2013
JSM Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine
ISSN : 2334-1815
Launched : 2013
Journal of Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders
ISSN : 2475-9473
Launched : 2016
JSM Ophthalmology
ISSN : 2333-6447
Launched : 2013
Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Toxicology
ISSN : 2333-7079
Launched : 2013
Annals of Psychiatry and Mental Health
ISSN : 2374-0124
Launched : 2013
Medical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
ISSN : 2333-6439
Launched : 2013
Annals of Pediatrics and Child Health
ISSN : 2373-9312
Launched : 2013
JSM Clinical Pharmaceutics
ISSN : 2379-9498
Launched : 2014
JSM Foot and Ankle
ISSN : 2475-9112
Launched : 2016
JSM Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementia
ISSN : 2378-9565
Launched : 2014
Journal of Addiction Medicine and Therapy
ISSN : 2333-665X
Launched : 2013
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2378-931X
Launched : 2013
Annals of Public Health and Research
ISSN : 2378-9328
Launched : 2014
Annals of Orthopedics and Rheumatology
ISSN : 2373-9290
Launched : 2013
Journal of Clinical Nephrology and Research
ISSN : 2379-0652
Launched : 2014
Annals of Community Medicine and Practice
ISSN : 2475-9465
Launched : 2014
Annals of Biometrics and Biostatistics
ISSN : 2374-0116
Launched : 2013
JSM Clinical Case Reports
ISSN : 2373-9819
Launched : 2013
Journal of Cancer Biology and Research
ISSN : 2373-9436
Launched : 2013
Journal of Surgery and Transplantation Science
ISSN : 2379-0911
Launched : 2013
Journal of Dermatology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2373-9371
Launched : 2013
JSM Gastroenterology and Hepatology
ISSN : 2373-9487
Launched : 2013
Annals of Nursing and Practice
ISSN : 2379-9501
Launched : 2014
JSM Dentistry
ISSN : 2333-7133
Launched : 2013
Author Information X