Journal of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

Epilepsy and Sleep: Sleep Hygiene and Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Sleep Deprivation, Circadian Patterns and Epilepsy Surgery

Review Article | Open Access

  • 1. Department of Neurology, University of Alabama, USA
  • 2. Department of Neurology and the UAB Epilepsy Center, University of Alabama, USA
+ Show More - Show Less
Corresponding Authors
DeWolfe JL, Department of Neurology, University of Alabama at Birmingham and the UAB Epilepsy Center, 312 Civitan International Research Center, 1719 6th Avenue South, Birmingham, AL, 35216, USA, Tel: 12059343866

The relationship between epilepsy and sleep is complex and dynamic. Sleep complaints and concomitant sleep disorders are common in people with epilepsy. Seizures and antiepileptic drugs can alter sleep architecture.There have been conflicting findings on the impact of sleep deprivation on seizures; however there is evidence to support the improved specificity of epilepsy diagnosis when a negative routine EEG is followed with a sleep-deprived study. The timing of seizure occurrence may be influenced by seizure onset localization; however much remains to be investigated regarding the impact of circadian rhythms and sleep patterns on seizure control. Lastly, epilepsy surgery has been shown to improve sleep quality in patients who remain seizure free. There have been advances in epilepsy and sleep research in light of newer investigational techniques, improved awareness of comorbid sleep disorders and the increasing prevalence of surgically-cured epilepsy patients. This article reviews the impact of sleep hygiene and obstructive sleep apnea on seizures, sleep deprivation on seizures, the circadian pattern on seizures, and finally the impact of epilepsy surgery on sleep.


Perry LE, DeWolfe JL (2014) Epilepsy and Sleep: Sleep Hygiene and Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Sleep Deprivation, Circadian Patterns and Epilepsy Surgery. J Neurol Disord Stroke 2(5): 1088.


•    Sleep hygiene
•    Obstructive sleep apnea
•    Epilepsy
•    Sleep deprivation
•    Circadian rhythm
•    Epilepsy surgery


AED: Antiepileptic Drug; AHI: Apnea-Hypopnea Index; EDS: Excessive Daytime Sleepiness; EEG: Electroencephalogram; ESS: Epworth Sleepiness Scale; GABA: γ-Amino butyric Acid; IED: Interictal Epileptiform Discharge; IGE: Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy; IIA: Interictal Epileptiform Abnormality; JME: Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy; NREM: Non Rapid Eye Movement; OSA: Obstructive Sleep Apnea; PSG: Polysomnogram; PWE: People With Epilepsy; REM: Rapid Eye Movement; TLE: Temporal Lobe Epilepsy; TMS: Transcortical Magnetic Stimulation; WASO: Wake After Sleep Onset


Epilepsy and sleep share a bidirectional relationship with aspects of each affecting the other. In 2011, the NIH Sleep Disorders Research Plan suggested a 25-30% prevalence of sleep and circadian disorders amongst the general adult population [1- 4]. Subjective sleep disturbances are twice as prevalent amongst people with epilepsy and include insufficient sleep, increased nocturnal and early morning awakenings, impaired sleep initiation and most commonly, excessive daytime sleepiness [1,3,4]. Sleep disorders and epilepsy can have an additive negative impact on quality of life, work productivity and overall health [1,5].

Interrelation of epilepsy and sleep

Sleep can affect the expression of epilepsy by activating interictal epileptiform discharges and seizures [6]. IEDs occur most oftenduring NREM sleep (particularly stage N2 and to a lesser degree N3 sleep) possibly due to thalamocortical hyper synchrony [2,3]. Their mediation occurs via the same projections responsible for generation of sleep spindles, K-complexes and slow waves during NREM sleep [6]. Conversely, during REM sleep seizures and IEDs are less frequent and IEDs manifestwith a more constricted field [7]. The protective role of REM sleep is likely mediated by increased GABA ergic activity inhibiting spread of epileptiform discharges, phasic cholinergic neuron activation of the ponto-mesencphalic tegmentum and inhibition of thalamocortical synchronization resulting in EEG desynchronization [6,8-10].

Epilepsy itself, individual seizures, IEDs and epilepsy treatments including AEDs can disrupt sleep architecture and increase sleep fragmentation [7,11-13]. Seizures during sleep are associated with increased N1 sleep and a reduction in daytime alertness [12]. Both diurnal and nocturnal seizures result in a reduction of REM sleep during the subsequent sleep period. Polysomnographic studies in patients with refractory epilepsy show abbreviated sleep time, increased sleep fragmentation, prolonged sleep onset and REM latency, increased stage shifts and more frequent awakenings [3]. Worse sleep efficiency, delay in sleep and REM latency, increased WASO and more frequent arousals were demonstrated on PSG in patients with medically refractory epilepsy compared to patients with controlled epilepsy [14]. These chronic effects may increase the risk of breakthrough seizures in some PWE [5].

Sleep hygiene, obstructive sleep apnea and epilepsy

Sleep hygiene encompasses the habits, behaviors and environment that impact the duration and quality of sleep. Inadequate sleep hygiene can result in poor quality sleep which may facilitate epileptic seizures [15]. There is a paucity of published studies evaluating sleep hygiene in PWE. Khatami, et al. evaluated mean total sleep time and mean time in bed during the week and weekends in PWE versus controls and found no statistical difference between the groups; however sleep-wake behaviors were not reported [16]. In another questionnairebased study, Manni, et al. investigated the adherence to proper sleep hygiene in PWE, specifically evaluating consumption of caffeinated products and alcohol or tobacco smoking before bedtime, irregular sleep or frequent deprivation, evening napping,sleeping environment (temperature, brightness, noise level), and participation in stressful activities before bedtime. Although there was no statistical correlation between seizure frequency and sleep hygiene factors, PWE reported better sleep hygiene compared to normal controls, suggesting that PWE may avoidactivities known to promote breakthrough seizures, many of which overlap with good sleep hygiene practices [17].

Sleep disorders commonly occur in PWE and can lead to EDS and contribute to intractable epilepsy [3,18]. Initially felt to be symptomatic of AEDs or seizures, EDS has been found to be associated with undiagnosed sleep disorders such as sleepdisordered breathingand restless legs symptoms independent of seizure frequency or AED side effects, with symptoms of the disorders more closely correlating with severity of EDS thanseizure frequency or drug therapy [5,16]. There is increasing evidence that OSA is more prevalent in adults with epilepsy compared to the general population [19-21]. Malow, et al. observed that 33% of 39 patientswith refractory partial epilepsy who underwent PSG unselected for sleep disturbances demonstrated at least mild OSA (AHI> 10) and ~13% with moderate or severe OSA [21]. A similar prevalence of OSA, 30% with AHI > 10 and 16% with moderate or severe OSA,was found in a retrospective study of PWE unselected for sleep complaints and epilepsy severity [20]. Chihorek, et al. demonstrated an increased prevalenceof OSA amongst older adults with worsening seizure control or new onset seizures, proposing that chronic sleep deprivation unmasks seizures in susceptible persons [22]. The mechanisms underlying these findings are not known, however impaired sleep quality (sleep fragmentation, frequent stage shifts and frequent arousals in addition to sleep deprivation) and the impact of acute and chronic effects of intermittent hypoxia and sympathetic activation on epileptogenic regions of the brain may be contributory [14,21]. AED therapy may also impact prevalence of OSA in PWE [23], however additional studies are needed to explore this relationship further. Both retrospective [24-27] and prospective [28,29] studies suggest that treating sleep apnea reduces seizure burden. One prospective pilot study demonstrated feasibility for a multisite randomized, doubleblind design to screen for and treat OSA with CPAP in patients with refractory epilepsy and concomitant OSA to evaluate the impact on seizure control [29]. Larger controlled trials utilizing this design have not yet been published.

Sleep deprivation and epilepsy

For more than 50 years, sleep deprivation has been used as an activating technique for seizures, with studies published since the early 1960’s suggesting its importance in improving the yield of EEG in diagnosing epilepsy [30,31]. Although this practice for EEG continues [32], a standardized sleep deprivation protocol does not exist. Day long sleep deprivation has increased IIA in patients with partial epilepsy [33]. Early afternoon EEGs following shortened overnight sleep (8 hours for < 4 y/o, 6 hours for 4-14 y/o, and 5 hours for >14 y/o) resulted in 53% EEGs positive for IIA in people with suspected epilepsy [34]. Giorgi, et al. demonstrated IIAs on EEG following at least six hours of sleep deprivation in 41% of de novo patients with suspected seizures and previous normal routine EEG with 91% specificity for epilepsy diagnosis.Patients with focal epilepsyhad increased positive yield on sleep deprived EEG following a normal initial routine EEG compared to a second routine EEG [35].

Controversyexists over whether EEG activation is related to effects of increased neuronal excitability or merely induction of sleep [3]. Badawy, et al suggests that the result is due to an imbalance between neuronal excitation and inhibition in the setting of sleep deprivation [36]. Studies utilizing TMS objectively determined levels of cortical excitability in PWE before and after sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation increased cortical excitability in the bilateral cerebral hemispheres in idiopathic generalized epilepsies and unilateral hemispheres in focal epilepsy syndromes in people with newly diagnosed epilepsy naïve to AEDs. TMS findings are thought to represent an imbalance between inhibitory GABAA mediated circuits and excitatory glutamate-mediated circuits, although the net effect has been disputed [36]. TMS studies in patients with JME demonstrated a more pronounced disruption in the balance between inhibitory and excitatory circuits of the primary motor cortex patients with JME when compared to normal controls [37, 38].

There is also evidence to suggest that selective loss of REM sleep has a proconvulsant role, although the exact mechanisms are not clearly understood [39]. Recent animal studies have shown that with REM sleep loss a complex cascade of intracellular and molecular events leads to increased noradrenalin levels and activation of Na-K ATPase activity which ultimately increases brain excitability [40].

Although several experimental studies in animal models, healthy controls, and PWE highlight the role of sleep deprivation and sleeping during an inappropriate circadian phase (i.e., in the morning) in enhancing sleep instability and possibly causing the occurrence of IIAs and epileptic seizures, there is disagreement over the precise benefitand application of this practice [35]. One study in patients with medically intractable focal epilepsy undergoing inpatient video-EEG monitoring randomized patients to every other night sleep deprivation (awake from 10 PM to 6 AM) or to normal sleep with both groups remaining awake from 6 AM to 10 PM. There was no difference in seizure frequency or secondarily generalized seizures in either group, thus it was suggested that acute sleep deprivation may not affect seizure frequency during inpatient monitoring in this population of PWE [41]. Scientific papers addressing sleep deprivation as an activating technique vary significantly by way of patient population and study design including length and type of EEG performed, timing of EEG after sleep deprivationand duration of sleep deprivation [6,35]. Other important variables such as timing of EEG since last seizure, concurrent AED therapy, patient age and use of activating techniques during EEG recording limit the comparison across distinct studies. Regardless, high specificity of sleep-deprived EEG has been demonstrated and the above questions do not negate its utility in the diagnosis and presurgical evaluation of patients [42]. These inconsistencies merely highlight need for future research and standardization of practice.

Circadian pattern and seizures

Studies have demonstrated a time-based distribution of peak incidence of seizure occurrence and interictal epileptiform abnormalities within a 24-hour day that correlates with certain epilepsy syndromes [43,44]. In patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, the peak incidence of seizures occurs in the late afternoon to early evening with a peak of 1500 hours in people with mesial temporal epilepsy [45,46]. Seizures, however, are more likely to generalize during sleep [12]. Frontal seizures occurred more often between 9PM and 5AM. Parietal seizures occurred most often from 4PM to 9PM. There were greater proportion of waking seizures between 5AM-11AM and 4PM9PM with sleep-related seizures occurring from 11AM-4PM and 9PM-5AM [47]. The results of these studies, performed in an inpatient video EEG monitoring unit setting, correlated with the results of both an outpatient study utilizing ambulatory EEG [48] and an intracranial video EEG study [49].

Further evidence of circadian influences on epilepsy has been demonstrated, with one study showing an increased night time heart rate variation in people with localization-related epilepsy [50]. PWE have been shown to have a morningness chronotype in which individuals tend to go to bed and wake earlier and are more alert in the first part of the day [45]. Thus, chronotype has been demonstrated to influence timing of taking antiepileptic medications [51]. Despite differing time-based distributions of peak seizure incidence among epilepsy syndromes, chronotypes do not differ significantly between patients with specified epilepsy syndromes. It has been suggested that epilepsy itself rather than timing of seizures has a significant influence on chronotype and subjective sleep parameters [45]

An endogenously-mediated circadian pattern to limbic seizures has been demonstrated in rat models [52].

One study by Quigg, et al. suggests the circadian pattern to seizure occurrence is the result of passive entrainment [53], while a study by Stanley, et al. indicates that the 24-hr rhythm may be actively driven by aberrant circadian regulation promoting periods of excitatory and inhibitory balance throughout the day [54]. This latter concept is demonstrated by a phase shift of approximately 12 hours in the 24-hour rhythm of hippocampal spikes in an animal model of limbic epilepsy and elicits consideration of the impact of epilepsy itself on circadian patterns. It has been proposed that PWE have permanent structural changes that may impair normal circadian rhythms. This thought is supported by the finding of circadian abnormalities (impaired sleep-wake cycle, increased core temperature variability recordings and alterations in melatonin release) amongst animal models.Altered circadian input to the epileptic brain regions may have direct causality on excitatoryinhibitory imbalances associated with seizures [1,54,55].

Common methods to objectively evaluate individual human circadian rhythm phase include actigraphy (an indirect measure of sleep patterns) and biological markers such as variations in core body temperature, cortisol levels and the gold standard dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) [56,57]. In one study, correlating biological markers of circadian rhythm with time-based dispersion of seizure occurrence in PWE, temporal lobe seizures occurred more frequently 6 hours prior to DLMO and frontal lobe seizures mostly 6-12 hours after DLMO suggesting that seizure occurrence is synchronized to circadian rhythm phase in a nonrandom pattern [58]. The impact of individual circadian rhythms on chronotype in PWE is not well known [59]. It is also unknown whether subjective chronotypes align with objective sleep patterns and circadian rhythms and how each impacts seizure frequency in PWE.

Effects of epilepsy surgery on sleep

Vagus nerve stimulation has been associated with increased AHI andinducing OSAwhile improving daytime vigilance in PWE. Low VNS stimulus intensities and increasing off time can reduce AHI and improve quality of life in some PWE [60-63]. Less is known about the impact of epilepsy surgery on sleep. One study reported resolution of preoperative, PSG-diagnosed moderate OSA associated with an oxygen saturation as low as 62% in a patient with medically intractable epilepsy who underwent left frontal lobe resection. Postoperatively, the patient had marked reduction in IEDs and seizures with normalization of baseline oxygen saturation and resolution of OSA suggesting that IED and seizures may play a role in modulating upper airway control during sleep [64]. In 2010, Carrion, et al. assessed subjective sleep quality and EDS in a 48 patients with refractory TLE undergoing epilepsy surgery at 2 days and 3 months following surgical resection and found improved subjective sleep quality independent of gender, AED class, age or seizure frequency [65]. Zanzmera, et al. demonstrated improved objective sleep quality, sleep architecture and AHI on PSG three months following epilepsy surgery compared to preoperative baseline in patients with medically intractable refractory focal epilepsywho had Engel class I and II surgical outcomes [66]. A similar result was demonstrated by Serafini, et al. who report a reduction in IIA in all study participants following temporal lobectomy for TLE. They verified an increase in total sleep time and REM sleep at 1 year follow-up with further increase in percentage of REM sleep at 2 years in patients who were seizure-free and controlled for significant AED changes during time observed. Their findings support improved sleep macrostructure (sleep onset latency, total sleep time, sleep efficiency index, number of awakenings duration of sleep stages and REM latency) following reduction of seizure and IIA burden after epilepsy surgery [67]. These studies indirectly confirm the role of epilepsy in disrupting sleep organization and may provide future insight into degree of reversibility of changes.


While it is clear that an interaction between sleep and epilepsy exists—with sleep impacting the expression of IED and seizure activity and seizures, substrates underlying epilepsy and epilepsy treatments modulating sleep quality and sleep architecture—there are many unanswered questions regarding this dynamic reciprocal relationship. The current evidence demonstrates that PWE have better sleep hygiene than controls and suggests that worse sleep hygiene may be associated with worse seizure control. More comprehensive investigations into sleep hygiene measures in PWE are needed to relate underlying pathologies that disrupt sleep with factors such as sleep-wake behaviors, subjective and objective sleep measures, AED use, and seizure type and frequency. Obstructive sleep apnea and epilepsy are common disorders that are both associated with disrupted sleep and chronic sleep deprivation. Investigations have shown an increased prevalence of OSA in PWE with smaller studies suggesting improved seizure control after treating OSA. Larger prospective randomized, placebo-controlled studies are needed to definitively determine the impact of OSA treatment on seizure control in PWE.

Sleep deprivation can increase positive findings of IIA and seizures on EEG in some PWE, thus improving diagnoses of specific epilepsies. Although sleep deprivation increases cortical excitability as demonstrated in multiple TMS studies, further studies are needed to determine these underlying mechanisms. It may be the combination of increased excitability and capturing sleep that leads to increased yield of IIA and seizures on sleep deprived EEG.Additionally, it may be that chronic sleep deprivation has a larger impact on seizure frequency than acute sleep deprivation. Investigations controlling for age, amount of sleep deprivation, type and timing of EEG, activation techniques during EEG and AED use may help determine answers to these questions.

Investigations on the timing of seizures demonstrate that temporal lobe seizures occur most often during the day while frontal lobe seizures occur more commonly during sleep. Further investigation is needed to determine if individual circadian rhythms are aligned with sleep patterns in PWE and if adjusting these patterns affects seizure control.

While VNS has shown to improve daytime vigilance, high rates of stimulus intensities have been associated with increased incidence of OSA. In the few published studies in PWE following epilepsy surgery, sleep quality was improved as documented by PSG in patients with a good surgical outcome. The cortical control of OSA mechanisms needs to be investigated further to understand the impact epilepsy surgery may have on sleepdisordered breathing.Overall, increased diagnosis and thus treatment of sleep disorders is likely to improve seizure control and may have additive improvements in quality of life in PWE.


LEP has no conflicts of interest. JLD performs or has performed research sponsored by NIH, Eiasi, GlaxoSmithKline, Marinus and UCB Pharma.


1. de Weerd A, de Haas S, Otte A, Trenité DK, van Erp G, Cohen A. Subjective sleep disturbance in patients with partial epilepsy: a questionnaire-based study on prevalence and impact on quality of life. Epilepsia. 2004; 45: 1397-1404.

2. Shelgikar AV, Chervin R. Approach to and evaluation of sleep disorders. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 2013; 19: 32-49.

3. Van Golde EG, Gutter T, de Weerd AW. Sleep disturbances in people with epilepsy; prevalence, impact and treatment. Sleep Med Rev. 2011; 15: 357-368.

4. Watson NF, Viola-Saltzman M. Sleep and comorbid neurologic disorders. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 2013; 19: 148-169.

5. Giorelli AS, Passos P, Carnaval T, Gomes Mda M. Excessive daytime sleepiness and epilepsy: a systematic review. Epilepsy Res Treat. 2013; 2013: 629469.

6. Díaz-Negrillo A. Influence of sleep and sleep deprivation on ictal and interictal epileptiform activity. Epilepsy Res Treat. 2013; 2013: 492524.

7. Foldvary-Schaefer N, Grigg-Damberger M. Sleep and epilepsy. Semin Neurol. 2009; 29: 419-428.

8. Busek P, Buskova J, Nevsimalova S. Interictal epileptiform discharges and phasic phenomena of REM sleep. Epileptic Disord. 2010; 12: 217- 221.

9. Herman ST, Walczak TS, Bazil CW. Distribution of partial seizures during the sleep--wake cycle: differences by seizure onset site. Neurology. 2001; 56: 1453-1459.

10. Ng M, Pavlova M. Why are seizures rare in rapid eye movement sleep? Review of the frequency of seizures in different sleep stages. Epilepsy Res Treat. 2013; 2013: 932790.

11. Xu X, Brandenburg NA, McDermott AM, Bazil CW. Sleep disturbances reported by refractory partial-onset epilepsy patients receiving polytherapy. Epilepsia. 2006; 47: 1176-1183.

12. Bazil CW, Castro LH, Walczak TS. Reduction of rapid eye movement sleep by diurnal and nocturnal seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy. Arch Neurol. 2000; 57: 363-368.

13. Jain SV, Glauser TA. Effects of epilepsy treatments on sleep architecture and daytime sleepiness: an evidence-based review of objective sleep metrics. Epilepsia. 2014; 55: 26-37.

14. Zanzmera P, Shukla G, Gupta A, Singh H, Goyal V, Srivastava A. Markedly disturbed sleep in medically refractory compared to controlled epilepsy - a clinical and polysomnography study. Seizure. 2012; 21: 487-490.

15. Shouse MN, da Silva AM, Sammaritano M. Circadian rhythm, sleep, and epilepsy. J Clin Neurophysiol. 1996; 13: 32-50.

16. Khatami R, Zutter D, Siegel A, Mathis J, Donati F, Bassetti CL. Sleepwake habits and disorders in a series of 100 adult epilepsy patients--a prospective study. Seizure. 2006; 15: 299-306.

17. Manni R, Politini L, Ratti MT, Marchioni E, Sartori I, Galimberti CA. Sleep hygiene in adult epilepsy patients: a questionnaire-based survey. Acta Neurol Scand. 2000; 101: 301-304.

18. Bazil CW. Sleep, Sleep Apnea, and Epilepsy. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2004; 6: 339-345.

19. Economou NT, Dikeos D, Andrews N, Foldvary-Schaefer N. Use of the Sleep Apnea Scale of the Sleep Disorders Questionnaire (SA-SDQ) in adults with epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2014; 31: 123-126.

20. Foldvary-Schaefer N, Andrews ND, Pornsriniyom D, Moul DE, Sun Z, Bena J. Sleep apnea and epilepsy: who’s at risk? Epilepsy Behav. 2012; 25: 363-367.

21. Malow BA, Levy K, Maturen K, Bowes R. Obstructive sleep apnea is common in medically refractory epilepsy patients. Neurology. 2000; 55: 1002-1007.

22. Chihorek AM, Abou-Khalil B, Malow BA. Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with seizure occurrence in older adults with epilepsy. Neurology. 2007; 69: 1823-1827.

23. Jain SV, Simakajornboon S, Shapiro SM, Morton LD, Leszczyszyn DJ, Simakajornboon N. Obstructive sleep apnea in children with epilepsy: prospective pilot trial. Acta Neurol Scand. 2012; 125: e3-6.

24. Devinsky O, Ehrenberg B, Barthlen GM, Abramson HS, Luciano D. Epilepsy and sleep apnea syndrome. Neurology. 1994; 44: 2060-2064.

25. Malow BA, Fromes GA, Aldrich MS. Usefulness of polysomnography in epilepsy patients. Neurology. 1997; 48: 1389-1394.

26. Vaughn BV, D’Cruz OF, Beach R, Messenheimer JA. Improvement of epileptic seizure control with treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea. Seizure. 1996; 5: 73-78.

27. Vendrame M, Auerbach S, Loddenkemper T, Kothare S, Montouris G. Effect of continuous positive airway pressure treatment on seizure control in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2011; 52: e168-171.

28. Malow BA, Weatherwax KJ, Chervin RD, Hoban TF, Marzec ML, Martin C. Identification and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea in adults and children with epilepsy: a prospective pilot study. Sleep Med. 2003; 4: 509-515.

29. Malow BA, Foldvary-Schaefer N, Vaughn BV, Selwa LM, Chervin RD, Weatherwax KJ. Treating obstructive sleep apnea in adults with epilepsy: a randomized pilot trial. Neurology. 2008; 71: 572-577.

30. Mattson RH, Pratt KL, Calverley JR. Electroencephalograms of epileptics following sleep deprivation. Arch Neurol. 1965; 13: 310- 315.

31. JANZ D. The grand mal epilepsies and the sleeping-waking cycle. Epilepsia. 1962; 3: 69-109.

32. Leach JP, Stephen LJ, Salveta C, Brodie MJ. Which electroencephalography (EEG) for epilepsy? The relative usefulness of different EEG protocols in patients with possible epilepsy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2006; 77: 1040-1042.

33. Drake ME Jr, Pakalnis A, Phillips BB, Denio LS. Sleep and sleep deprived EEG in partial and generalized epilepsy. Acta Neurol Belg. 1990; 90: 11-19.

34. Kubicki S, Scheuler W, Wittenbecher H. Short-term sleep EEG recordings after partial sleep deprivation as a routine procedure in order to uncover epileptic phenomena: an evaluation of 719 EEG recordings. Epilepsy Res Suppl. 1991; 2: 217-230.

35. Giorgi FS, Maestri M, Guida M, Di Coscio E, Carnicelli L, Perini D. Controversial issues on EEG after sleep deprivation for the diagnosis of epilepsy. Epilepsy Res Treat. 2013; 2013: 614685.

36. Badawy RA, Curatolo JM, Newton M, Berkovic SF, Macdonell RA. Sleep deprivation increases cortical excitability in epilepsy: syndrome-specific effects. Neurology. 2006; 67: 1018-1022.

37. Manganotti P, Bongiovanni LG, Fuggetta G, Zanette G, Fiaschi A. Effects of sleep deprivation on cortical excitability in patients affected by juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: a combined transcranial magnetic stimulation and EEG study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2006; 77: 56-60.

38. Civardi C, Boccagni C, Vicentini R, Bolamperti L, Tarletti R, Varrasi C. Cortical excitability and sleep deprivation: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2001; 71: 809-812.

39. Placidi F, Zannino S, Albanese M, Romigi A, Izzi F, Marciani MG. Increased cortical excitability after selective REM sleep deprivation in healthy humans: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study. Sleep Med. 2013; 14: 288-292.

40. Mallick BN, Singh A. REM sleep loss increases brain excitability: role of noradrenaline and its mechanism of action. Sleep Med Rev. 2011; 15: 165-178.

41. Malow BA, Passaro E, Milling C, Minecan DN, Levy K. Sleep deprivation does not affect seizure frequency during inpatient video-EEG monitoring. Neurology. 2002; 59: 1371-1374.

42. Leach JP, Stephen LJ, Salveta C, Brodie MJ. Which electroencephalography (EEG) for epilepsy? The relative usefulness of different EEG protocols in patients with possible epilepsy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2006; 77: 1040-1042.

43. Badawy R, Macdonell R, Jackson G, Berkovic S. The peri-ictal state: cortical excitability changes within 24 h of a seizure. Brain. 2009; 132: 1013-1021.

44. Hofstra WA, Grootemarsink BE, Dieker R, van der Palen J, de Weerd AW. Temporal distribution of clinical seizures over the 24-h day: a retrospective observational study in a tertiary epilepsy clinic. Epilepsia. 2009; 50: 2019-2026.

45. Hofstra WA, Gordijn MC, van Hemert-van der Poel JC, van der Palen J, De Weerd AW. Chronotypes and subjective sleep parameters in epilepsy patients: a large questionnaire study. Chronobiol Int. 2010; 27: 1271-1286.

46. Hofstra WA, Spetgens WP, Leijten FS, van Rijen PC, Gosselaar P, van der Palen J. Diurnal rhythms in seizures detected by intracranial electrocorticographic monitoring: an observational study. Epilepsy Behav. 2009; 14: 617-621.

47. Hofstra WA, Spetgens WP, Leijten FS, van Rijen PC, Gosselaar P, van der Palen J. Diurnal rhythms in seizures detected by intracranial electrocorticographic monitoring: an observational study. Epilepsy Behav. 2009; 14: 617-621.

48. Pavlova MK, Woo Lee J, Yilmaz F, Dworetzky BA. Diurnal pattern of seizures outside the hospital: is there a time of circadian vulnerability? Neurology. 2012; 78: 1488-1492.

49. Durazzo TS, Spencer SS, Duckrow RB, Novotny EJ, Spencer DD, Zaveri HP. Temporal distributions of seizure occurrence from various epileptogenic regions. Neurology. 2008; 70: 1265-1271.

50. Persson H, Kumlien E, Ericson M, Tomson T. Circadian variation in heart-rate variability in localization-related epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2007; 48: 917-922.

51. Hofstra WA, van der Palen J, de Weerd AW. Morningness and eveningness: when do patients take their antiepileptic drugs? Epilepsy Behav. 2012; 23: 320-323.

52. Quigg M, Clayburn H, Straume M, Menaker M, Bertram EH 3rd. Effects of circadian regulation and rest-activity state on spontaneous seizures in a rat model of limbic epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2000; 41: 502-509.

53. Quigg M. Circadian rhythms: interactions with seizures and epilepsy. Epilepsy Res. 2000; 42: 43-55.

54. Stanley DA, Talathi SS, Parekh MB, Cordiner DJ, Zhou J, Mareci TH. Phase shift in the 24-hour rhythm of hippocampal EEG spiking activity in a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy. J Neurophysiol. 2013; 110: 1070-1086.

55. Hofstra WA, de Weerd AW. The circadian rhythm and its interaction with human epilepsy: a review of literature. Sleep Med Rev. 2009; 13: 413-420.

56. Hofstra WA, de Weerd AW. How to assess circadian rhythm in humans: a review of literature. Epilepsy Behav. 2008; 13: 438-444.

57. Pandi-Perumal SR, Smits M, Spence W, Srinivasan V, Cardinali DP, Lowe AD. Dim light melatonin onset (DLMO): a tool for the analysis of circadian phase in human sleep and chronobiological disorders. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2007; 31: 1-11.

58. Hofstra WA, Gordijn MC, van der Palen J, van Regteren R1, Grootemarsink BE1, de Weerd AW1. Timing of temporal and frontal seizures in relation to the circadian phase: a prospective pilot study. Epilepsy Res. 2011; 94: 158-162.

59. Hofstra WA, de Weerd AW. The circadian rhythm and its interaction with human epilepsy: a review of literature. Sleep Med Rev. 2009; 13: 413-420.

60. Hsieh T, Chen M, McAfee A, Kifle Y. Sleep-related breathing disorder in children with vagal nerve stimulators. Pediatr Neurol. 2008; 38: 99-103.

61. Malow BA, Edwards J, Marzec M, Sagher O, Fromes G. Effects of vagus nerve stimulation on respiration during sleep: a pilot study. Neurology. 2000; 55: 1450-1454.

62. Marzec M, Edwards J, Sagher O, Fromes G, Malow BA. Effects of vagus nerve stimulation on sleep-related breathing in epilepsy patients. Epilepsia. 2003; 44: 930-935.

63. Malow BA, Edwards J, Marzec M, Sagher O, Ross D, Fromes G. Vagus nerve stimulation reduces daytime sleepiness in epilepsy patients. Neurology. 2001; 57: 879-884.

64. Foldvary-Schaefer N, Stephenson L, Bingaman W. Resolution of obstructive sleep apnea with epilepsy surgery? Expanding the relationship between sleep and epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2008; 49: 1457- 1459.

65. Carrion MJ, Nunes ML, Martinez JV, Portuguez MW, da Costa JC. Evaluation of sleep quality in patients with refractory seizures who undergo epilepsy surgery. Epilepsy Behav. 2010; 17: 120-123.

66. Zanzmera P, Shukla G, Gupta A, Goyal V, Srivastava A, Garg A. Effect of successful epilepsy surgery on subjective and objective sleep parameters--a prospective study. Sleep Med. 2013; 14: 333-338.

67. Serafini A, Kuate C, Gelisse P, Velizarova R, Gigli GL, Coubes P. Sleep before and after temporal lobe epilepsy surgery. Seizure. 2012; 21: 260-265.

Perry LE, DeWolfe JL (2014) Epilepsy and Sleep: Sleep Hygiene and Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Sleep Deprivation, Circadian Patterns and Epilepsy Surgery. J Neurol Disord Stroke 2(5): 1088.

Received : 06 Mar 2014
Accepted : 19 Oct 2014
Published : 21 Oct 2014
Annals of Otolaryngology and Rhinology
ISSN : 2379-948X
Launched : 2014
JSM Schizophrenia
Launched : 2016
Journal of Nausea
Launched : 2020
JSM Internal Medicine
Launched : 2016
JSM Hepatitis
Launched : 2016
JSM Oro Facial Surgeries
ISSN : 2578-3211
Launched : 2016
Journal of Human Nutrition and Food Science
ISSN : 2333-6706
Launched : 2013
JSM Regenerative Medicine and Bioengineering
ISSN : 2379-0490
Launched : 2013
JSM Spine
ISSN : 2578-3181
Launched : 2016
Archives of Palliative Care
ISSN : 2573-1165
Launched : 2016
JSM Nutritional Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3203
Launched : 2017
Annals of Neurodegenerative Disorders
ISSN : 2476-2032
Launched : 2016
Journal of Fever
ISSN : 2641-7782
Launched : 2017
JSM Bone Marrow Research
ISSN : 2578-3351
Launched : 2016
JSM Mathematics and Statistics
ISSN : 2578-3173
Launched : 2014
Journal of Autoimmunity and Research
ISSN : 2573-1173
Launched : 2014
JSM Arthritis
ISSN : 2475-9155
Launched : 2016
JSM Head and Neck Cancer-Cases and Reviews
ISSN : 2573-1610
Launched : 2016
JSM General Surgery Cases and Images
ISSN : 2573-1564
Launched : 2016
JSM Anatomy and Physiology
ISSN : 2573-1262
Launched : 2016
JSM Dental Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1548
Launched : 2016
Annals of Emergency Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1017
Launched : 2016
Annals of Mens Health and Wellness
ISSN : 2641-7707
Launched : 2017
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Health Care
ISSN : 2576-0084
Launched : 2018
Journal of Chronic Diseases and Management
ISSN : 2573-1300
Launched : 2016
Annals of Vaccines and Immunization
ISSN : 2378-9379
Launched : 2014
JSM Heart Surgery Cases and Images
ISSN : 2578-3157
Launched : 2016
Annals of Reproductive Medicine and Treatment
ISSN : 2573-1092
Launched : 2016
JSM Brain Science
ISSN : 2573-1289
Launched : 2016
JSM Biomarkers
ISSN : 2578-3815
Launched : 2014
JSM Biology
ISSN : 2475-9392
Launched : 2016
Archives of Stem Cell and Research
ISSN : 2578-3580
Launched : 2014
Annals of Clinical and Medical Microbiology
ISSN : 2578-3629
Launched : 2014
JSM Pediatric Surgery
ISSN : 2578-3149
Launched : 2017
Journal of Memory Disorder and Rehabilitation
ISSN : 2578-319X
Launched : 2016
JSM Tropical Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2578-3165
Launched : 2016
JSM Head and Face Medicine
ISSN : 2578-3793
Launched : 2016
JSM Cardiothoracic Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1297
Launched : 2016
JSM Bone and Joint Diseases
ISSN : 2578-3351
Launched : 2017
JSM Bioavailability and Bioequivalence
ISSN : 2641-7812
Launched : 2017
JSM Atherosclerosis
ISSN : 2573-1270
Launched : 2016
Journal of Genitourinary Disorders
ISSN : 2641-7790
Launched : 2017
Journal of Fractures and Sprains
ISSN : 2578-3831
Launched : 2016
Journal of Autism and Epilepsy
ISSN : 2641-7774
Launched : 2016
Annals of Marine Biology and Research
ISSN : 2573-105X
Launched : 2014
JSM Health Education & Primary Health Care
ISSN : 2578-3777
Launched : 2016
JSM Communication Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3807
Launched : 2016
Annals of Musculoskeletal Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3599
Launched : 2016
Annals of Virology and Research
ISSN : 2573-1122
Launched : 2014
JSM Renal Medicine
ISSN : 2573-1637
Launched : 2016
Journal of Muscle Health
ISSN : 2578-3823
Launched : 2016
JSM Genetics and Genomics
ISSN : 2334-1823
Launched : 2013
JSM Anxiety and Depression
ISSN : 2475-9139
Launched : 2016
Clinical Journal of Heart Diseases
ISSN : 2641-7766
Launched : 2016
Annals of Medicinal Chemistry and Research
ISSN : 2378-9336
Launched : 2014
JSM Pain and Management
ISSN : 2578-3378
Launched : 2016
JSM Women's Health
ISSN : 2578-3696
Launched : 2016
Clinical Research in HIV or AIDS
ISSN : 2374-0094
Launched : 2013
Journal of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity
ISSN : 2333-6692
Launched : 2013
Journal of Substance Abuse and Alcoholism
ISSN : 2373-9363
Launched : 2013
JSM Neurosurgery and Spine
ISSN : 2373-9479
Launched : 2013
Journal of Liver and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2379-0830
Launched : 2014
Journal of Drug Design and Research
ISSN : 2379-089X
Launched : 2014
JSM Clinical Oncology and Research
ISSN : 2373-938X
Launched : 2013
JSM Bioinformatics, Genomics and Proteomics
ISSN : 2576-1102
Launched : 2014
JSM Chemistry
ISSN : 2334-1831
Launched : 2013
Journal of Trauma and Care
ISSN : 2573-1246
Launched : 2014
JSM Surgical Oncology and Research
ISSN : 2578-3688
Launched : 2016
Annals of Food Processing and Preservation
ISSN : 2573-1033
Launched : 2016
Journal of Radiology and Radiation Therapy
ISSN : 2333-7095
Launched : 2013
JSM Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
ISSN : 2578-3572
Launched : 2016
Annals of Clinical Pathology
ISSN : 2373-9282
Launched : 2013
Annals of Cardiovascular Diseases
ISSN : 2641-7731
Launched : 2016
Journal of Behavior
ISSN : 2576-0076
Launched : 2016
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Metabolism
ISSN : 2572-2492
Launched : 2016
Clinical Research in Infectious Diseases
ISSN : 2379-0636
Launched : 2013
JSM Microbiology
ISSN : 2333-6455
Launched : 2013
Journal of Urology and Research
ISSN : 2379-951X
Launched : 2014
Journal of Family Medicine and Community Health
ISSN : 2379-0547
Launched : 2013
Annals of Pregnancy and Care
ISSN : 2578-336X
Launched : 2017
JSM Cell and Developmental Biology
ISSN : 2379-061X
Launched : 2013
Annals of Aquaculture and Research
ISSN : 2379-0881
Launched : 2014
Clinical Research in Pulmonology
ISSN : 2333-6625
Launched : 2013
Journal of Immunology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2333-6714
Launched : 2013
Annals of Forensic Research and Analysis
ISSN : 2378-9476
Launched : 2014
JSM Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
ISSN : 2333-7109
Launched : 2013
Annals of Breast Cancer Research
ISSN : 2641-7685
Launched : 2016
Annals of Gerontology and Geriatric Research
ISSN : 2378-9409
Launched : 2014
Journal of Sleep Medicine and Disorders
ISSN : 2379-0822
Launched : 2014
JSM Burns and Trauma
ISSN : 2475-9406
Launched : 2016
Chemical Engineering and Process Techniques
ISSN : 2333-6633
Launched : 2013
Annals of Clinical Cytology and Pathology
ISSN : 2475-9430
Launched : 2014
JSM Allergy and Asthma
ISSN : 2573-1254
Launched : 2016
Annals of Sports Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2379-0571
Launched : 2014
JSM Sexual Medicine
ISSN : 2578-3718
Launched : 2016
Annals of Vascular Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2378-9344
Launched : 2014
JSM Biotechnology and Biomedical Engineering
ISSN : 2333-7117
Launched : 2013
Journal of Hematology and Transfusion
ISSN : 2333-6684
Launched : 2013
JSM Environmental Science and Ecology
ISSN : 2333-7141
Launched : 2013
Journal of Cardiology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2333-6676
Launched : 2013
JSM Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine
ISSN : 2334-1815
Launched : 2013
Journal of Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders
ISSN : 2475-9473
Launched : 2016
JSM Ophthalmology
ISSN : 2333-6447
Launched : 2013
Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Toxicology
ISSN : 2333-7079
Launched : 2013
Annals of Psychiatry and Mental Health
ISSN : 2374-0124
Launched : 2013
Medical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
ISSN : 2333-6439
Launched : 2013
Annals of Pediatrics and Child Health
ISSN : 2373-9312
Launched : 2013
JSM Clinical Pharmaceutics
ISSN : 2379-9498
Launched : 2014
JSM Foot and Ankle
ISSN : 2475-9112
Launched : 2016
JSM Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementia
ISSN : 2378-9565
Launched : 2014
Journal of Addiction Medicine and Therapy
ISSN : 2333-665X
Launched : 2013
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2378-931X
Launched : 2013
Annals of Public Health and Research
ISSN : 2378-9328
Launched : 2014
Annals of Orthopedics and Rheumatology
ISSN : 2373-9290
Launched : 2013
Journal of Clinical Nephrology and Research
ISSN : 2379-0652
Launched : 2014
Annals of Community Medicine and Practice
ISSN : 2475-9465
Launched : 2014
Annals of Biometrics and Biostatistics
ISSN : 2374-0116
Launched : 2013
JSM Clinical Case Reports
ISSN : 2373-9819
Launched : 2013
Journal of Cancer Biology and Research
ISSN : 2373-9436
Launched : 2013
Journal of Surgery and Transplantation Science
ISSN : 2379-0911
Launched : 2013
Journal of Dermatology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2373-9371
Launched : 2013
JSM Gastroenterology and Hepatology
ISSN : 2373-9487
Launched : 2013
Annals of Nursing and Practice
ISSN : 2379-9501
Launched : 2014
JSM Dentistry
ISSN : 2333-7133
Launched : 2013
Author Information X