Effect of Processing on the Yield and Chemical Constituents of Protein Meals and Concentrate Produced from (Balanites aeqyptiaca del) Desert Date Seed Nut - Abstract
The processing, and chemical constituents of desert date protein meals and concentrate as bioactive recipe in foods are imperative. The direct use of seed nut as recipe especially for bakery and confectionary cottage industries are on the rise. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of processing and chemical contents of Aduwa seed nut as bioactive and safe active protein. Proteins and peptides are of great nutritional value and are directly involved in chemical processes essential for life such as in growth and maintenance of the body; proteins are good biochemical messengers and they could also help in cell structure integrity, maintain proper pH, and boost immune system. Aduwa concentrate yield decreased to 31.54% when resolved from Aduwa defatted nut meal 85.14%. Similarly, proximate contents decreased as samples were resolved from meal to concentrate except for protein content. The proximate content in deffated, concentrate is better than the meal. The amino acid profile revealed high HAA (41%) and EAA (38%) with APC sample that revealed high values above FOA/adult reference. Also, high trend values were observed in the mineral profile as samples were processed from meal to concentrate Ca (219-319 mg/ml), Na (825-1110 mg/ml), Cu (2-2 mg/ml), and Zn (6-9 mg/ml). The study revealed that toasting provides better yield and better nutrient profiles of the nut from desert seed nuts. The results obtained showed that Aduwa could yield more biomaterials and had more extractable protein and better mineral profile when processed using toasted approach. Practical application: The use of extractable biomaterial from desert date seed is an important ingredient in food cottage industries. Heat annealing, defatting, and isolation into concentrate enhancing its protein folds and unfold properties are very important for food applications. The proximate and mineral content observed in the samples are good positive chemical indicators. Protein annealing and isoelectric precipitation of desert date seed could have positive effects when used as admix recipes. Hence, this study presents recipe to alleviate malnutrition.