Journal of Family Medicine and Community Health

Causes of Maternal Mortality in Delta State University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria: A Retrospective Study

Research Article | Open Access | Volume 10 | Issue 1

  • 1. Department of Family Medicine, Delta State University, Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria.
  • 2. Department of Statistica Sciences, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University, Pretoria, South Africa
+ Show More - Show Less
Corresponding Authors
ST Ntuli, Department of Statistica Sciences, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University, Pretoria, South Africa

Background: Maternal deaths remain excessively high in developing countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. In Nigeria, the Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) ranged from 448 to 4210 per 100,000 live births with hypertensive disorders and haemorrhage as common causes. The aim of this study was to determine MMR and causes of maternal death in the Delta State University Teaching Hospital.

Methods: A retrospective descriptive study was conducted at Delta State University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria (January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2018). The hospital deaths register was used as the starting point in the collation of a list of all maternal deaths and relevant maternal death medical records were retrieved and reviewed. The following information was extracted: date of death, age, ethnicity, referring facility, place of death and cause of death. The STATA® 16.1 (StataCorp; College Station, USA) was used for statistical analysis.

Results: There were 788 live births with a total of 57 maternal deaths resulting in MMR of 7,234 per 100,000 live births during the study period. The mean age of the women was 30.4 ± 7.3 years ranging from 15 to 46 years, with majority of women (53%) aged ≥ 30 years, 96% being referred and 18% delivered by caesarean sections. Overall, direct causes were responsible for 80% (n = 44) of all deaths, with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy 45% (25/55), medical/surgical conditions 15% (8/55) and obstetric haemorrhage 13% (7/55) being the most prevalent maternal cause of deaths.

Conclusion: Maternal deaths are unacceptably high in this hospital, and associated with direct obstetric causes which include hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and haemorrhage. Improvement in quality antenatal care, timely identification of the cause of obstetric haemorrhage and access to blood products are an important intervention in the reduction of maternal deaths in this tertiary hospital.


Maternal mortality, Pregnancy, Delta state, Nigeria


Clark C, Ntuli ST (2023) Causes of Maternal Mortality in Delta State University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria: A Retrospective Study. J Family Med Community Health 10(1): 1190.


Deaths related to pregnancy and childbirth remain a major public health challenge worldwide particularly in low and middle income countries. In 2015, there were 303,000 maternal deaths worldwide, of which the greatest number occurred in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.1 Even though there was a 44% reduction in MMR between 1990 and 2015 worldwide. The decline did not reach the United Nation Member States target of 75% by the end of 2015 [1]. The aim, therefore, is to reduce the global MMR to less than 70 deaths per 100,000 live births by 2030 as part of the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) [2]. Several community and hospital based-studies in sub-Saharan Africa reported relatively high MMR ranging from 448 to 4,210/100,000 live births in Nigeria [3-7], 128 to 357/100,000 live births in Ghana [8], 650 to 1,579/100,000 live births in South Africa [9,10], and 1,541/100,000 live births in Tanzania [11], whereas in India, the ratio was 410/100,000 live births [12].

The main causes of maternal deaths in developing countries were direct causes, mainly hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and obstetric haemorrhage [4,5,12-16], while in developed countries, infection followed by hemorrhage and hypertensive pregnancy disorders accounted for the majority of maternal deaths [16]. In contrast, in rural South Africa, studies found indirect causes mainly HIV/AIDS infections the leading causes of maternal deaths [9,10]. Other risk factors linked with maternal death in developing countries include advanced maternal age, poverty, low levels of education, lack of antenatal care and multiparity [3,5,7,9,14,16,18]. There is little or no information on the MMR from Delta State University Teaching Hospital (DELSUTH) in Nigeria. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine the magnitude of MMR and identify the underlying causes of maternal mortality in this referral tertiary hospital from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2018.


This was a retrospective descriptive study based on the review of maternal records at DELSUTH located in Oghara, Nigeria. The hospital has a maximum of 180 beds with 11 beds in Labour Ward and 2 in High Dependency Unit (equivalent to intensive care). Data for this study was collected over a five-year period, from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2018. A data collection tool designed for the study was used to collect the data. The registry of hospital deaths and maternity register were used as the starting point for collecting the data of all maternal deaths that occurred during the period of the study. Appropriate maternal case notes for all pregnant women who died in the maternity ward and High Dependency Unit (equivalent to intensive care) were retrieved and checked and the following information was gathered: date of death, age, ethnicity, referral facility, method of delivery, place of death and probable cause of death. The STATA® version 16.1 for Windows (StataCorp; College Station, USA) was used for statistical analysis. Descriptive statistics such frequencies and mean ± Standard Deviation (SD) were used to interpret categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Ethical clearance was granted by DELSUTH’s Health Research Ethics Committee (HREC) (Ref: HREC/2018/057/0354) and DELSUTH Management granted permission to access hospital registers.


During the study period, a total of 57 maternal deaths were reported, giving an MMR of 7,234 per 100,000 live births. Annual MMRs with the worst ratio observed in 2015 and 2018 are shown in (Table 1).

Table 1: Maternal Mortality Ratio in DELSUTH (2014-2018).

Year Number of live birth Number of Maternal deaths MMR/100,000
2014 268 9 3,358
2015 137 18 13,139
2016 120 5 4,167
2017 155 8 5,161
2018 108 17 15,741
2014-2018 788 57 7,234

The mean age of the women varied between 15 and 46 years and was 30.4 ± 7.3 years. Just over half (53 percent) were 30 years of age and older. The age distribution of women who died during the study period is shown in (Figure 1).

Age distribution of maternal deaths.

Figure 1: Age distribution of maternal deaths.

The rate of caesarean section was 18%, with most of the women 96% (n = 53) being referred [regional (n = 10) and district (n =43) hospitals]. Eighty-four per cent of maternal deaths occurred in the High Dependency Unit.

The major causes of maternal mortality were direct causes accounting for 71% (n = 44) of all deaths, whereas indirect causes accounted for 21% (n = 12). The cause of death for one woman was unknown. The most prevalent maternal cause of death was hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, accounting for almost half 44% (25/55) of all maternal deaths, followed by medical/surgical conditions and obstetric haemorrhage, resulting in 18% (10/55) and 12% (7/55) of all deaths, respectively. (Table 2)

Table 2: Causes of maternal deaths in DELSUTH (2014-2018).

  No %
Direct Causes 44 71
Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy 25 57
Obstetric Haemorrhage 7 16
Puerperal Sepsis 6 14
pulmonary oedema 3 7
Other 3 7
Indirect Causes 12 21
Medical/Surgical conditions 10 83
Non-pregnancy related infection 2 17
Unknown 1 2

presents the underlying maternal causes of death during the period of study.


The maternal mortality ratio from this study was 7,234 per 100,000 live births which is higher than the ratio recorded in some tertiary health facilities in Nigeria (448 to 4210 per 100,000 live births) [3-7], and 128 to 357 per 100,000 live births in hospital and community-based studies in Ghana.8 The ratio is also higher than 650 to 1,579 per 100,000 live births reported in South Africa [9,10], 1,541 per 100,000 live births in Tanzania [11] and 410 per 100,000 live births in India [12]. In this analysis, the explanation for high MMR is not clear, but the drastic increase observed in 2015 and 2018 is multifactorial [14]. This could have been due to the industrial strikes by healthcare workers during that time [19,20].

In order to reduce maternal mortality in Nigeria particularly in this referral tertiary facility, it is important to identify the high risk groups for the development of intervention programs. Slightly more than half (53%) of maternal deaths in our study happened in women in the age group ≥ 30 years. Previous studies have reported similar results [9,16], but they vary from several studies that have found deaths in those below 30 years of age [5,13,15,21]. Poverty, low levels of education, lack of antenatal care and multiparity could have been the reasons for the higher number of maternal deaths in women aged 30 years or older in our research [3,5,7,9,14,16,18]. Not surprisingly, most (96%) maternal deaths occurred in women referred from regional and district hospitals in our research; and this is in line with a study conducted in South Africa [9]. While the time at which deaths occurred was not determined by our research, multiple studies performed in tertiary hospitals showed that the majority of maternal deaths occur within 24 hours of admission [6,9]. Late referrals and a shortage of sufficiently trained staff in peripheral hospitals may be the explanation for this.

Regarding the cause of deaths, the major causes of maternal deaths were direct causes in our study (80%), with the leading causes being hypertensive pregnancy disorders and obstetric haemorrhage. Puerperal sepsis and pulmonary oedema were other direct causes of maternal deaths. This result is consistent with other retrospective studies conducted in Nigeria [4, 5,13,14]; Tanzania [15]; Pakistan [16] and India [12] which also reported direct causes mainly eclampsia and obstetric haemorrhage. Infection, bleeding, and hypertensive pregnancy disorders accounted for 60-70% of maternal deaths in developed countries [17]. In their report, however, Ntuli et al highlighted and complemented the marked decrease (18%) in MMR as a result of improved Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) uptake in HIV/AIDS management and non-pregnancy-related infections in South Africa.

In some reports from Nigeria, malaria during pregnancy was an indirect cause of maternal death [5,6], although in our research, there were no malaria-related maternal deaths which could be attributed to preventive treatment among pregnant women visiting antenatal care clinics [22-24]. One of the most serious problems found in our research is bleeding during or after the caesarean section, as suggested by around 18% of women who died after undergoing the caesarean section. In Latin America, a systematic analysis indicated an increased risk of cesarean section maternal mortality relative to vaginal delivery. In South Africa, 17.9% of the 1,243 mothers who died during or after caesarean section died as a result of haemorrhage during and after the procedure [26]. Maternal deaths are multifactorial., but can be minimized by improving healthcare workers’ skills and knowledge and rapid effective response to obstetric emergencies [27].


It may not be possible to generalize the results of this research as it was based on only one tertiary hospital operating as a referral centre for the entire state. Moreover, evidence on the causes of death was compiled retrospectively from labour ward, HDU databases and patient records which may be vulnerable to misreporting of demographics and cause of death [28].


The findings from this study revealed that maternal mortality is unacceptably high in this tertiary hospital, and is associated with direct obstetric causes which include hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and obstetric haemorrhage. Therefore, this study concluded that improvement in quality antenatal care, timely identification of the cause of obstetric emergencies are important factors in the reduction of maternal deaths in this tertiary hospital.


Thanks to DELSUTH’s Record Division and Maternity staff especially Sr Ukecha for their assistance during this research. We are grateful to those who have made helpful suggestions and recommendations.


1. Roos N, von Xylander SR. Why do maternal and newborn deaths continue to occur? Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2016; 36: 30- 44. doi: 10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2016.06.002. Epub 2016 Jun 24. PMID: 27506412.

2. Transforming our world: the 2030 agenda for sustainable development. UN. United Nations; New York, NY: 2015.

3. Bello FA, Adesina OA, Morhason-Bello IO, Adekunle AO. Maternal Mortality Audit in a Tertiary Health Institution in Nigeria: Lessons from Direct Causes and its Drivers. Niger J Med. 2015; 24(4): 300- 306. PMID: 27487605.

4. Okonofua F, Imosemi D, Igboin B, Adeyemi A, Chibuko C, Idowu A, et al. Maternal death review and outcomes: An assessment in Lagos State, Nigeria. PLoS One. 2017; 12(12): e0188392. doi: 10.1371/ journal.pone.0188392. PMID: 29240754; PMCID: PMC5730145.

5. Agan TU, Monjok E, Akpan UB, Omoronyia OE, Ekabua JE. Trend and Causes of Maternal Mortality in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital: A 5-year Retrospective Study (2010-2014) at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2018; 6(6): 1153-1158. doi: 10.3889/oamjms.2018.220. PMID: 29983819; PMCID: PMC6026429.

6. Awowole IO, Badejoko OO, Kuti O, Ijarotimi OA, Sowemimo OO, Ogunduyile IE. Maternal mortality in the last triennium of the Millennium Development Goal Era at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2018; 38(2): 189-193. doi: 10.1080/01443615.2017.1336752. Epub 2017 Aug 17. PMID: 28816556.

7. Ntoimo LF, Okonofua FE, Ogu RN, Galadanci HS, Gana M, Okike ON, et al. Prevalence and risk factors for maternal mortality in referral hospitals in Nigeria: a multicenter study. Int J Womens Health. 2018; 10: 69-76. doi: 10.2147/IJWH.S151784. PMID: 29440934; PMCID: PMC5798564.

8. Adomako J, Asare GQ, Ofosu A, Iott BE, Anthony T, Momoh AS, et al. Community-based surveillance of maternal deaths in rural Ghana. Bull World Health Organ. 2016; 94(2): 86-91. doi: 10.2471/ BLT.15.154849. Epub 2015 Nov 25. PMID: 26908958; PMCID: PMC4750432.

9. Ntuli TS, Mabina Mogale M, Francis LM Hyera FLM, Naidoo S, An investigation of maternal mortality at a tertiary hospital of the Limpopo province of South Africa. Southern African Journal of Infectious Diseases 2017; 32(2): 73-76 https://doi.org/10.1080/23 120053.2017.1293902

10. Tlou B. Underlying determinants of maternal mortality in a rural South African population with high HIV prevalence (2000-2014): A population-based cohort analysis. PLoS One. 2018; 13(9): e0203830. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0203830. PMID: 30212535; PMCID: PMC6136765.

11. Pembe AB, Paulo C, D’mello BS, van Roosmalen J. Maternal mortality at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania in the year 2011. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2014; 14: 320. doi: 10.1186/1471- 2393-14-320. PMID: 25217326; PMCID: PMC4174678.

12. Abhilasha Nair, Doibale MK, Gujrathi VV, Inamdar IF, Shingare AD, Rajput PS. Study of maternal mortality in a tertiary care hospital in a district of Maharashtra. Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2016; 5(9): 1851- 1854. doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2016.10012016342

13. Faduyile FA, Soyemi SS, Emiogun FE, Obafunwa JO. A 10 years autopsy-based study of maternal mortality in Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria. Niger J Clin Pract. 2017; 20(2): 131-135. doi: 10.4103/1119-3077.180076. PMID: 28091425.

14. Sageer R, Kongnyuy E, Adebimpe WO, Omosehin O, Ogunsola EA, Sanni B. Causes and contributory factors of maternal mortality: evidence from maternal and perinatal death surveillance and response in Ogun state, Southwest Nigeria. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2019; 19(1):63. doi: 10.1186/s12884-019-2202-1. PMID: 30744576; PMCID: PMC6371466.

15. Bwana VM, Rumisha SF, Mremi IR, Lyimo EP, Mboera LEG. Patterns and causes of hospital maternal mortality in Tanzania: A 10- year retrospective analysis. PLoS One. 2019; 14(4): e0214807. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0214807. PMID: 30964909; PMCID: PMC6456219.

16. Shoaibunisa Soomro, Shabnam Naz, Naila Memon, Rafia Baloch. Causes of maternal deaths in a tertiary care hospital in Larkana. Pakistan Rawal Med J. 2013; 38(3): 271-274.

17. Creanga AA. Maternal mortality in the developed world: a review of surveillance methods, levels and causes of maternal deaths during 2006-2010. Minerva Ginecol. 2017; 69(6): 608-617. doi: 10.23736/ S0026-4784.17.04111-9. Epub 2017 Jul 17. PMID: 28714660.

18. Blanc AK, Winfrey W, Ross J. New findings for maternal mortality age patterns: aggregated results for 38 countries. PLoS One. 2013; 8(4): e59864. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0059864. PMID: 23613716; PMCID: PMC3629034.

19. Oleribe OO, Ezieme IP, Oladipo O, Akinola EP, Udofia D, Taylor Robinson SD. Industrial action by healthcare workers in Nigeria in 2013-2015: an inquiry into causes, consequences and control-a cross-sectional descriptive study. Hum Resour Health. 2016; 14(1): 46. doi: 10.1186/s12960-016-0142-7. PMID: 27465121; PMCID: PMC4962455.

20. Oleribe OO, Udofia D, Oladipo O, Ishola TA, Taylor-Robinson SD. Healthcare workers’ industrial action in Nigeria: a cross-sectional survey of Nigerian physicians. Hum Resour Health. 2018; 16(1): 54. doi: 10.1186/s12960-018-0322-8.

21. Sandhya Devi KVSM, Madhuri Ch, Sarada Bai K,Srividya D. Study of maternal mortality in a tertiary care hospital. J Evol Med Dent Sci. 2015; 4(38): 6624-66230. doi:10.14260/jemds/2015/959.

22. Adigun AB, Gajere EN, Oresanya O, Vounatsou P. Malaria risk in Nigeria: Bayesian geostatistical modelling of 2010 malaria indicator survey data. Malar J. 2015; 14: 156. doi: 10.1186/s12936-015-0683- 6. PMID: 25880096; PMCID: PMC4404580.

23. Fokam EB, Ngimuh L, Anchang-Kimbi JK, Wanji S. Assessment of the usage and effectiveness of intermittent preventive treatment and insecticide-treated nets on the indicators of malaria among pregnant women attending antenatal care in the Buea Health District, Cameroon. Malar J. 2016 Mar; 15: 172. doi: 10.1186/s12936-016- 1228-3. PMID: 26987387; PMCID: PMC4794838.

24. Salomão C, Sacarlal J, Gudo ES. Assessment of coverage of preventive treatment and insecticide-treated mosquito nets in pregnant women attending antenatal care services in 11 districts in Mozambique in 2011: the critical role of supply chain. Malar J. 2017; 16(1): 223. doi: 10.1186/s12936-017-1872-2.

25. Fahmy WM, Crispim CA, Cliffe S. Association between maternal death and cesarean section in Latin America: A systematic literature review. Midwifery. 2018; 59: 88-93. doi: 10.1016/j.midw.2018.01.009. Epub 2018 Jan 31. PMID: 29421643.

26. Gebhardt GS, Fawcus S, Moodley J, Farina Z; National Committee for Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in South Africa. Maternal death and caesarean section in South Africa: Results from the 2011-2013 Saving Mothers Report of the National Committee for Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths. S Afr Med J. 2015; 105(4): 287-291. doi: 10.7196/samj.9351. PMID: 26294872.

27. Maswime S, Buchmann E. Causes and avoidable factors in maternal death due to cesarean-related hemorrhage in South Africa. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2016; 134(3): 320-323. doi: 10.1016/j. ijgo.2016.03.013. Epub 2016 May 28. PMID: 27352737.

28. Abalos E, Duhau M, Escobar P, Fasola ML, Finkelstein JZ, Golubicki JL, et al. Omisión de registros de causas maternas de muerte en Argentina: estudio observacional de alcance nacional [Omission of causes of maternal death in death certificates in Argentina: nationwide observational studyOmissão do registro de causas maternas de morte na Argentina: estudo observacional de alcance nacional]. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2019; 43: e13. Spanish. doi: 10.26633/RPSP.2019.13. PMID: 31093237; PMCID: PMC6393737.

Clark C, Ntuli ST (2023) Causes of Maternal Mortality in Delta State University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria: A Retrospective Study. J Family Med Community Health 10(1): 1190.

Received : 03 Jul 2023
Accepted : 31 Jul 2023
Published : 03 Aug 2023
Annals of Otolaryngology and Rhinology
ISSN : 2379-948X
Launched : 2014
JSM Schizophrenia
Launched : 2016
Journal of Nausea
Launched : 2020
JSM Internal Medicine
Launched : 2016
JSM Hepatitis
Launched : 2016
JSM Oro Facial Surgeries
ISSN : 2578-3211
Launched : 2016
Journal of Human Nutrition and Food Science
ISSN : 2333-6706
Launched : 2013
JSM Regenerative Medicine and Bioengineering
ISSN : 2379-0490
Launched : 2013
JSM Spine
ISSN : 2578-3181
Launched : 2016
Archives of Palliative Care
ISSN : 2573-1165
Launched : 2016
JSM Nutritional Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3203
Launched : 2017
Annals of Neurodegenerative Disorders
ISSN : 2476-2032
Launched : 2016
Journal of Fever
ISSN : 2641-7782
Launched : 2017
JSM Bone Marrow Research
ISSN : 2578-3351
Launched : 2016
JSM Mathematics and Statistics
ISSN : 2578-3173
Launched : 2014
Journal of Autoimmunity and Research
ISSN : 2573-1173
Launched : 2014
JSM Arthritis
ISSN : 2475-9155
Launched : 2016
JSM Head and Neck Cancer-Cases and Reviews
ISSN : 2573-1610
Launched : 2016
JSM General Surgery Cases and Images
ISSN : 2573-1564
Launched : 2016
JSM Anatomy and Physiology
ISSN : 2573-1262
Launched : 2016
JSM Dental Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1548
Launched : 2016
Annals of Emergency Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1017
Launched : 2016
Annals of Mens Health and Wellness
ISSN : 2641-7707
Launched : 2017
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Health Care
ISSN : 2576-0084
Launched : 2018
Journal of Chronic Diseases and Management
ISSN : 2573-1300
Launched : 2016
Annals of Vaccines and Immunization
ISSN : 2378-9379
Launched : 2014
JSM Heart Surgery Cases and Images
ISSN : 2578-3157
Launched : 2016
Annals of Reproductive Medicine and Treatment
ISSN : 2573-1092
Launched : 2016
JSM Brain Science
ISSN : 2573-1289
Launched : 2016
JSM Biomarkers
ISSN : 2578-3815
Launched : 2014
JSM Biology
ISSN : 2475-9392
Launched : 2016
Archives of Stem Cell and Research
ISSN : 2578-3580
Launched : 2014
Annals of Clinical and Medical Microbiology
ISSN : 2578-3629
Launched : 2014
JSM Pediatric Surgery
ISSN : 2578-3149
Launched : 2017
Journal of Memory Disorder and Rehabilitation
ISSN : 2578-319X
Launched : 2016
JSM Tropical Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2578-3165
Launched : 2016
JSM Head and Face Medicine
ISSN : 2578-3793
Launched : 2016
JSM Cardiothoracic Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1297
Launched : 2016
JSM Bone and Joint Diseases
ISSN : 2578-3351
Launched : 2017
JSM Bioavailability and Bioequivalence
ISSN : 2641-7812
Launched : 2017
JSM Atherosclerosis
ISSN : 2573-1270
Launched : 2016
Journal of Genitourinary Disorders
ISSN : 2641-7790
Launched : 2017
Journal of Fractures and Sprains
ISSN : 2578-3831
Launched : 2016
Journal of Autism and Epilepsy
ISSN : 2641-7774
Launched : 2016
Annals of Marine Biology and Research
ISSN : 2573-105X
Launched : 2014
JSM Health Education & Primary Health Care
ISSN : 2578-3777
Launched : 2016
JSM Communication Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3807
Launched : 2016
Annals of Musculoskeletal Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3599
Launched : 2016
Annals of Virology and Research
ISSN : 2573-1122
Launched : 2014
JSM Renal Medicine
ISSN : 2573-1637
Launched : 2016
Journal of Muscle Health
ISSN : 2578-3823
Launched : 2016
JSM Genetics and Genomics
ISSN : 2334-1823
Launched : 2013
JSM Anxiety and Depression
ISSN : 2475-9139
Launched : 2016
Clinical Journal of Heart Diseases
ISSN : 2641-7766
Launched : 2016
Annals of Medicinal Chemistry and Research
ISSN : 2378-9336
Launched : 2014
JSM Pain and Management
ISSN : 2578-3378
Launched : 2016
JSM Women's Health
ISSN : 2578-3696
Launched : 2016
Clinical Research in HIV or AIDS
ISSN : 2374-0094
Launched : 2013
Journal of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity
ISSN : 2333-6692
Launched : 2013
Journal of Substance Abuse and Alcoholism
ISSN : 2373-9363
Launched : 2013
JSM Neurosurgery and Spine
ISSN : 2373-9479
Launched : 2013
Journal of Liver and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2379-0830
Launched : 2014
Journal of Drug Design and Research
ISSN : 2379-089X
Launched : 2014
JSM Clinical Oncology and Research
ISSN : 2373-938X
Launched : 2013
JSM Bioinformatics, Genomics and Proteomics
ISSN : 2576-1102
Launched : 2014
JSM Chemistry
ISSN : 2334-1831
Launched : 2013
Journal of Trauma and Care
ISSN : 2573-1246
Launched : 2014
JSM Surgical Oncology and Research
ISSN : 2578-3688
Launched : 2016
Annals of Food Processing and Preservation
ISSN : 2573-1033
Launched : 2016
Journal of Radiology and Radiation Therapy
ISSN : 2333-7095
Launched : 2013
JSM Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
ISSN : 2578-3572
Launched : 2016
Annals of Clinical Pathology
ISSN : 2373-9282
Launched : 2013
Annals of Cardiovascular Diseases
ISSN : 2641-7731
Launched : 2016
Journal of Behavior
ISSN : 2576-0076
Launched : 2016
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Metabolism
ISSN : 2572-2492
Launched : 2016
Clinical Research in Infectious Diseases
ISSN : 2379-0636
Launched : 2013
JSM Microbiology
ISSN : 2333-6455
Launched : 2013
Journal of Urology and Research
ISSN : 2379-951X
Launched : 2014
Annals of Pregnancy and Care
ISSN : 2578-336X
Launched : 2017
JSM Cell and Developmental Biology
ISSN : 2379-061X
Launched : 2013
Annals of Aquaculture and Research
ISSN : 2379-0881
Launched : 2014
Clinical Research in Pulmonology
ISSN : 2333-6625
Launched : 2013
Journal of Immunology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2333-6714
Launched : 2013
Annals of Forensic Research and Analysis
ISSN : 2378-9476
Launched : 2014
JSM Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
ISSN : 2333-7109
Launched : 2013
Annals of Breast Cancer Research
ISSN : 2641-7685
Launched : 2016
Annals of Gerontology and Geriatric Research
ISSN : 2378-9409
Launched : 2014
Journal of Sleep Medicine and Disorders
ISSN : 2379-0822
Launched : 2014
JSM Burns and Trauma
ISSN : 2475-9406
Launched : 2016
Chemical Engineering and Process Techniques
ISSN : 2333-6633
Launched : 2013
Annals of Clinical Cytology and Pathology
ISSN : 2475-9430
Launched : 2014
JSM Allergy and Asthma
ISSN : 2573-1254
Launched : 2016
Journal of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
ISSN : 2334-2307
Launched : 2013
Annals of Sports Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2379-0571
Launched : 2014
JSM Sexual Medicine
ISSN : 2578-3718
Launched : 2016
Annals of Vascular Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2378-9344
Launched : 2014
JSM Biotechnology and Biomedical Engineering
ISSN : 2333-7117
Launched : 2013
Journal of Hematology and Transfusion
ISSN : 2333-6684
Launched : 2013
JSM Environmental Science and Ecology
ISSN : 2333-7141
Launched : 2013
Journal of Cardiology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2333-6676
Launched : 2013
JSM Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine
ISSN : 2334-1815
Launched : 2013
Journal of Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders
ISSN : 2475-9473
Launched : 2016
JSM Ophthalmology
ISSN : 2333-6447
Launched : 2013
Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Toxicology
ISSN : 2333-7079
Launched : 2013
Annals of Psychiatry and Mental Health
ISSN : 2374-0124
Launched : 2013
Medical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
ISSN : 2333-6439
Launched : 2013
Annals of Pediatrics and Child Health
ISSN : 2373-9312
Launched : 2013
JSM Clinical Pharmaceutics
ISSN : 2379-9498
Launched : 2014
JSM Foot and Ankle
ISSN : 2475-9112
Launched : 2016
JSM Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementia
ISSN : 2378-9565
Launched : 2014
Journal of Addiction Medicine and Therapy
ISSN : 2333-665X
Launched : 2013
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2378-931X
Launched : 2013
Annals of Public Health and Research
ISSN : 2378-9328
Launched : 2014
Annals of Orthopedics and Rheumatology
ISSN : 2373-9290
Launched : 2013
Journal of Clinical Nephrology and Research
ISSN : 2379-0652
Launched : 2014
Annals of Community Medicine and Practice
ISSN : 2475-9465
Launched : 2014
Annals of Biometrics and Biostatistics
ISSN : 2374-0116
Launched : 2013
JSM Clinical Case Reports
ISSN : 2373-9819
Launched : 2013
Journal of Cancer Biology and Research
ISSN : 2373-9436
Launched : 2013
Journal of Surgery and Transplantation Science
ISSN : 2379-0911
Launched : 2013
Journal of Dermatology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2373-9371
Launched : 2013
JSM Gastroenterology and Hepatology
ISSN : 2373-9487
Launched : 2013
Annals of Nursing and Practice
ISSN : 2379-9501
Launched : 2014
JSM Dentistry
ISSN : 2333-7133
Launched : 2013
Author Information X