Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) Plan for Carbonated Soft Drinks Plant
- 1. Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, University of Agriculture, Pakistan
- 2. Department of Food Science and Technology, Government College Women University, Pakistan
Carbonated soft drinks are amongst the most consumable drinks around the world. The objective of this study was to design Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan for soft drink production plant based on real time conditions in the beverage industry located in Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan. The model was developed to ensure the food safety of whole plant using the seven principles of HACCP and other generic models of HACCP using different approaches. Eight-member HACCP team was involved and HACCP chart, verification procedures and record-keeping were initiated. Only one CCP was identified during the production of carbonated soft drink. This research didn’t include the overview of production setup. Based on the results of this study, the authors recommend implementation of HACCP system in all food facilities.
HACCP, CSD, Soft drinks plant, CCP, Food Safety
HACCP is a short form for the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point . This system was developed to ensure pathogen-free foods. It provides accurate control measures & precautions to be followed for each step during whole process. The first portion of this system deals with the principles of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. The guidance for application of the system are provided in second portion keeping in view that the details of application may vary depending on the circumstances of the food operation . The researchers and specialists from The Pillsbury Company, The Natick Research Laboratories, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in USA were the pioneers to develop HACCP in late 1950s .
In modern era, food quality & food safety is compulsory for every industry and HACCP has made progress toward becoming synonymous with food safety . HACCP is a tool that can be used for reducing the risks of food safety failure. All types of possible hazards are consider as a part of HACCP system, these include Biological, Physical and Chemical hazards . The HACCP program ensures safety of products because potential hazards that may occur at any stage of processing are anticipated, evaluated, controlled and prevented. Processing plants are required to have a HACCP plan for each product . HACCP framework requests a high initial investment just to get it implemented. The basis of this system requires additional resources for staff training, gear and additional provisions, as well as technical support .
Beverage industry is one of the renowned industry of modern era. Soft drinks are consumed a lot in every part of world. Due to high demand, the technology to produce soft drink also demanded a lot. Currently the several business groups are going to develop and invest in this field due to high demand.
Microbial hazards within soft drinks can be: (1) spoilage, done by general micro-organisms; (2) food poisoning done by pathogens . The main ingredients and composition of soft drinks consists of water, fruit materials, sweeteners, flavorings, colorings, preservatives as well as other components . Many micro-organisms are present in soft drinks due to contaminants, but few can survive within the acidic and low oxygen environment. Yeasts are the significant groups associated with spoilage of soft drink. Spoilage can occur as the metabolic by-products grow, for example, CO2 , acid, and tainting compounds . The objective of this study was to develop a comprehensive, long term HACCP plan for beverages plant. So, by implementing the best plan in real time conditions at beverages plant can reduce the occurrence of hazards. This will identify health hazards and establish strategies to prevent, eliminate, or reduce the occurrence of physical, biological, or chemical hazards.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This study was conducted at PepsiCo registered as name of Punjab Beverages Private Company Ltd. in Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan. This plant is categorized as large-scale plant for its production capacity. This plant has 700 workers, working in three shifts to produce average of 50,000 carbonated soft drink bottles per day. The objective of reforms was to expand company’s market. For that purpose, company planned effective quality system to ensure safe, healthy and best quality products.
The researchers spent four weeks in carbonated soft drink plant to observe and made hypothesis of final product. Employees and operators monitored the quality control in order to develop brief HACCP plan according to setup and processing in plant.
Collected Data of each step was analyzed during whole process which include raw material, packing until dispatch from plant, including all other procedures. Rest of the data was collected from tests, laboratory analysis records and from management.
The research didn’t base on quantitative approach. The objective of this research was to develop HACCP plan for possible implementation in real time conditions. The study coordinated the qualitative approach that suggest inductive process directed by conceptual framework, driven more by itself hence there is no statistical data . Subjective research was exploratory and open minded which was pertinent to this investigation .
The researchers developed a HACCP plan for carbonated soft drink based on the setup and processing in plant in order to enhance the quality of finished product. The HACCP plan was based on seven principles. These principles include risk analysis, CCP identification, setting critical limits, monitoring protocols, corrective actions, verification techniques, record-keeping, and documentation. In this study, models [13,14], guidelines [15,16], requirements  and record keeping related to HACCP was studied and designed.. This model was developed from NACMCF  that was adopted August 14, 1997 worldwide (FOODS).
The decision matrix tree is utilized to recognize Critical Control Point (CCP) for procedure .
This HACCP plan was designed on basics of seven principles of HACCP and by interpreting several models, to suit real time conditions of carbonated soft drink plant.
The first step to design a HACCP plan was to bring all current essential prerequisite programs under the roof of HACCP and provide them a typical guidance about accomplishing zero deformities in finished product to guarantee that there was no health concern in the finished product. All prerequisite programs executed according to codex general principles of food hygiene and good manufacturing practices to bring hygienic food by establishing the essential condition during production.
Structure and Layout of Plant
The premises were designed in well manner structure that allow GMP, good food hygiene practices and prevent from accumulation of water. The design of building was in such a way that it mainly focused to prevent cross contamination. The base of building was sloped and drained. Although the corners and joints of the building were not well in form and it’s difficult to clean them. In some areas of the plant there were neither slope nor draining system, the water accumulated there. The walls of the plant were dust, Incest & rodent free. Although there were few cracks and gaps in some parts of wall that made it unsafe, it could be habitat for insects and rodents.
The glass covered doors and windows with aluminum finish are used throughout the plant. The air curtains were used specially on testing laboratories. The exhaust fans were used for proper air flow and prevent the building from heat accumulation and maintain relative humidity. The professional cleaners cleaned the plant on daily basis, the water accumulation and floor was cleaned after every shift.
Personal hygiene has vital importance in every industry, it plays the role of back bone for production of finished safe food. The personal hygiene was followed properly by staff, but labor’s personal hygiene was improper. Although labor wore uniform but didn’t use net caps and gloves that might be source of contamination.
The food grade material was used for equipment, such as stainless steel that could easily cleaned and maintainable. Each equipment checked after each shift to ensure proper working, smooth running, free of cracks and dents.
Pest control exercises were done through the professional teams available in state. In this modern era the pest control activities are carried out to prevent and control the pest, rather than to prevent pest as in traditional manners. This eliminated a huge risk of insects and rodent from spoiling the product.
The best quality treated water was supplied for carbonated soft drink plant at desired temperature and parameters to ensure the good taste of drink.
The specific temperature was not required to store soft drinks. The storage was done at room temperature, but chilling before consumption was highly recommended.
The cleaning of area and drainage of water from warehouse were done on regular basis to ensure the safe and healthy finished product.
APPLICATION OF HACCP
Product description defines the product completely with respect to applicable safety information such as: composition, intrinsic attributes, physical/chemical structure (including Aw, pH, etc.), shelf life, target market, and storage conditions and method of distribution  (Table 1).
Characteristics (Table 2)
Intended Use (Table 3)
Hazards Analysis and Critical Control Point (CCP) Determination (Tables 4-7)
Operations Pre-Requisite Program for Carbonated Soft Drinks (Table 8)