Annals of Food Processing and Preservation

Sunflower Seed Hull: Its Value as a Broad Mushroom Substrate

Review Article | Open Access

  • 1. Laboratory of Biotechnology of Edible and Medicinal Mushrooms, CERZOS (CCTCONICET Bahía Blanca - Universidad Nacional del Sur), Argentina
  • 2. Comisión de Investigaciones Científicas de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina
  • 3. Department of Agronomy, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Argentina
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Corresponding Authors
Figlas Norma, Laboratory of Biotechnology of Edible and Medicinal Mushrooms, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Argentina La Carrindanga km 7, Bahía Blanca, Buenos Aires, Argentina,

Sunflower (Heliantus annus) seed hull (SSH), an abundant and cheap lignocellulosic residue from edible oil-seed industries, was evaluated as an alternative substrate for mushroom cultivation. Different edible and medicinal mushroom species were grown successfully, bringing a positive use of material that could be problematic for disposal. In this review we display different studies that linked the SSH with mushroom production and other derivations of its use as mushroom substrate


•    Sunflower seed hulls
•    Mushroom cultivation
•    Recycle of agro industrial wastes
•    Mushroom substrate


Figlas ND, González Matute R, Curvetto N (2016) Sunflower Seed Hull: Its Value as a Broad Mushroom Substrate. Ann Food Process Preserv 1(1): 1002.


SSH: Sunflower Seed Hull; BE: Biological Efficiency; MP: Mushroom Ptoduction; P: Productivity; SS: Sunflower Seed


Sunflower (Heliantus annus) seed hull (SSH) is an abundant and cheap lingo cellulosic residue of the local (Argentine) edible oil-seed industry. Twenty two thousand tones of SSH are produced as a residue of edible oil industries located at Bahía Blanca, Argentine [1].

SSH has been marketed for special purposes such as bedding material in poultry operations, fireplace logs and other high-fiber products, but these markets are limited. Also, it has been used sometimes as roughage for ruminants as cows and sheep’s, but the high content of lignin makes it useless as animal food. More often the hulls are burned. Burying them in the soil has also been tried, but this practice is unsafe for the sanity of the fields because it could contain Sclerotinia sclerotium, a plant pathogen fungus [2]. Its disposal is an environmental problem because it degrades very slowly. During oil extraction procedure, raw sunflower seeds are transformed into oil and flour and seed hulls are produced as a by-product. SSH constitutes about 18-20% of raw seeds [3]. The main organic macro-nutrients of SSH are lipids, carbohydrates and proteins, with a 20-25% lignin of the total weight [4]. Reduced sugars are also an important part of the seed coating, amounting to about 25%. Total organic carbon coming from cellulose, hemi cellulose and lignin account for more than 40%, making its C/N ratio quite high (54, own data). Lipids and proteins content are around 5% and 4%, respectively, and almost 3% of lipids are waxes, fatty acids and alcohols [5]. SSH chemical composition makes it an attractive material for growing lignocellulolytic microorganisms. White rot fungi, basidiomycetes, are considered as the primary agents in nature for lignin degradation [6,7].

The biodegradation of lignocellulosic material by basidiomycetes is a cooperative process which involves the participation of oxygen reactive species (H2 O2 , superoxide and hydroxyl radicals) and other phenoxide radicals together with ligninolytic enzymes collaborating with enzymes coming from the carbohydrate metabolism to degrade and assimilate lignocelluloses [8]. Mushrooms produce enzymes capable of degrading cellulose and hemicelluloses and oxidizing lignin. Thus, it resulted interesting to prove SSH as an alternative substrate for mushroom cultivation. Cultivation of different white rot edible and medicinal mushroom species has been growing in the last decades, mainly because of the easiness of its process, low inversion, and high productivity and increasing demand of the products due to their gourmet and medicinal values. Any lingo cellulosic material could be a substrate for this purpose. This material is decontaminated by different methods, usually by hot steam (>60ºC), and bagged to imitate a log. Mushroom`s growth goes through two phases, spawn running -vegetative stage under darkness and a fixed temperature around 25ºC- and fruiting -reproductive stage under light, oscillating temperature, ventilation and humidity- World mushroom production is headed by the white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), shiitake (Lentinula edodes), oyster mushroom (Pleurotus spp.) and portobello (A. bisporus brown). Also, there are other prominent mushroom species widely cultivated, such as reishi (Ganoderma spp.), Schizophyllum commune, maitake (Grifola frondosa), Hericium erinaceus and royal sun Agaricus (Agaricus brasiliensis syn. A. subrufescens, A. blazei)

Pleurotus ostreatus

Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus spp.) possess an extracellular enzymes system and a strategy via free radicals, exhibiting a great adaptability to degrade different kind of lingo cellulosic materials such as SSH. Pleurotus spp. grow on an extensive array of agricultural and forest waste products: straws as wheat, rye, oat, rice and barley, corn stalks, sugar cane bagasse, coffee pulp, banana leaves, cotton waste and cottonseed hulls, hardwood sawdust, paper by-products, soybean waste, palm oil by-products and agave waste [9]. In a previous work, SSH was evaluated for cultivation of oyster mushroom in boxes. The author obtained an average yield of fresh mushroom per kg dry SSH of 0.7-0.8 kg [10]. The first report of our group involving SSH as a main substrate for Pleurotus ostreatus cultivation proposed a novel substrate decontamination method. This method makes use of a metallic rotary drum with interrupted revolution under constant heating for relative short time (60 min), but sufficient to produce effective decontamination. It also allows a thorough mixing of the spawn into the mass substrate [11] (Figure 1).

It was demonstrated that this material alone, without supplementation, can be considered as a complete nutritive substrate to be colonized by P. ostreatus [12]. The most common supplement added to P. ostreatus substrate is cereal bran that stimulates mycelia growth and mushroom yield [13]. However, on SSH substrate supplemented with cereal bran, P. ostreatus mycelial growth was not increased [12]. With respect to the size of hulls, it was demonstrated that the particle size as it emerges from oil industry (average 12 mm) (Figure 2) is adequate for use as a media component [12]. Mycelial growth did not show significant differences when SSH were used in three particle sizes: 7, 10 and 12 mm (18 days for complete colonization). However, there were marked differences in fruiting and crop yield, being the largest particle size which produced the maximum Biological Efficiency (BE, (fresh mushroom yield/dry substrate weight) x 100), 76.5% in three flushes, with a first flush that represented 85% of the total (Figure 3), in comparison with smaller particle ones. So hull chopping is not necessary and would imply an extra cost [12].

Nutritional contents of substrate can be improved by nitrogen supplementation [14] and supplementing the substrate with Mn (II) shortens crop period and increases mushroom productivity [14]. In a report where a substrate containing SSH as main energy was used, five strains of P. ostreatus were evaluated in response to different levels of Mn (II) (0, 20, 100 or 200 ppm) and/or NH4 + (0, 200, 500 or 750 ppm) [15]. Results showed that BE increased over control values and reached 60-112%, depending on the strain and the concentration of Mn (II) and NH4 + .

Lentinula edodes

Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) produces enzymes capable of degrading cellulose and hemi cellulose and oxidizing lignin [6,16]. The ability of shiitake to colonize substrates is limited by physicochemical and nutritional factors [17]. When utilizing SSH as main substrate source for shiitake cultivation, it was obtained a daily production rate of 2 kg fresh shiitake/100 kg dry substrate for a 55 days production cycle and an accumulated BE of 108% [18] (Figure 4). Addition of wheat bran to the SSH-based synthetic log produced no significant differences on BE, mushroom production or productivity (P, BE/days from inoculation to last harvest). Mycelial growth rate measured by linear growth test [19] of SSH without supplementation was 2.4 mm/day, an interesting growth rate with regards to SSH supplemented with either wheat bran or poplar sawdust [2].

Ganoderma lucidum

Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) is a medicinal mushroom that possesses biologically active substances like polysaccharides [20], steroids [21], and terpenoids [22] with different pharmacological activities as antitumor, hypopressor, antioxidant immunomodulating immunostimulating, hypocholesterolemic and hypoglycemic activities [23-30]. It is considered one of the most important medicinal mushrooms and it has been studied profoundly.

It was demonstrated that SSH can be used as the main energy and nutritional source in the formulation of a substrate for the cultivation of this mushroom [31] (Figure 5). SSH substrates containing 5% malt, showed a significantly higher productivity than those from other formulations, giving an average production rate of 0.5 fresh mushroom kg/100 kg dry substrate per day. In this case, production cycle was 5 days shorter than the other treatments.

In other work, the effects of supplementing SSH with olive oil and Cu (II) on mushroom production parameters and fruiting body total triterpenoids content were evaluated [32]. The addition of 1.5% olive oil increased total mushroom production (MP) by 21.7% (dry basis) in three flushes of mushrooms. Cu (60 ppm) increased the first flush daily productivity (MP day-1) by both reducing the time needed to crop harvest and increasing the MP. When both supplements were combined, the MP at the first flush was 43% higher than control. An increment of 145-155% in the mushroom Cu content was obtained by addition of 60 ppm Cu to the substrate.

The utilization of sunflower seed (SS) is not restrained to mushroom solid fermentation. It could be observed that inclusion of sunflower seed broth (65 g.L-1 seeds) in the formulation of a liquid culture for G. lucidum and G. oregonense could markedly improve mycelium and polysaccharide production [33]. Furthermore, one-gram Ganoderma lucidum dried mycelium grown in that liquid medium in the presence of 50 mg kg-1 Cu or Zn showed a bioavailability of 19% Cu and 2% Zn of the recommended daily intake (RDI) for humans, using an in vitro simulated digestion system [34]. This study also reported that when reishi carpophores from SSH substrate were evaluated, the highest BE (23.2%) was reached when the substrate was enriched with 100 mg kg-1 Cu and that time to crop fruiting was markedly reduced in the case of the substrate enriched with 50 mg kg-1 Cu. However, Cu and Zn content obtained either before or after carpophores digestion from all metal enriched treatments, were substantially lower than those from metal enriched mycelia. The metal bioavailability was also low: 1.5% of the Cu RDI and almost negligible for Zn.

Grifola gargal, Grifola sordulenta and Grifola frondosa

Grifola gargal and Grifola sordulenta, two native edible mushrooms species, were evaluated in order to improve their cultivation both in solid agar and liquid media [35]. For both species, addition of milled SSH (0.4%) to the agar medium significantly increased mycelia growth diameter and biomass production. In the case of liquid culture of Grifola sordulenta, addition of 26 and 39% SS broth to the medium significantly increased mycelia biomass (almost three times) compared to the control, while Grifola gargal showed an increment of approximately 100%

Artificial cultivation of these mushrooms was achieved using SSH as main substrate component [36] (Figure 6). The residual substrate produced after solid state fermentation was enriched in proteins with good laccase activity and with lower lignin content than original substrate. SSH pre-treated with dilute H2 SO4 or supplemented with Mn (II) or Zn (II) salts were found to improve mycelia colonization process.

In the case of Grifola frondosa (known as Maitake), it was demonstrated that its mycelium could accumulate Cu and Zn when grown in a liquid medium containing 26% SS broth [37]. Solubility of Cu and Zn from metal enriched mycelia was 32-33% and 0.7-3.5% of the RDI for Cu and Zn, respectively, in one gram of mycelium. In addition to the utilization of these mycelia as a nutritional supplement, the authors suggested the possibility of an additional cosmeceutical application.

Hericium erinaceus

Lion´s mane mushroom (H. erinaceus), a highly appreciated edible and medicinal mushroom, was evaluated to be grown in a SSH substrate (Figure 7). The mycelial growth rate in substrates possessing different SSH sizes showed a higher mycelial growth rate with the larger SSH size (as disposed of by the regional oilseed factory without additional process) [38]. Adding growthlimiting mineral nutrients such as Mn (II) (20 or 100 ppm) and/ or NH4 + (200 or 500 ppm), increased the mycelial growth rate by 8-16%. However, SSH without supplementation achieved good  BE (37.4%) and P (0.7% day-1) values, constituting a very good basal substrate, so this substrate by itself can be considered a very good source of energy and nutrition for H. erinaceus growth and development.

Schizophyllum commune

This is a cosmopolitan mushroom which has been considered in the Orient as a healthy food and an effective medicine to treat several diseases [39]. It was reported at S. commune production assay on SSH synthetic logs, in absence or presence of wheat bran in a three harvest cycle [40] (Figure 8). Accumulated BE and P (48.3% and 1.6% day-1, respectively) on SSH based substrate containing 7.5% wheat bran were significantly greater than those obtained on SSH alone (40.7% and 1.1% day-1, respectively).

Agaricus bisporus

Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom or champignon) using a small-scale composting system for substrates mixtures containing SSH was described [41,42] (Figure 9). SSH demonstrated to be appropriate for a good quality compost formulation (adequate color, odor, N content, pH, humidity content and actinomycetes presence). It was the first study of Agaricus production on a substrate based on SSH (51.4% SSH, 40.0% wheat straw, 3.8% wheat bran, 1.2% urea, 1.2% ammonium sulphate and 2.4% calcium sulphate)

Agaricus brasiliensis

Agaricus brasiliensis (syn. A. blazei Murrill, A. subrufescens) is one of the most promissory and studied mushrooms species, due to both its nutritional and medicinal value, besides its peculiar characteristics of flavor, almond fragrance and excellent texture [43]. Its cultivation on SSH was evaluated on both composted and non-composted substrates.


Substrate formulation containing SSH to obtain compost capable to support a complete growth cycle of Agaricus brasiliensis was evaluated [44]. Formula consisted in 50% SSH, 41% wheat straw, 4.5% wheat bran and supplements and additives. Different types of containers: polyethylene bags and plastic trays were also evaluated. This compost resulted appropriate for A. brasiliensis cultivation, yielding BE ranging from 30 to 47%, depending on the container and substrate mass, being highest with polyethylene bags containing 2.5 kg substrate. This mushroom degraded SSH lignin during the cultivation, having the access to nutrient sources of cellulose and hemi cellulose.

SSH in non-composted substrate

Cultivation of A. brasiliensis on axenic substrates was studied. Substrate formula consisted in SSH, P. pulmonarius spent substrate, or their combination, in the absence or presence of different supplements (vermicompost, peat or brewery residues). Yields results were similar to composted substrates [45] (Figure 10). The lignin-hemi cellulose fraction was preferentially used as it was shown by substrate changes composition measured at the end of two flushes.

Agaricus brasiliensis laccase production obtained either in composted or non-composted SSH and wheat straw was studied in order to evaluate the remaining substrates as a potential source for the extraction of high valued ligninolytic enzymes like laccases [46]. Cu solutions incorporation (100 or 200 ppm) on top of the casing layer (composted substrate) or as part of the formula (non-composted substrate) stimulated laccase production. Only the addition of 100 ppm Zn had a positive effect on lac cases and mainly in composted substrates.

Liquid cultivation of A. brasiliensis mycelium in nutrient medium containing SSH and 100 or 200 ppm of Cu or Zn, during only 4 days, could be adequate for the production of a nutritional supplement [47]. This A. brasiliensis Cu or Zn enriched mycelium, besides the medicinal and nutritional attributes characteristic of the species, would provide a concentrated source of essential minerals in a potentially bio available form, allowing coverage of 60-98% and 9-11% of the RDI for Cu and Zn, respectively, with only 1 g of mycelium

Hypsizygus marmoreus

A formula that included SSH (SSH 38%, soft almond shells 38% and wheat bran 24%) wad studied among others for the cultivation of H. marmoreus [48]. However, the BE obtained in a month from 0.8 kg polypropylene bags was very low (6.1%) compared to the other substrates studied.

Other medicinal mushrooms

For small-scale cultivation, SSH was used as alternative substrate for medicinal mushroom cultivation. SSH was one of the most suitable substrate for the cultivation of Agrocybe aegerita, Auricularia polytricha, Flammulina velutipes, Ganoderma lucidum, Hericium erinaceus, Lentinula edodes, and Hypsizygus marmoreus selected strains as well as for the gourmet Oyster mushrooms, including P. ostreatus, P. citrinopileatus, P. sajor caju and P. djamor [49]. Mushroom yield was higher in comparison with supplemented sawdust (beech) substrates in various SSH combinations.

Derivations of SSH utilization as mushroom substrate

Fungal enzymes extracted from Pleurotus pulmonarius (sajorcaju) mycelia cultivated on liquid media containing 65 g/L SS were utilized to eliminate aniline/phenol from wastewaters [50]. They were able to polymerizate and precipitate them from aqueous solutions, obtaining soluble polyaniline or insoluble polyphenol.

The potential use of A. brasiliensis SSH based spent compost as a remediation tool for cleaning metsulfuron methyl polluted soils was evaluated [51]. The complex enzyme fractions extracted from the spent mushroom compost had the ability to degrade metsulfuron methyl during the right incubation times to compounds with no or lower phytotoxicity than this herbicide.

Biodegraded SSH resulted from mushroom cultivation was studied. Analytical composition of a SSH based compost discarded after two flushes of A. brasiliensis showed that the average content of cellulose and hemi cellulose were reduced by 32% and 54%, respectively. Lignin content decreased by 47%, compared to initial values at the start of the composting process [44]. Biosurfactant production conditions by P. djamor on renewable substrates were optimized. Three different agro industrial wastes were used as solid substrates. According to surface tension values the best solid substrate was SSH as it contains hydrocarbon that activates bio surfactant production due to its insoluble property [52]. Residual substrate from G.lucidum cultivation was used to make biodegradable containers (Ganocetas) for growing horticultural seedlings [53]. These Ganocetas did not affect either the germination of 15 vegetables species or tomato production whereas it improved the growth and vigor of six species including two varieties of tomato.



Although SSH is not used in human nutrition because of the presence of high content of recalcitrant lignin, it can be employed as main substrate for edible and medicinal mushrooms cultivation. Mushroom species diversity that can be cultivated in SSH substrate is large. We have compiled different kinds of mushrooms, primary or secondary decomposers, edible or medicinal: Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus brasiliensis, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus spp., Schizophyllum commune, Grifola spp., Hericium erinaceus, Ganoderma spp., Hypsizygus marmoreus and many more. Furthermore, addition of Cu and Zn to SSH substrate to obtain better quality mushrooms was discussed. Many other mushrooms could be cultivated on SSH substrate with or without supplementation.

In locations where SSH is an abundant residue of edible oil-seed industry which needs to be disposed, its utilization as substrate for mushroom cultivation appears to be an interesting alternative to obtain good quality food and an economic benefit from an agro industrial waste that has no value.

We also showed alternative uses of residual SSH substrate after mushroom production for bioremediation or horticultural purposes.


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Received : 28 Jul 2016
Accepted : 23 Aug 2016
Published : 25 Aug 2016
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Launched : 2016
Archives of Palliative Care
ISSN : 2573-1165
Launched : 2016
JSM Nutritional Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3203
Launched : 2017
Annals of Neurodegenerative Disorders
ISSN : 2476-2032
Launched : 2016
Journal of Fever
ISSN : 2641-7782
Launched : 2017
JSM Bone Marrow Research
ISSN : 2578-3351
Launched : 2016
JSM Mathematics and Statistics
ISSN : 2578-3173
Launched : 2014
Journal of Autoimmunity and Research
ISSN : 2573-1173
Launched : 2014
JSM Arthritis
ISSN : 2475-9155
Launched : 2016
JSM Head and Neck Cancer-Cases and Reviews
ISSN : 2573-1610
Launched : 2016
JSM General Surgery Cases and Images
ISSN : 2573-1564
Launched : 2016
JSM Anatomy and Physiology
ISSN : 2573-1262
Launched : 2016
JSM Dental Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1548
Launched : 2016
Annals of Emergency Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1017
Launched : 2016
Annals of Mens Health and Wellness
ISSN : 2641-7707
Launched : 2017
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Health Care
ISSN : 2576-0084
Launched : 2018
Journal of Chronic Diseases and Management
ISSN : 2573-1300
Launched : 2016
Annals of Vaccines and Immunization
ISSN : 2378-9379
Launched : 2014
JSM Heart Surgery Cases and Images
ISSN : 2578-3157
Launched : 2016
Annals of Reproductive Medicine and Treatment
ISSN : 2573-1092
Launched : 2016
JSM Brain Science
ISSN : 2573-1289
Launched : 2016
JSM Biomarkers
ISSN : 2578-3815
Launched : 2014
JSM Biology
ISSN : 2475-9392
Launched : 2016
Archives of Stem Cell and Research
ISSN : 2578-3580
Launched : 2014
Annals of Clinical and Medical Microbiology
ISSN : 2578-3629
Launched : 2014
JSM Pediatric Surgery
ISSN : 2578-3149
Launched : 2017
Journal of Memory Disorder and Rehabilitation
ISSN : 2578-319X
Launched : 2016
JSM Tropical Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2578-3165
Launched : 2016
JSM Head and Face Medicine
ISSN : 2578-3793
Launched : 2016
JSM Cardiothoracic Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1297
Launched : 2016
JSM Bone and Joint Diseases
ISSN : 2578-3351
Launched : 2017
JSM Bioavailability and Bioequivalence
ISSN : 2641-7812
Launched : 2017
JSM Atherosclerosis
ISSN : 2573-1270
Launched : 2016
Journal of Genitourinary Disorders
ISSN : 2641-7790
Launched : 2017
Journal of Fractures and Sprains
ISSN : 2578-3831
Launched : 2016
Journal of Autism and Epilepsy
ISSN : 2641-7774
Launched : 2016
Annals of Marine Biology and Research
ISSN : 2573-105X
Launched : 2014
JSM Health Education & Primary Health Care
ISSN : 2578-3777
Launched : 2016
JSM Communication Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3807
Launched : 2016
Annals of Musculoskeletal Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3599
Launched : 2016
Annals of Virology and Research
ISSN : 2573-1122
Launched : 2014
JSM Renal Medicine
ISSN : 2573-1637
Launched : 2016
Journal of Muscle Health
ISSN : 2578-3823
Launched : 2016
JSM Genetics and Genomics
ISSN : 2334-1823
Launched : 2013
JSM Anxiety and Depression
ISSN : 2475-9139
Launched : 2016
Clinical Journal of Heart Diseases
ISSN : 2641-7766
Launched : 2016
Annals of Medicinal Chemistry and Research
ISSN : 2378-9336
Launched : 2014
JSM Pain and Management
ISSN : 2578-3378
Launched : 2016
JSM Women's Health
ISSN : 2578-3696
Launched : 2016
Clinical Research in HIV or AIDS
ISSN : 2374-0094
Launched : 2013
Journal of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity
ISSN : 2333-6692
Launched : 2013
Journal of Substance Abuse and Alcoholism
ISSN : 2373-9363
Launched : 2013
JSM Neurosurgery and Spine
ISSN : 2373-9479
Launched : 2013
Journal of Liver and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2379-0830
Launched : 2014
Journal of Drug Design and Research
ISSN : 2379-089X
Launched : 2014
JSM Clinical Oncology and Research
ISSN : 2373-938X
Launched : 2013
JSM Bioinformatics, Genomics and Proteomics
ISSN : 2576-1102
Launched : 2014
JSM Chemistry
ISSN : 2334-1831
Launched : 2013
Journal of Trauma and Care
ISSN : 2573-1246
Launched : 2014
JSM Surgical Oncology and Research
ISSN : 2578-3688
Launched : 2016
Journal of Radiology and Radiation Therapy
ISSN : 2333-7095
Launched : 2013
JSM Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
ISSN : 2578-3572
Launched : 2016
Annals of Clinical Pathology
ISSN : 2373-9282
Launched : 2013
Annals of Cardiovascular Diseases
ISSN : 2641-7731
Launched : 2016
Journal of Behavior
ISSN : 2576-0076
Launched : 2016
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Metabolism
ISSN : 2572-2492
Launched : 2016
Clinical Research in Infectious Diseases
ISSN : 2379-0636
Launched : 2013
JSM Microbiology
ISSN : 2333-6455
Launched : 2013
Journal of Urology and Research
ISSN : 2379-951X
Launched : 2014
Journal of Family Medicine and Community Health
ISSN : 2379-0547
Launched : 2013
Annals of Pregnancy and Care
ISSN : 2578-336X
Launched : 2017
JSM Cell and Developmental Biology
ISSN : 2379-061X
Launched : 2013
Annals of Aquaculture and Research
ISSN : 2379-0881
Launched : 2014
Clinical Research in Pulmonology
ISSN : 2333-6625
Launched : 2013
Journal of Immunology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2333-6714
Launched : 2013
Annals of Forensic Research and Analysis
ISSN : 2378-9476
Launched : 2014
JSM Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
ISSN : 2333-7109
Launched : 2013
Annals of Breast Cancer Research
ISSN : 2641-7685
Launched : 2016
Annals of Gerontology and Geriatric Research
ISSN : 2378-9409
Launched : 2014
Journal of Sleep Medicine and Disorders
ISSN : 2379-0822
Launched : 2014
JSM Burns and Trauma
ISSN : 2475-9406
Launched : 2016
Chemical Engineering and Process Techniques
ISSN : 2333-6633
Launched : 2013
Annals of Clinical Cytology and Pathology
ISSN : 2475-9430
Launched : 2014
JSM Allergy and Asthma
ISSN : 2573-1254
Launched : 2016
Journal of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
ISSN : 2334-2307
Launched : 2013
Annals of Sports Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2379-0571
Launched : 2014
JSM Sexual Medicine
ISSN : 2578-3718
Launched : 2016
Annals of Vascular Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2378-9344
Launched : 2014
JSM Biotechnology and Biomedical Engineering
ISSN : 2333-7117
Launched : 2013
Journal of Hematology and Transfusion
ISSN : 2333-6684
Launched : 2013
JSM Environmental Science and Ecology
ISSN : 2333-7141
Launched : 2013
Journal of Cardiology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2333-6676
Launched : 2013
JSM Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine
ISSN : 2334-1815
Launched : 2013
Journal of Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders
ISSN : 2475-9473
Launched : 2016
JSM Ophthalmology
ISSN : 2333-6447
Launched : 2013
Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Toxicology
ISSN : 2333-7079
Launched : 2013
Annals of Psychiatry and Mental Health
ISSN : 2374-0124
Launched : 2013
Medical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
ISSN : 2333-6439
Launched : 2013
Annals of Pediatrics and Child Health
ISSN : 2373-9312
Launched : 2013
JSM Clinical Pharmaceutics
ISSN : 2379-9498
Launched : 2014
JSM Foot and Ankle
ISSN : 2475-9112
Launched : 2016
JSM Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementia
ISSN : 2378-9565
Launched : 2014
Journal of Addiction Medicine and Therapy
ISSN : 2333-665X
Launched : 2013
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2378-931X
Launched : 2013
Annals of Public Health and Research
ISSN : 2378-9328
Launched : 2014
Annals of Orthopedics and Rheumatology
ISSN : 2373-9290
Launched : 2013
Journal of Clinical Nephrology and Research
ISSN : 2379-0652
Launched : 2014
Annals of Community Medicine and Practice
ISSN : 2475-9465
Launched : 2014
Annals of Biometrics and Biostatistics
ISSN : 2374-0116
Launched : 2013
JSM Clinical Case Reports
ISSN : 2373-9819
Launched : 2013
Journal of Cancer Biology and Research
ISSN : 2373-9436
Launched : 2013
Journal of Surgery and Transplantation Science
ISSN : 2379-0911
Launched : 2013
Journal of Dermatology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2373-9371
Launched : 2013
JSM Gastroenterology and Hepatology
ISSN : 2373-9487
Launched : 2013
Annals of Nursing and Practice
ISSN : 2379-9501
Launched : 2014
JSM Dentistry
ISSN : 2333-7133
Launched : 2013
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