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  • ISSN: 2333-7133
    Early Online
    Volume 8, Issue 3
    Review Article
    Michel Goldberg*
    In niches, stem cells are associated with adhesion extracellular matrix molecules (ECM). This gives rise to cells that retain their stemness, control their self-renewal and their progeny production, by using asymmetric or symmetric divisions. The adhesion molecules include N-cadherin/-catenin, VCAM/integrin, and osteopontin / 1 integrin. They create a microenvironment that favor cell division, and interactions leading to cell differentiation. Asymmetric division contributes to self-renewal (a single division) and produce daughter cells that conduct to terminal differentiation. C-Myc is involved in controlling the balance between stem cell maintenance and proliferation. Daughter cells are expressing low levels of c-Myc. They are retained in the niche in a quiescent state, whereas, high levels of c-Myc expression in the remaining daughter cells supports the proliferation of cells and the displacement of dividing transit cells and their replacement leading to terminal differentiation.
    Research Article
    Gillam DG*, Chana B, Kumar K, and Martin E
    Aim: The aim of the present 22 item questionnaire-based study was to evaluate the knowledge and understanding of a representative sample of UK based Dental professionals in treating DH.
    Materials & Methods: A 22-item questionnaire on DH was sent to a representative sample of 2200 Dentists and Dental Hygienists/Therapists (DH/T). The study was submitted to the local Queen Mary University of London Ethics committee (QMREC 03537) and the research did not present any ethical concerns due to its low risk and therefore did not require the scrutiny of the full Research Ethics Committee. The questionnaire consisted of 22 questions, which included both open and closed questions. The addresses were selected from the General Dental Council (GDC) and Dental Hygienist/Therapists Lists and subsequently randomised using randomised number generator (RNG)(Graph Pad Software Inc. 2002-2005) and the questionnaires were sent out to the selected Dental practices by Royal Mail. The questionnaires were distributed during a six-month period from June 2011. Data were entered using the Microsoft Excel, and the results analysed using SPSS 22.0 for Windows (IBM, Portsmouth UK) in presented in the form of frequency distribution tables and pie charts. Pearson correlations were undertaken to determine whether there were any association between status, impact on the QoL, confidence of recommending at-home treatment to those suffering with DH.
    Results: 346 Questionnaires were returned (15.7%), of which 142 Questionnaires were from Dentists (12.9%) and 204 Questionnaires were from DH/Ts (18.5%). Both Dentists and DHTs provided similar responses to the questions with no major differences between the two groups.
    Conclusions: These results were consistent with previous studies and, would appear to suggest that, in terms of the knowledge and understanding of DH, both Dentists and DHTs had a broad understanding however there were still some confusion concerning aspects of the diagnosis and management of the condition and clinicians therefore need to be updated on the current recommendations and guidelines in the management of DH to both inform their patients in terms of awareness and prevention and to confidently diagnose and manage DH successfully .
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