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  • ISSN: 2333-6706
    Current Issue
    Volume 2, Issue 5
    Research Article
    Gwendolyn M. Howard1 , Diane K. Tidwell1 *, Chiquita A. Briley2 and Barry P. Hunt1
    Abstract: Vitamin D and calcium play major roles in bone health in addition to other positive roles in tissues and cells. These roles in tissues and cells are associated with preventing some types of cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine attitudes of cancer patients towards their dietary intakes of vitamin D and calcium. A questionnaire was completed by 128 volunteers (mean age = 53.5 years ± 16.6, 94 women) from a cancer treatment center in Alabama. Participants with cancer (n = 59) were more likely to agree (p = 0.048) to the statement, "I try to eat healthy every day" compared to participants without cancer (n = 69); similar results occurred for the statement, "I have a healthy diet" (p = 0.050). Participants without cancer consumed more fish such as salmon, tuna, and halibut than participants with cancer (p = 0.035). Women and participants with cancer were more concerned with eating healthy and obtaining vitamin D and calcium than non-cancer participants and men. Overall, many participants did not appear to be consuming their dietary requirements for calcium and vitamin D. However, 69.1% of all participants reported they regularly exposed their skin to sunshine for 10–15 minutes without sunscreen.
    Mubashir Zafar1* and Zafar Fatmi2
    Abstract:
    Background: In Pakistan, poor infant and young child feeding practices are contributing to the burden of infectious diseases and malnutrition. To estimate the determinants of selected feeding practices and key indicators of breastfeeding in Pakistan
    Methods: The sample included 5718 children aged 0 to 23 months from the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey of 2006-2007. WHO recommended infant and young child feeding indicators were estimated, and selected feeding indicators were examined against a set of individual, household and community level variables using univariate and multivariate analyses.
    Results: Mothers initiated breastfeeding only 26.3% of within the first hour after birth, 97.6% had ever breastfed, 92.5% were currently breastfeeding, and 62.7% were currently bottle-feeding. The risk factors for bottle-feeding were similar and included having a partner working (OR =1.66) , working mother (OR = 1.17), birth order >5 (OR = 1.25) and in the Richest wealth quintiles (OR for the richest = 2.34). Those who made no visit to the antenatal clinic were at higher risk for not initiating breastfeeding within the first hour (OR = 1.54), no post natal visit were higher risk (OR=1.45), working mother were higher risk (OR=1.76), delivery at facility based centre were higher risk(OR=1.95). The rate of initiating breastfeeding within the first hour was lower in mothers from richer households (OR = 1.77), birth order >5(OR=1.67) and formally married women (OR=2.31).
    Conclusions: Breastfeeding indicators suggest that there is need for promotion of breastfeeding practices in the community. They should target women who have the main risk factors.
    Yanni Papanikolaou1*, James Brooks2, Carroll Reider2 and Victor L. Fulgoni3
    Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) has been a growing public health concern and diet is widely believed to play an important role in its development. Magnesium has received considerable interest for its potential in improving insulin sensitivity, glucose control and thus influencing diabetes risk. We examined the relationship between dietary magnesium intake from food and food combined with supplements and diabetes and other related health factors in adults =20 years of age using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination survey from 2001-2010. Usual intakes from foods alone and from foods plus dietary supplements were determined using the methods from the National Cancer Institute.Adults with adequate intake of magnesium from food had significantly different HOMA-IR (7.14%, p=0.0204); systolic blood pressure (-0.54%, p=0.0279) and HDL-cholesterol (2.29%, p=0.001) compared to adults with inadequate intake of magnesium from food. Adequate intake of magnesium from food plus supplement had significant differences in waist circumference (-0.86%, p=0.0043), systolic blood pressure (-0.56%, p=0.0297) and HDL-cholesterol (3.35%, p<0.0001) compared to adults with inadequate intake of magnesium from food plus supplements. Higher dietary intake of magnesium from food plus supplements was associated with significantly reduced odds ratios for elevated glycohemoglobin, metabolic syndrome, obesity, overweight or obesity, elevated waist circumference, elevated systolic blood pressure, reduced HDL and elevated C-reactive protein. Thus, there is a beneficial relationship between dietary magnesium intake and diabetes-related physiological outcomes in U.S. adults.
    Eunice Bonsi1*, Elizabeth Chibuzo2 and Robert Zibawa1
    Abstract: High prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) among women and children in Ghana prompted search for measures to combat the disease. "Ghana Bread" is known for its moistness, fine texture and consumed daily by most Ghanaians. This study accessed the acceptability of orange sweet potato bread as a food-based fortification measure for combating vitamin A deficiency in Ghana. Volunteers (192) from three regions of Ghana evaluated the acceptability of the "Ghana Bread" processed with 30% orange sweet potato puree, using a 7-point Hedonic Scale for color, sweetness, texture and overall acceptability; and analyzed with SPSS computer software version 16 for the descriptive and correlation "r" analysis of the variables.
    The mean age of the population ranged from 20-42 years with the youngest subjects located in the Greater Accra region, and the oldest in the Volta region. The overall acceptability rating of the bread ranged from, 5.77-6.77 (82-97%) with the highest (6.77, 97%) from the Greater Accra region and the lowest (5.77) from the Northern region. A correlation analysis of the variables indicated gender, age, texture and overall acceptability to be significant (P<0.05). The rating for texture was the lowest (3.87), and is indicative of a need for locally processed sweet potato puree. Sweetness had the highest correlation with overall acceptability (0.0314, P<-0.01). The mean rating of the bread 6.25 (89%) from all regions seems to indicate that the bread made with 30% OS is indicative of likeness, and could increase the intake of vitamin A when such bread is consumed in Ghana.
    Takashi Ogasawara1*, Syuichi Matsuda1, Shinpei Kato1, Kazuki Tanaka1, Toshiaki Yano1, Shiori Marui2, Takako Nihashi2, Yasuko Okamoto2, Masato Ohgiku3, Norio Kasamatsu1 and Yoshito Ikematsu3
    Abstract:
    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether oligomeric formula decreases gastrointestinal intolerance in critically ill respiratory patients receiving early enteral nutrition.
    Materials and Methods: This was a prospective randomized controlled trial in respiratory patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) in our hospital between December 2012 and January 2014. Twenty-four patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to the oligomeric formula group or polymeric group; enteral feeding was initiated within 48 hours after ICU admission. The primary endpoint was the incidence of gastrointestinal complications. The secondary outcome was changes in nutritional indicators from baseline to day 3.
    Results: Baseline characteristics were similar between the oligomeric (n = 11) and polymeric (n = 9) groups. There was no significant difference in diarrhea incidence (0% vs. 11%; p = 0.45), vomiting, or constipation. Although serum potassium levels increased in the oligomeric group (4.3 to 4.8 mEq/L; p = 0.04), there were no significant changes in other laboratory values in either group.
    Conclusions: An oligomeric formula for early enteral feeding in critically ill respiratory patients did not decrease gastrointestinal intolerance compared with a polymeric formula.
    Stuart Houltham*, Carlene Starck and Stephen Stannard
    Abstract:
    Purpose: Keratins are fibrous, structural, animal-based proteins with emerging potential as a supplement for humans. Naturally high levels of the sulfur amino-acid cysteine suggest that keratin ingestion could augment antioxidant status and provide benefit for healthy and diseased populations. Although keratins have long been present in the human diet, scientific confirmation of gastrointestinal and metabolic acceptability during daily keratin intake representing a significant proportion of daily minimum recommended protein intake is required.
    Methods: In a blind cross-over study, questionnaire based assessment of gastrointestinal health and palatability was undertaken every 3 days during 14 days of daily consumption of either casein or a keratin based bar and drink powder. Ingestion rate began at 10 g·d-1 of target protein and increased by 10 g every 3 days ending with 5 days at 40 g·d-1.
    Results: Keratin ingestion raised the prevalence of increased flatulence and change in flatulent odor compared to the casein control. No other negative trends in gastrointestinal health or dose response were observed within or between the two treatments.
    Conclusions: The keratin-based protein supplementation up to 40 g·d-1 for 5 days did not cause any acute gastrointestinal disturbance unrelated to the consumption of high-protein supplements. This finding creates the opportunity for further research relating to the proposed health and/or ergogenic benefits of keratin protein ingestion for athletes and the general population.
    Perspective
    Jessica Berg* and Dingbo Lin
    In 2010, 4.1 million Americans over age 40 were considered visually impaired (i.e. blind or with low vision) [1]. With almost one-third of these visually impaired affected by low vision, or sight in the better eye worse than 20/40 vision despite corrective lenses, low vision and vision loss are among the most feared irreversible diseases among the elderly and can reduce quality of life as well as incur serious economic burdens [1].
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