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  • ISSN: 2373-9282
    Early Online
    Volume 6, Issue 1
    Case Report
    Polat FR*, Duran Y, Sakalli O, and Balkan MB
    Pilonidal sinus is a common entity, most often occurring in the natal cleft. Pilonidal sinuses (PS) usually occurring in the sacrococcygeal region. However, PS occasionally occurs in other parts of the body, referred to as extrasacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus (ESPS). We report a case of pilonidal sinus at intermammarial region. It is investigated appropriate management and post-surgery advice on prevention.
    Manouchehr Aghajanzadeh, Omid Mosafayi, Babak Karimi, Hossein Torabi, Mostafa Ziabari, and Mahdi Pursafar*
    Background: Hydatid disease is a parasitic infestation caused by Echinococcus granulosus and caused by the larval stage of the Echinococcus tapeworm and it primarily affects the liver and lung but involvement of other organs is also possible secondary to peritoneal seeding or hematogeneous dissemination. About extra hepatic and pulmonary hydatid cyst (EHPHC) there are not basic studies. we want to discuss this entity and review the literatures.
    Materials and methods: A systematic retrospective review was performed for all extra hepatic and pulmonary hydatidcyst (EHPHC) patients treated in our province between 1990and 2016. Inclusion criteria in this study, was all patients with (EHPHC) organ involvement without simultaneously involvement liver and lung by hydatid cyst. Final diagnosis confirmed with pathologist. The patient's records were studied for gender, age, site of involvement, diagnosis and results of treatment. All data was analyzed by using SPSS version 21.
    Results: In this study record of 33 patients who were evaluated within this period, were reviewed. 21 patients were male and 12 patients were female. Age of patients was 25 to 56 years old. Hydatid cyst of spleen was the most common all of (EHPHC). Others were Kidney, pancreas, soft tissue and mediastinum. The most common tools for diagnosis was U/S and CT-scan. All patients with hydatid cyst of spleen underwent splenectomy. Others (EHPHC) underwent radical resection. Albendazole used in all patients just post operation. Outcomes of surgery were good and no recurrences were occurred.
    Conclusion: Although liver and lung are the most commonly involved organs, in 10% of cases it occurs in other locations. Hydatid cysts should be included in the differential diagnosis of any cystic mass of all organs in body, especially in endemic regions. Total remove of the cyst component without any spillage is the best treatment option.
    Manouchehr Aghajanzadeh*, Mohammad RasoulHerfatkar, FarzadGhotbi, Goharshrieha, Bahareh Mohtasham, and Omid Mosafaiee
    Hydatid disease can involve various organs of the body and may develop in any organ member But most often in the liver (77%-50%) and lungs (35%-18%), and sometimes in other organs. Liver and hepatic hydatid cysts occur in 25% of cases in 4%. The clinical signs and symptoms of hydatid cyst depend on the locations that are involved (deep or superficial,right or left lobe), size, adjacent organs, and complications such as infection or cyst rupture. Rupture of the cyst may occur after trauma or spontaneously due to suddenly increased intracystic pressure. When a hydatid cyst is broken down in the peritoneum, catastrophic complications such as abdominal pain, chewing gum, anaphylaxis, and sudden death may occur. We have a 40-year-old woman with anaphylactic shock, Such as severe abdominal pain, tachycardia, hypotension and massive erythema, and rapidly intubating and then severely care unit forresuscitation. With the primary suspicion of peritonitis, open laparotomy was performed. During the surgery, hydatid cyst elements were observed within different parts of the abdomen. One ruptured cyst was seen in the posterior of theright lobe of liver which invades to the diaphragm. The cyst cavity was irrigated with saline, pericystectomy and Capi tonnage. The abdominal cavity was washed twice with providing –iodine10% of the solution at 10-minute intervals. One huge cyst was also detected in the upperlobe of right lung on postoperative chest radiography. one week latter patient under went thoracotomy for lung cyst. Patient discharged with good conditions. Conclusion:The rupture of a hydatid cyst into the abdominal cavity is rare and anaphylaxis shock is extremely rare. This condition missed with acute abdomen in endemic areas, especially in young patients and must be in the differential diagnosis of the acute abdomen.
    Research Article
    Lim Yan*, Shankar Loganathan, and Amal Rashad Nimir
    Opportunistic infections such as toxoplasmosis pose an increasingly ominous threat to public health as the prevalence of primary and secondary immunocompromise increases. Hence, a cross-sectional study of knowledge, attitude and practice related to Toxoplasma gondii infection among rural and semi-urban community was conducted in three semi-urban areas in Malaysia. Three hundred and twenty one participants were recruited through convenience sampling in this study. A self-administered, modified validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The questionnaire covered participants' demographic profiles, source of water, contact with cats, personal health practices and knowledge about toxoplasmosis. Analysis of the data revealed that poor hand hygiene and poor personal health practices were observed to a significant degree amongst the younger age group, males and individuals with low education level. The general population was also found to have low knowledge and awareness about toxoplasmosis. Such knowledge gap needs to be addressed and further studies need to be conducted to evaluate population awareness and practices which place individuals at risk of infection so that more effective educational programmes and other interventions can be carried out.
    Shefaa AM El-Mandrawy*
    Background: Salmonellosis is a severe systemic disease of chicken, that threaten the poultry industry all over the world, thus the present study was planned to reach to accurate treatment of this serious disease, in addition to study the effect of Salmonellosis on hemato- biochemical, immunological and pathological changes in broiler chicken. Materials and methods: 100 broiler chickens (Cobb breed), one-days-old were obtained from Dakahlia Company for poultry production and divided as following: 25 birds were clinically healthy kept as control group (I), 25 birds infected with S. Gallinarum (II), 25 birds administrated Clostri-Mix and infected with S.Gallinarum (III) and 25 birds infected with S.Gallinarum strain and treated with Ciprociel (IV). Blood and tissue samples were collected for hemato-biochemical, immunological and histopathological examination.
    Results: The infected broiler chickens showed sever yellowish diarrhea. In addition, decrease in body weight, gain and feed consumption with significant increase in FCR. Furthermore, hemolytic anemia with leucocytosis was observed. Biochemical studies revealed a significant decrease in serum total proteins, albumin, Ca, GSH with significant increases in serum activities of ALT and AST, P, creatinine, uric acid and MDA concentration. Immunological studies clarified significant decrease in LTR, phagocytic % and index, in addition to several histological alterations in intestine, liver and kidney of the infected birds. All these disturbances were less severe in that administer Clostridium butyricum.
    Conclusion: Clostridium butyricum can increase the bird immunity against Salmonellosis, which induced sever haemolytic anemia with hepatic, renal and intestinal disorders in broiler chickens.
    Case Report
    Mutamad Amin*, Ashok Raut, and Henry Okoron wanja
    This is community-based cross-sectional study covering the riverine settlements around the Kainji and Jebba Lakes, where the incidence and prevalence of waterborne diseases are reported in the past studies and confirmed through the community consultation. The study area falls in three States: Niger, Kwara and Kebbi. The methods of data collection employed in the study involved:- House hold survey using structured questionnaires - Focused group discussions -Collection of physiologic specimen from the household for investigation and analysis. The major water related diseases found included malaria, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filiariasis and onchocerciasis
    Gary S. Goldman*
    Introduction: A Research Analyst insider report's findings that the Universal Varicella Vaccination Program alters the epidemiology of herpes zoster (shingles); and details ways in which the CDC, in collusion with the Los Angeles Department of Health Services (LADHS)—the Acute Communicable Disease Control unit—apparently manipulated data to conceal unwanted outcomes that supported an immunologically-mediated link between varicella and herpes zoster (HZ) epidemiology.
    Methodology: The Varicella Active Surveillance Project (VASP) was one of three CDC-funded projects in the US whose mission was to monitor the effects of the varicella vaccine on the population of 300,000 within the geographically isolated region of the Antelope Valley (consisting of principally two cities: Lancaster and Palmdale, California). Starting in 1995, prior to varicella vaccine licensure in March, under a cooperative agreement between CDC and the LADHS, the VASP collected baseline epidemiological data, which when considered with data from the other two surveillance projects (Travis County, Texas and West Philadelphia, Pennsylvania), would assist the CDC in recommending policies pertaining to the vaccine.
    Results: Trends in vaccine efficacy were masked by averaging varicella vaccine efficacy over several years instead of stratifying efficacy by year. High HZ incidence rates among children that had had natural varicella were masked by reporting a single mean of a bimodal distribution that included children that were administered the varicella vaccine. While CDC researchers initially opposed and criticized the Research Analyst's methodology and calculation of childhood HZ incidence rates, eventually they used similar methodology and found similar outcomes. The CDC rates, however, represented only half the true rates in the population since two-source capture-recapture statistical methods revealed 50% reporting completeness.
    Conclusion: The CDC mainly published selective studies and manipulated findings to support universal varicella vaccination and aggressively blocked the Research Analyst's attempt to publish deleterious trends or outcomes (e.g., declining vaccine efficacy, increasing HZ incidence rates, etc.), prompting his resignation in protest against what he perceived was research fraud. His letter of resignation stated, ”When research data concerning a vaccine used in human populations is being suppressed and/or misrepresented, this is very disturbing and goes against all scientific norms and compromises professional ethics.”
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