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  • ISSN: 2373-9282
    Early Online
    Volume 6, Issue 4
    Short Communication
    Testuri M, Daghero H, Rey G, Acosta G, Bernachin J, and Marco M*
    Ovarian cancer is one of the most malignant genital cancers, with a high mortality rate. Despite decades of research, the survival rate of ovarian cancer patients is largely unchanged, and there is a pressing need for identifying novel therapeutic targets.
    Many researchers have suggested that soluble matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have remarkably high expression in ovarian cancer tissues, and they are considered to be related to the occurrence, development, invasion and metastasis of ovarian cancer. Moreover, some studies have discovered that the unbalance between MMPs and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are associated with the malignant phenotype of tumors. In spite of this, there is a lack of information about the expression of membrane type –MMPs (without taking into account MT1-MMP) in ovarian cancer.
    This report shows (using immunohistochemistry) an increase in the expression of MT3- and MT5-MMPs especially in the most aggressive histological types (comparing with normal and benign tumors), which could suggest a possible biological role in the development of this pathology.
    Anwar Rjoop, Kimberley Sanderson, Victoria Booker, Diane Hopper and Ericka Olgaard*
    Staffing intraoperative cell salvage (ICS) services can be challenging for the laboratory today. At our academic medical center, staffing levels made it difficult to use blood bank technologists to support ICS procedures. We therefore developed a flexible staffing model utilizing the Laboratory Support Services (LSS) personnel to provide 24/7 ICS service. In an era with a laboratory technologist shortage and when laboratories must continuously demonstrate value to the hospital, using this group of laboratory employees can be a way to deliver consistent and timely ICS service. When planning for staffing it is important to interact with surgical services on a regular basis as surgical practices change.
    Short Note
    Parthasarathy Sonaimuthu*
    My research interest focuses on infectious diseases involving protozoan parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium falciparum that are the reason for infections classified as neglected tropical diseases. The parasitic diseases are one of the reasons for majorsignificant global economic, environmental, and public health impacts.
    Research Article
    Mitiku Bajiro*, Shewatateck Gedamu, Niguse Hamba, and YonasAlemu
    Background: Intestinal Schistosomiasis and Soil transmitted helminthes infections are among the major public health problems especially in Sub-Saharan African countries including Ethiopia. However, little is known about the distribution of these infections in area where there is risk factors for infection, especially schools at nearby rivers. Therefore objective of this study is to determine the prevalence, infection intensity and associated risk factors among two primary school children at nearby rivers of Jimma town.
    Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among two primary school children aged from 6 to 19 years in Jimma town from March to April/15 2016. For diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) and soil transmitted helminthes (STHs), a single stool sample was obtained from each child and processed using single Kato Katz and examined using light microscope. A questionnaire was used to collect demographic information of the school children participated in the study and variables used for risk factors assessments. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 and variables with P-value < 0.05 were considered as significantly associated with S. mansoni and STHs infections.
    Results: The overall prevalence of intestinal helminthes infection with S. mansoni and STHs was 50.64 %( 118/233). The prevalence of S. mansoni among school children of the two primary schools was 26.6 %( 62/233) with the prevalence of 29.2% in males and 23.3% in females. The prevalence of T. trichuira, A. lumbricoides and hookworms among the school children in Jimma town was 22.3%, 20.2% and 3.4% respectively. Majority of the infection intensity for both S. mansoni and STHs were classified as low.
    Water contact habits has significantly associated with S. mansoni infection where as finger trimming status, frequency of handing washing habit before meal and after toilet were significantly associated with, A. lumbricoides and T. trichuira infections (P < 0.05).
    Conclusion: The prevalence of intestinal helminthes infection with S. mansoni and STHs were 50.64 %; with the prevalence of S. mansoni, T. trichuira, A. lumbricoides and hookworms were 26.6%, 22.3%, 20.2% and 3.4% among the school children in the two schools. Majority of the infection intensity for both S. mansoni and STHs were classified as low. The school children were at moderate risk of infection with S. mansoni and STHs based on WHO 2012 prevalence classification in which once a year MDA is required for STHs and biannual MDA for S. mansoni. Health information regarding the transmission and prevention of S. mansoni and STHs should be given for school age children in the area.
    Case Report
    Manouchehr Aghajanzadeh, Cyrus Emir Alavi, Siamak Rimaz, Fereshteh Mohamadi, Siamak Geranmayeh, and Zakiyeh Jafaryparvar*
    Thymic Neuroendocrine Tumor (TNET) is rare and its incidence rate is approximately 2–5%. Carcinoid tumor of thymus with Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a rare co-morbid condition. We report a 19-year-old girl with CS who had8-months history of 10-15 kg weight gain, acne on face and back of the hands, menstrual irregularity, depression, fatigue and fatigability, moon faces, buffalo hump, truncal obesity and cutaneous striae. Initial laboratory tests revealed a serum cortisol level of 78 µg/DL, morning serum cortisol of 130 µg/DL, the ACTH level of 440 pg/ml and a 24 hour urinary free cortisol level of 11000µg/24 hours. Thorax computed tomography showed a heterogeneous well defined mass measuring about 18×15 mm in the anterior compartment of the mediastinum. An extended thymectomy was performed by a median sternotomy. Report of pathologist was “Well-differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasm (Typical carcinoid tumor of thymus, grade 1) without lymphatic and vascular invasion”.
    Review Article
    Attapon Cheepsattayakorn* and Ruangrong Cheepsattayakorn
    Ramazzini first described this disease, namely “Pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanokoniosis” and then was changed according to the types of exposed dust. No reliable figures on the silica-inhalation exposed individuals are officially documented. How silica particles stimulate pulmonary response and the exact path physiology of silicosis are still not known and urgently require further research. Nevertheless, many researchers hypothesized that pulmonary alveolar macrophages play a major role by secreting fibroblast-stimulating factor and re-ingesting these ingested silica particles by the pulmonary alveolar macrophage with progressive magnification. Finally, ending up of the death of the pulmonary alveolar macrophages and the development of pulmonary fibrosis appear. Various mediators, such as CTGF, FBRS, FGF2/bFGF, and TNFa play a major role in the development of silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis. A hypothesis of silicosis-associated abnormal immunoglobulins has been postulated. In conclusion, novel studies on pathogenesis and biomarkers of silicosis are urgently needed for precise prevention and control of this silently threaten disease of the world.
    Letter to Editor
    AmalR Nimir*, and Anne Jamaludin
    Prevention Is Better Than Cure; that's what we have always been told.
    Let's imagine living in the 14th century for a minute. You wake up in a flea-ridden bed after a restless night of sleep, interrupted by the alarm clock of the century (the nearest rooster).
    Nicholas J. Kavana*
    Spirometra is a pseudophyllidean tapeworm of Canidae and Felidae [1] with worldwide distribution. This cestode is of medical importance as its larvae, the plerocercoid can infect humans causing sparganosis. Sparganosis is endemic in many countries with the majority of cases reported from Southeast Asia, China, Japan and Eastern Africa [2-6] The life-cycle of Spirometra sp. is dependent of two types of intermediate hosts.
    Research Article
    Eric C. Vonderheid*, J. Steve Hou, and Robert Bigler
    Objectives: Determine flow criteria corresponding to LN4 histopathologic grade used for clinical staging of cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL).
    Materials and Methods: Flow cytometry using primarily a panel of single antibodies was performed on 78 excised lymph nodes (LNs) from 72 patients with CTCL. Correlation with histopathologic grade was available for 64 specimens. Fifty-two LNs obtained at initial staging were used for prognostic correlations. Seventeen additional LNs were studied by fine needle aspiration (FNA).
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