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  • ISSN: 2378-931X
    Volume 8, Issue 1
    Case Report
    Iago Asorey* and Maja Drozdzynska
    The ultrasound-guided erector spinae plane block (UG-ESP) is a novel locoregional anaesthesia technique that belongs to interfacial plane blocks. In humans, it has been used for effective thoracic analgesia that reduces the risk of complications and offers the possibility of a catheter placement for long-term post-operative pain management. A 15-months-old Sprocker Spaniel underwent surgery of the left caudo-ventral thoracic wall including a partial rib resection due to a recurrent abscess. Multimodal analgesia consisted of intravenous methadone and dexmedetomidine given as premedication followed by UG-ESP block with levobupivacaine. Before anaesthetic recovery, an UG-ESP catheter was placed at the level of the left 10th thoracic vertebra. Postoperative analgesia was provided by intermittent local anaesthetic administration via ESP catheter and systemic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. This analgesic approach prevented the use of systemic opioids during the hospitalization period. This report presents the first successful application of an ESP catheter for post-thoracotomy opioid-free pain management in a dog.
    Nahla S El-Shenawy*, Heba N Gad EL-Hak, Mahi A Ghobashy, Maha FM Soliman, Farida A Mansour, and Sarah Greish
    Accumulation of heavy metals in fish is considered a critical problem for human health. Therefore, the study aimed to quantify the concentrations of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), and lead (Pb) in Oreochromis niloticus and Clarias gariepinus from two areas in Al Sharqia governorate, Egypt, from September 2017 to August 2018. A human health risk assessment was conducted to evaluate the potential hazards associated with fish consumption. Metals concentrations (mg/kg dry weight) in muscles of catfish ranged 1.88-221.26 for Fe; 1.78-19.77 for Zn; BDL-238.51 for Mn; BDL-22.75 for Pb. In muscles of tilapia fish metals concentrations ranged 7.96-149.10 for Fe; 1.20-19.77 for Zn; BDL-230.82 for Mn; BDL-25.93 for Pb. Pb had Hazard quotients (HQs) which indicated potential health risks to tilapia consumers at both study areas and catfish consumers at the Faqous area. Fishermen were at higher risk compared to the other consumers.
    Hardy Joël Timothée Andriamialinirina*, Sehrish Taj, Misbah Irm
    This study was conducted to compute dietary organic (OC) and inorganic copper (IC) requirements in juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) (NT); copper sulfate (CuSO4) and Availa-Cu100 were added to a basal diet. Nine tanks of NT with an average weight of 4.30 ± 0.02 g (mean ± SD) were fed semi-purified diets including AvilaCu0, AvilaCu20, AvilaCu40, AvilaCu80, and AvilaCu120; and nine tanks were fed CuSO4-IC containing 7.86, 15.72, 31.43 and 47.15 mg kg-1 in triplicate groups for 8 weeks. No significant differences were found in survival, hepatosomatic indexes (HSI), visceral indexes (VSI), or condition factors (CF) among all treatments (P> 0.05). The NT fed diets containing OC8 and IC4 had significantly higher weight gains (WG), specific growth rates (SGR), and protein efficiency ratios (PER), with significantly lower feed conversion ratios (FCR) than NT fed AvilaCu0 control diet. The NT feed that contained OC8 and IC12 showed significantly increased magnesium (Mg) levels in muscle and calcium (Ca) content in bone. NT fed diets containing OC12 and IC12 showed significantly higher Cu content in liver levels; while significantly lower in NT fed diets containing OC8, IC2, IC4 and IC8. NT treated with inorganic copper had higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx); and lower malondialdehyde (MDA) levels than the control fish. Whereas, no significant differences were found in SOD and CAT activities for all test groups of NT fed OC diets. According to the results of this study, the copper amino acid complex (Availa®Cu100) and copper sulphate (CuSO4) optimal dietary requirements for NT, Oreochromis niloticus, are Availa®Cu80 and 15.72 mg CuSO4 kg-1, respectively.
    Luciene Maria Martinello Romao, Freddi Bardela de Souza, Felipe Gazza Romao
    Cardiac myxoma is a benign neoplasm which originates from mesenchymal cells and can differentiate into several other cell types. It is very common in human beings, but rarely reported in animals. The exact histogenesis is unknown, but it has some characteristics that do not exist in any other cardiac neoplasia, which serves to confirm the diagnosis. The clinical signs may vary, but generally involve classic signs of cardiopathy, like pleural effusion, ascites, exercise intolerance, syncope, among others. The surgical treatment has been reported, but with only one case of real success. The objective of the present work is to report a case of a dog, male, Shih-tzu, seven years-old, that was admitted with signs as apathy, inappetence, slimming and discrete increase of abdominal volume. A mass adhered to the tricuspid valve was visualized on the echocardiogram examination, which measured 3, 3 cm x 2, 3 cm in extension, besides other cardiac alterations. The option for supportive treatment was made to prolong the survival and provide quality of life to the animal. The animal had some periods of improvement but ended up dying six months after the initial presentation and had the diagnosis of myxoma after histopathological examination, a very uncommon neoplasm in dogs.
    Review Article
    Sharifo Ali Elmi*, Mohammed Dauda Goni, Mohamed Abdelrahman Mohamed, Ahmed Shire Said, and Mohd Azam Khan
    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) remains an alarming issue with public-health concern and economic implications on human and animal populations worldwide. These antibiotics have so far been associated with high burden of diseases and the ramifications of veterinary antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli on the Sustainable Development Goals cannot be teased out. This review paper highlights the epidemiology of Escherichia coli and antibiotic resistance in livestock productions systems.
    Research Article
    Tigist Ashagrie* and Demeke Zewde
    Cross-sectional study was conducted in west Gojam and Awi Zones of Amhara national region of northwest Ethiopia, from September 2020 - March 2021 to determine the prevalence of bovine trypanosomsis and to evaluate its association risk factors. Blood samples collected from 571 randomly selected cattle were subjected to parasitological and haematological analysis. For the parasitological survey, blood samples were examined using a buffy coat technique. The packed cell volume (PCV) value of each animal was also measured using hematocrit reader. The overall prevalence of trypanosomsis was 4.7%. The most common trypanosome species identified were Trypanosomes congolense 41% (11/27) followed by T. vivax 37% (10/27) and 22% (6/27) were mixed infection. The prevalence showed no significant difference in susceptibility between sex and age groups, but has significant difference in body condition and PCV status of animals. The overall anemia prevalence in the area was 38.2% (218/571). The anemia prevalence was significantly higher in trypanosome positive cattle (81.5%) than in non infected animals (36%) (P<0.05). The mean PCV value of the infected animals was lower (20.3% ± 3.2698%) compared to non infected animals (29.3 ± 3.7401%). There was statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) in the PCV values of infected and non infected animals. T. congolense (18.3%) infection reduced PCV higher than T. vivax (21.5%) infection, but it is not statistically significant (P>0.05). In general, this study reveals that trypanosomsis pretense a risk to cattle production and productivity in the area and also contributed to the occurrence of anemia.
    Konto Mohammed*, K.M. Mohammed, Musa I. Ahmed, Mohammed Mustapha, Falmata Kyari
    Introduction: This research was designed in order to determine the ectoparasitic burden of lice infestation in local and exotic breed of chickens and the relationships between age, sex, and management status of the infested and uninfested birds.
    Methodology: A total of 515 chickens were examined at 12 different locations of Maiduguri and environs for the presence of lice in which the prevalence were obtained from each location; in order to determine the ectoparasitic burden of lice infestation in local and exotic breed of chickens and the relationships between age, sex, and management status of the infested and uninfested birds between April, 2018 and June, 2019. Result: The overall prevalence of ectoparasitic burden of lice infestation in chickens from Maiduguri and its’ environments examined between April, 2018 and June, 2019 was 17.5% (90 infected) while 82.5% (425) were non-infected. In order of abundance, it was found that Menacanthus stramineus, Menopon gallinae, Lipeurus caponis, Goniodes gigas and Goniocotes gallinae, were the most commonly infestating lice of poultry in the study area. Female chickens were more infested 66 (22.2%) than their male counterparts 24 (11.0%) (P < 0.05). Adult chickens were more infested 82 (27.3%) than the younger ones 8 (3.7%) (P < 0.005). Exotic chickens were more exposed to lice infestation 66 (21.3%) than local chickens 24 (11.7%) (P < 0.05). Additionally, intensive managed chickens were more infested 69 (18.0%) than extensive managed chickens 21 (15.9%) (P > 0.05). The thigh and breast muscle predominate by habouring 51 (98.1%) of the biting lice, the vent recorded 23 (95.8%); while 14 (93.3%) was found under the wings.
    Conclusion: It is highly imperative to investigate the presence of some hemoparasites associated with these lice species found on chickens in the study area in order to come-up with a comprehensive control and management of lousiness and lice associated parasites on chickens in the area.
    Original Research
    Mesfin Aklilu*, Wegayehu Tadele, Endalkachew Birhanu, Abebe Getachew, Ebsa File, Alemnesh Hailemariam, Gebyaw Mola, Bethleheim Mebratu, Garoma Getahun, Gutu Kitila, Sintayehu Abdela, and Yimer Mulugeta
    Rabies is a looming threat to public health because rabid dogs bite humans, resulting in thousands of deaths every year. A five year data (2015 -2019) is used for the study. Animal rabies examination recording log book and laboratory result registration log book is applied to collect data. Out of 2,670 dogs subjected to quarantine at home, 2,608 (97.7%) were free of rabies whereas 31 (2.3%) were died and proven positive by a laboratory test (FAT). All 35 cats quarantined at home were free of rabies. Similarly, among 278 dogs and 8 cats quarantined in the EPHI facility throughout the study period, 91(32.7%) dogs and 4 (50%) cats died and tested positive by a laboratory test respectively. Out of 1464 canine, 85 feline, 49 bovine 12 equine 10 shoots, and 41 wild life samples brought to the EPHI rabies referral laboratory during the five years period, 1019 ( 69.6% ) dogs, 39 (45.9%) cats, 25 (51% ) bovines, 10 ( 83.3%) equines, 5 (50%) shoots, and 24 (58.5% ) wildlife brain samples tested positive respectively. The standard laboratory diagnostic method adopted by the laboratory was FAT (Table 1). Out of 2917 dogs and 43 cats, clinically diagnosed in the Ethiopian public health institute, 2670 (91.5%) dogs and 40 (93%) cats were owned while 247 (8.5%) dogs and 3(7%) cats were stray respectively. As far as vaccination status is concerned, 731 (25%) dogs were vaccinated. Regarding cats, none of vaccination data is recorded in the Ethiopian public health institute.
    Review Article
    Abayneh Alemu*
    Parasites are one of devastating diseases in poultry farms. This subsequently leads to economic crises. A study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum in 202 local and exotic chickens raised under intensive management system originated from Debrezeit Agricultural Research Center poultry farm from November 2008 to April 2009. The parasitological diagnosis procedures were conducted to detect the parasites. The study indicated that 42(20.79%) and 15(7.42%) of the examined chickens were harboring Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum respectively. There was no statistically significant difference (P>0.05) in the prevalence of Ascaridia galli between breed and age groups of chickens. However, there was statistically significant difference (P<0.05) in the prevalence of between two sexes of chicken. The present study shown that local and exotic chicken was kept under intensive management system in DebreZeit Agricultural Research Center poultry farm were exposed to infection with Ascaridia galli and Htereakis gallinarum. This is alarming condition for the farm. To prevent and minimize these parasites in farm level, hygienic measurements are strictly practiced to keep farm and consumer safety.
    Research Article
    Bedaso Kebede*, Moti Wakgari, Getachew Tuli, Gutu Kitila, Fekadu Bekele, Dagne Guta, Dinkinash Jaleta, Yimer Mulugeta, Mammedamin Isa, Tsegaye W/Silasse, Garoma Ggetahun, Alemnesh Hailemariam, Mesfin Aklilu
    Ectoparasites diseases are ubiquitously occurring in the world that significantly affect animal health, welfare, and hide quality including Ethiopia. This study was aimed to determine pre and post intervention prevalence of ectoparasites in small ruminant to indirectly evaluate effectiveness of diazinone in the control of ectoparasites under field condition.
    A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess pre and post control prevalence of ectoparasites from April 2019 to June 2019. The sample size (n=475) of small ruminants was determined using Thrusfield formula that consists of 381 sheep and 94 goats. Sampling was randomly performed on the sheep and goats found in the selected Peasant Associations which are grazing in communal pastures prior to control intervention. Pre intervention ecto-parasite prevalence in sheep and goat were 100% of infestations. The most abundant species were tick and tick& louse identified with an overall prevalence of 32.21 and 15.16 among single and two ecto-parasite infestations respectively. Ecto-parasite infestations with one, two and three species were 68.4, 30.97 and .63 prevalence respectively. Post intervention ecto-parasite infestation overall prevalence showed that 87.37 were cleared but 12.63% were not cleared.
    A paired t-test analysis has shown mean pre control (1.7 ± 1.6) at 95% CI ranges from 1.556679 to 1.849637) and post- control (0.2105263 ±0.6346988) at 95%CI ranges from 0.1533022 to 0.2677505 (p-value ≤ 0.0000) which is highly significant. Chi -square test of post control status for effectiveness of diazinone with associated risk factors demonstrated a significant difference among the types of ectoparasites (X2 =248.9033, p=0.000) .It was also observed that susceptibility of ectoparasites by type to the effect of diazinone in the order of flea > louse > tick. Diazinone is effective in the control of ectoparasites that significantly reduced the prevalence of ectoparasites in shoats. This was witnessed by 87.37% clearance of all types of ectoparasites from the study subjects. Community awareness creations and further study should be suggested as recommendations.
    Research Article
    Zewdu Tadesse Yami*
    Caprine tuberculosis (TB) is important science milk is usually consumed raw particularly by Ethiopian pastoralists. An attempt was undertaken to investigate the occurrence of bovine and avian tuberculosis in goat population in Adami Tulu Jidokombolcha district. A total of 665 animals were screened for bovine and avian tuberculosis by comparative intradermal tuberculin test. The overall percentage of reactors to CIDT test 7.51% for both bovine and avian tuberculosis. Prevalence in females (11.7%) reactors was 3.71 times higher than males (3.15%). Gross tuberculosis lesions were detected in two of the four strong tuberculin positive goats, on the liver, large intestine, lung and museum. The study indicates that bovine and avian tuberculosis prevalence were high in female animals, older age, poor body condition score and in female with high parity number. Tuberculosis also got zoonotic effect on human health, especially in areas that consume raw goats’ milk like pastoral and agro-pastoral areas. Therefore, at least awareness for community concerning the transmission of the disease from goats’ milk and meat can be created.
    Wondimu Zeleke Alemayehu and Bedaso Kebede*
    A cross-sectional study was carried out from November 2011 to March 2012 on bovine fasciolosis at Debra Berhan municipal abattoir to assess its prevalence and economic importance. From total of 400 cattle examined by postmortem 49.5 % (194) and coproscopic examination 23.5% (94) were found positive for fasciolosis. The prevalence of bovine fasciolosis was slightly higher in female cattle than male and also higher in older cattle (> 10 yrs) than younger ones (< 5 yrs). The prevalence of bovine fasciolosis in the study sites was significantly (p<0.05) affected by origin and body condition of the cattle. However, its prevalence was not significantly (p>0.05) affected by sex, age and breed of the cattle. Post mortem examination was done on a total of 194 cattle and 49.5% were found infected with Fasciola at Debra Berhan municipal Abattoir. F. hepatica was found to be the predominant fasciola species causing bovine fasciolosis in the study areas. The economic significance of bovine fasciolosis was also assessed from condemned liver and carcass weight loss. Thus based on the retail value of bovine liver and 1kg of beef the total annual economic loss from fasciolosis during the study time was estimated to be Eth. Birr . 631,125 .00
    Review Article
    Abera Fekata Dinkissa*
    The goal of this research was to compile and consolidate the disparate data on calcium requirements in connection to milk fever and its economic impact in dairy cattle. The most frequent mineral-related metabolic condition affecting dairy cows at parturition is milk fever, which occurs most commonly in adult dairy cows two to three days following parturition .It is caused by a severe lack of metabolizable calcium ions in the circulation (hypocalcaemia), and its primarily affects high-producing and high-performing dairy cows that are nearing their maximal output capability. Milk yield, parity, cow breed, and a lack of awareness of basic dairy management and ration formulation are all variables that contribute to milk fever. It reduces milk yield and fertility, which leads to the culling of high-producing dairy cows from a herd. It also raises the expense of animal treatment and the danger of additional parturient disorders such retained placenta, ketosis, displaced abomasum, and environmental mastitis. Intravenous calcium salts, such as borogluconate, at a rate of 2g/100kg body weight, as well as oral calcium solutions, are two methods for treating milk fever in dairy cows. Cases of milk fever, on the other hand, can be minimized with good management, notably through the use of proper feeds and feeding systems .To summarize, management of milk fever is very important because it should be considered as a gateway disease that greatly reduce the chance for full productivity and reproduction of dairy cows. The key to prevention of milk fever is management of a close-up dry cow or management during late pregnancy .Therefore, milk fever management is economically most important, as a result, raising dairy farmers’ awareness of milk fever and optimal ration compositions for their dairy cows is a critical instrument in the fight against milk fever.
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